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Partial Bibliography . 
Historical References 


Discursion in Theory. 
Lucas Pacioli 

(By Page Lawrence, C.P.A.) . . . 
(By the Author) . . . 


(By the Author) 8 




Domenico Manzoni 


Don Angelo Pietra 




1 1 





■ 1 






Jan Ympyn Christoffels 
it ii it 

Simon Stevin 

Richard Dafforne 

Reproduced (Author's explanation) 17 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) 18 

What was his real name 21 

Abbreviations used 24-25 

Peculiar sayings 27 

Comparative index of the earliest writers 29 

Entire Text (photographic reproduction) 32 to 80 

Complete translation of entire text 33 to 81 

Journal (photographic reproduction) 82 

Author '8 notes on reproduction 83 

Abstracts from text 84 

Rules for Journalizing 85 

Index to original text 85 

Journal and Ledger reproduced (Notes by Author) 87 

Index to original text 89 

Extent of original text 91 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) 93 

Chart ( " " ) 94 

Journal ( " " ) 95 to 96 

Ledger ( " " ) 97 to 107 

Journal reproduced (Notes by Author) 107 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) 108 

Introduction to Executor's Books ( " " ) 109 

Journal ( " " ) 110 

Title Page ( " " ) 112 

Author's notes 113 

Journal and Ledger reproduced (Notes by Author) 114-118 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) . 

Balance Sheet ( " ). 

Profit and Loss Account ( " " ) . 

Journal ( ). 

Ledger ( " ). 

Controlling Account ( " " ) . 

Partially reproduced (Notes by Author) 

Title Page (photographic reproduction) . 

Epistle Dedicatory ( " " ) . 

Antiquity of Bookkeeping ( " ) . 

Index ( " " )■ 

Text ( " " )• 

Journal ( ). 

Ledger ( " ). 

Trial Balance ( " " ) 





.122 to 127 

.128 to 135 







.147 to 171 


.174 to 179 




By Page Lawrence, C.P.A. 

Nearly all historians, when tracing the growth of an art or science from mere empiricism to the estab- 
lishment of recognized principles, are confronted with an apparent insurmountable gap or complete silence 
during the period known in history as the Dark Ages. 

Archaeological and historical researches have convinced this civilization that in Ancient Babylon, 
Greece and Rome there was a high state of civilization — both industrial and social. 

Today we may study Aristotle's politics with great profit in our attempts to understand the political 
and economic conditions confronting this generation. An acquaintance with the Greek philosophers is es- 
sential in understanding our present philosophical thought. 

It would seem that, since we find so much help in consulting these ancient writers in an attempt to 
solve the political problems of today which are presented by this complex civilization, in a large measure 
at least our mentors must have been confronted with the same economic and industrial difficulties that we 
are attempting to solve now as accountants. 

One is convinced that the ancient writers on political economy and commerce were closely allied with 
the scribes or accountants who recorded the business transactions of those days. This allegiance seems to 
have been lost after the Roman supremacy (and the consequent growth and spread of commerce), and it 
is only within recent years that the modern economist and accountant has acknowledged that a truer un- 
derstanding of modern commerce can be had with cooperation and that the two sciences (economics and 
accounting) are finding so much in common that each is dependent upon the other for a full understanding 
of modern business conditions. 

Mr. John P. Young, Editor of the San Francisco Chronicle, ably presented accounting in antiquity 
before the convention of the American Association of Public Accountants at San Francisco (Year Book 
1911, page 153). He showed that Rome in Cicero's time was dependent upon the independent verifica- 
tion of accounts and statements thereof by one skilled in accountancy. The familiarity with which he 
mentions the accountant would seem to indicate that his place in the Roman social organization was well 

However, after the recorded utterances of Cicero the historian finds in the pages of history no further 
mention of those individuals acknowledged to be skilled in accounts, which we are pleased to call account- 
ants, until the writings of Pacioli in 1494 and Stevin in 1604. 

It seems especially appropriate that one so greatly interested as the author in that work dear to the 
hearts of all progressive accountants, and who has done so much to place the education of the accountant 
on equal footing with that of law or medicine, should be the first of modern times to translate this first re- 
corded book of the principles of debit and credit into the English language. 

It is a significant fact that the rules and principles elucidated by Pacioli are contained in a book given 
over to mathematics. One cannot help but believe that the derivation of double-entry bookkeeping is an 
explanation of the algebraic equation used with such skill by the ancient Greek mathematicians, applied 
practically to the scientific recording of business transactions for, just as in algebra, the equation once 
established cannot be changed but by the addition of positive or negative quantities. 

This work will give an added aasurance that the apparently empirical rules of commerce are based 
upon an ancient scientific and mathematical foundation, to those who have attempted to instill into the 
commercial mind the idea that accountancy is a science, the prime requisite of a mastery of which is a thor- 
ough education in the theory of economics and allied sciences supplemented by practical experimentation 
in the application of formulae to practical business situations. 

The accountant has to correct constantly, or at least modify, the attitude of the business man toward 
matters which are his dearest heirlooms handed down from the days of the Ancient Guild system, i. e., 
that the only way to learn how to do business is to do it along the rule-of-thumb method communicated 
from father to son by word of mouth. 

Accountants, who remember the dearth of accountancy literature in this country up to a few short 
years ago, are dumbfounded at the mass of accountancy publications which are constantly flooding the 
market at this time. While I believe that the profession of accountancy as a whole recognizes the ines- 
timable value of these publications, one cannot help but think in perusing their pages that they are largely 
influenced by the empirical methods of general business, rather than based on scientific principles. In 
other words, on "how" but never "why." 

We are wont to look in vain through mazes of descriptions, forms and precedence of some particular 
business enterprise for a principle of accountancy which can be applied to the specific difficulty we have 
in hand. It should be the aim of some of the brilliant members of the profession of accountancy to take 
the great mass of historical records which have been published in the last few years of how this or that 
business should be kept and, with the aid of recognized authorities on economics, codify, with quotation of 
their source, the scattered and ill defined principles of accountancy for the benefit of accountancy educa- 
tion, and to this end no better examples of axiomatic principles can be had than in the books of Pacioli, 
Pietra and Stevin. 

The author, recognizing from his experience as an educator in accountancy (coming as he did from 
Holland some twenty years ago without knowledge of American commercial practices or language) the 
lack of clearly expressed principles in accountancy, commenced researches which have finally culminated 
in this published translation in English of the first known writings on the subject of double entry book- 

At even - turn, in the preachment of the seientifie principles of his profession to the commercial mind, 
in his successful efforts for the passage of the Certified Public Accounts law in Colorado, then in his work 
as secretary of the first examining board in that state, in his labors as Dean of the School of Commerce, 
Accounts and Finance of The University of Denver, and as an instructor on practical and theoretical ac- 
countancy subjects and, finally as Chairman of the K<lueational Committee of The American Association of 
Public Accountants, the author has ever been confronted with the dearth of practical exemplification, his- 
torical or otherwise, of the true foundation of what in modern times might be called the Art of Accountancy. 

To weld together into a well balanced whole the two plans of accountancy education, as embraced in 
the eurrieuli of universities and colleges offering training to the embryo accountant, has long been the goal 
of his educational endeavors, i. e., to leaven the purely academic training by instructors or professors 
whose own knowledge of accountancy is in the main pedagogical, with the practical knowledge as imparted 
by the practicing accountant and the business man. (The author, in the American Association of Public 
Accountants Year Books for 1911-12-13 and 14, has gone into this subject extensively, showing that educa- 
tional institutions of the country have chosen either the one or the other of the two methods of teaching — 
the academic training in pure theory, treated in much the same manner as economic subjects are presented 
and without the same degree of accuracy, or the practical lecturing upon accountancy subjects by practic- 
ing accountants and business men, supplemented by the best text books obtainable — and urging the while 
the necessity for the development together of the two accountancy educational plans, as is done in Great 

While it is true that to men of little or no practical experience in accountancy must be given the credit 
for producing some of the finest examples of purely theoretical accounting which the literature of accoun- 
tancy has today, the first mentioned criticism that this pedagogical instruction does not teach the actual 
application of the theory to modern business, again applies. On the other hand, with the practical ac- 
countant as the instructor or the writer of text books, too little cannot be said of the difficulty he has in 
imparting to students and laymen the principles which seem exceedingly clear to him. And it was through 
this research, this labor to combine in accountancy education theory with practice and practice with theory, 
that this book was born. It is apparent in reading the ancient works of Pacioli, of Stevin and Pietra, in 
their exhaustive explanations and their lengthy and precise instructions that in their endeavors to system- 
atize the recording of the transactions of commerce of their time, they encountered many of the same sort 
of, if not the identical, problems with which we are confronted today. The modern translations of their 
works, with the author's own views presented as notes, it is believed will shed some light into the darkness 
which has so long shrouded the actual foundation of the practice and the theory of the profession of pub- 
lic accountancy. 

Denver, Colorado, August, 1914. 


As no technical books worth while can be prepared without diligent and persistent research, it natur- 
ally follows that no such works can be produced unless there is material furnished to build upon, and the 
cheapest and easiest foundation is usually the writings of men who have excelled in the same line of en- 
deavor. In other words, a library of books is absolutely essential to the advancement of thought on tech- 
nical and professional subjects. 

While studying to Americanize my knowledge of accountancy twenty years ago, I came to the con- 
clusion that there were then on that subject few modern books and still fewer ancient ones. This convic- 
tion was constantly strengthened by conversation with my fellow-workers, and it remained unchanged un- 
til a few years ago. 

When my duties came to include the teaching of accountancy and the direction of the thought of my 
students, the choice of books for their reading became a serious problem. It was then my privilege to start 
the collection of a considerable library of works on accountancy and its allied subjects. 

However, I could learn of but few books of ancient date, and they were so scarce, difficult to get, and 
high priced, that most of them remain yet to be acquired. Among those which I did get is an original 
copy of the oldest published work on bookkeeping. The price for copies of this book ranges from $50 to 
$250, and it is thus not within the means of ordinary students and is even beyond the inclination of ac- 
quisition of many of the most wealthy libraries. It became my desire to have it reproduced, together with a 
free translation of its most important parts. 

This desire increased when my research showed me that the first man to follow the teachings of this 
Italian book and to translate it into another language, was a fellow-countryman of mine, a Hollander 
named Jan Ympyn Christoffels. He translated it into the Holland, French, and English languages, and 
to this day we follow his lead, (as outlined in the title of his book), of calling double-entry bookkeeping 
by the use of day book, journal, and ledger, the Italian method of bookkeeping. 

The Hollanders of ancient New Amsterdam (now New York) have left their unmistakable imprint 
on our American political and social life, by the introduction into this country of many things which orig- 
inated in their mother-country and which were unknown even in England prior to their use in America. 
To this day many of these things remain unused in England, which is one reason why we are so different 
from the English. Among these things may be mentioned :* 

The recording of deeds and mortgages in a public office ; the equal distribution of property among the 
children of a person dying intestate ; the office of a district attorney in each county ; the practice of giving 
a prisoner the free services of a lawyer for his defense ; the township system, by which each town has local 
self-government; the practice of making prisoners work; the turning of prisons into work houses; the 
system of university education; free public school system; the red, white and blue striped flag; the prin- 
ciples contained in our Declaration of Independence ; the granting of religious freedom ; the cultivation of 
roses ; the present banking system ; the use of reading and spelling books for children ; the telescope ; the 
microscope; the thermometer; the discovery of capillary circulation of the blood; the pendulum clock; 
measuring degrees of latitude and longitude ; the compass ; the wind-mill with movable cap ; the glass hot- 
house ; the use of underclothing ; the bedstead ; the brick ; the game of golf. 

It has seemed to me fitting that another Hollander should present to his American professional breth- 
ren, and put within the reach of every student of accounting, for research and study, a reproduction of 
that prized Italian book, which, as we shall see, has influenced us to such an extent that the principles it 
enunciates as of use in its day, remain the foundation of our present methods of bookkeeping. 

It was not my aim to give a complete literal translation, because much of the text is reiteration and 
pertains to subject-matter purely local and now entirely obsolete, which would necessitate lengthy expla- 
nations of ancient methods of no present value or use. Therefore, numerous foreign terms and ancient 
names have been left untranslated. Furthermore, as the book was written in contemporary Italian, or, in 
other words, in the local dialect of Venice, which is neither Italian nor Latin, it is extremely difficult to get 
local talent sufficiently trained in this work to translate it all literally. 

The old style of writing is unattractive and tiresome to follow. While it is customary and proper in 
translations to follow the original style as much as possible, and to change it no more than is necessary to 
make it readily understood and easily read in modern language, it was found extremely difficult to do that 
in this instance, and furthermore, it would have served no practical purpose. And then, who is there at 
the present time but a scholar of some eminence and a linguist of no mean accomplishment, who will pre- 
sume to say what is correct and what is incorrect f Such authorities never agree among themselves, and it 
would be useless to attempt to please them all. Therefore, we are extending the translations, not so much 
for academic purposes as for the practical use of less pedantic people, upon the theory that they who wish 
to obtain knowledge of any science must first learn its history and then trace its gradual growth. There 
is hardly another science about which there is as much doubt and darkness as bookkeeping, and therefore we 
merely present this translation as a contribution to the history of bookkeeping. 

•William Elliott Griffls In "The Ladies' Home Journal." 

Criticism has been made of the title of this book, ' ' Ancient Double-Entry Bookkeeping, ' ' in the use of 
the word "Ancient" as applied to the year 1493 A. D. The long obscurity of the "Dark Ages," during 
which there was no light whatever upon this important subject, has, in our belief, made the treatise of 
Pacioli ancient, and, further the abrupt "leap through the dark" from this ancient work to the works of 
modern times, we believe justifies the title. 

The reader is further referred to the German translation of Pacioli a book by E. L. Jager which ap- 
peared in 1876, and the Russian translation by E. 0. Waldenberg which was printed in St. Petersburg in 

Pacioli '8 book was first photographed and plates made from these photographs. Proof sheets from these 
plates were then sent to Rome, Italy, and there transcribed on a typewriter in modern letters, to facilitate 
translating. The typewritten transcript was then translated into English, which was then compared with 
an existing German translation by Dr. Jager. Discrepancies were carefully noted by reference to the orig- 
inal book, and the best possible corrections made. This method brought to the surface obvious and glar- 
ing short-coinings in the German translation, and it also demonstrated our own inability to comprehend 
and properly translate some of the old terms and words, which even the Italy of today has long forgotten. 
With it all then, we are free to admit that in numerous places our English translation is defective. How- 
ever, we are not imposing on those who are better scholars than we, because we give the original Italian 
side by aide with our English version, and any one so disposed can easily check it and correct our copy to 
suit his fancy. 

The only object of our endeavors is to give something where there was nothing to those who hereto- 
fore could not avail themselves of the contents of this old and pioneer work on a subject now universally 
recognized as being the foundation of all our modern industrial and commercial problems. 

We ask your indulgence for errors and omissions, and for the price of this book, as the work had to 
be done hastily and cheaply, for the financial success of this enterprise is exceedingly problematical, owing 
to the excessive cost of preparation and reproduction, and the very small possible circulation. The work 
therefore should be viewed largely as a labor of love, a voluntary philanthropic contribution to the pro- 
fession of accountancy. 

Acknowledgment is due and most gladly given to : my wife, a Certified Public Accountant of the State 
of Colorado, who aided with the German translation ; to Mr. Robert Ferrari, LL.D. Roma, Italy, who 
aided with the Italian translation ; to Mr. Henry Rand Hatfield, PH.D., University of California, who crit- 
icized the work ; and to Mr. Page Lawrence, C.P.A., who wrote the introduction : — truly a veritable com- 
bination (trust) of formidable minds in restraint of duplication (competition) of this work, a combina- 
tion of love and harmony, for without friends and without consideration for our neighbor there is neither 
peace nor accomplishment. 

The book, therefore, is the result of a faithful compliance with the motto of the Boers of South Africa : 
"Eendracht man lit macht," which translated does not mean, as commonly stated, "In union there is 
strength," but rather that "United, harmonious, loving cooperation to the same lawful end tends toward 
power that brings just results." 

J. B. Geij8beek Molenaar. 

Denver, August, 1914. 


1494 to 1636. 

Sixteen of the most influential books out of a possible total of 50 works. 


Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, 
Proportioni et Proportionalita. 

Part 1, Section 9, Treatise 11, 
Particularis de Computis et Scripturis. 

Frater Lucas de Burgo Sancti Sepulchri, Ordinis Minorum 
et sacre theologie magister, in arte arithmetice et geometric 

Geijsbeek-Lawrence Library, Denver. 
Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mass. 

La Scuola perfetta dei mercanti. 

Fra. Paciolo di Borgo Santo Sepolcro. 

Summa de Arithmetica 

(see full title above, this being practically a duplicate edition of 
1494, but contains less contractions and abbreviations.) 

Venice 1494 

Toscana 1504 

Venice 1523 

Edinburgh, Chartered Accountants' Library. 
Library, University of California. 

Quaderno doppio col suo giornale secondo il costume di Venetia. 

Domenico Manzoni. Venice 1534 

Also 1554-1564-1565-1573-1574 

Edinburgh, Chartered Accountants' Library (1554 edition). 

Indrizzo de gli economi. 

Don Angelo Pietra de Genoa. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrence Library, Denver. 

Mantua 1586 

La Scrittura Mercantile fatta e riordinata. 

(Reprinted in 1700 under the title of "L'Economo overo La Scrit- 
tura tutelare, Scrittura Mercantile.") 

Matteo Mainardi. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrence Library, Denver. 


Ein Teutsch vertendig Buchhalten fiir Herren oder Gesellschafter inhalt 
Wellischem process. 

Johann Gotlieb. 

Royal Library, Munich, Germany. 

Zwifach Buchhalten. 

Wolffgang Schweicker. 

Kheil Library, Prag. 

Edinburgh, Chartered Accountants' Library. 

Buchhalten nach arth und weise der Italianer. 
Passchier Goessens from Brussels. 

State Library, Stuttgart, Germany. 

Bologna 1632 

Nuremberg 1531 

Nuremberg 1549 

Hamburg 1594 


Nituwe Instructie Ende Bewijs der Looffelijcker Consteu des Reken- 
boeckae ende Rekeninghe te houdene nae die Italiaensche manierc 
Jan Ympyn Christoffels. 

Antwerp (Dutch) 1543 
Antwerp (French) 1543 
Antwerp (English) 1543 
City Library at Antwerp (Dutch). 
Library of the Nicolai Gymnasium at Reval, Rus- 
sia (English). 
Fideicommiss-Bibliothek at Maihingen-Walleretein, 
Germany ( French ) . 

Verrechning van Domeine (including chapters on) Coopmans Bouck- 
houding op re Italiaensche wyse and Vorstelicke Bouckhouding op do 
Italiaensche wyse. 

Simon Stevin. 

GeiJ8beek-Lawrence Library, Denver. 

Amsterdam 1604 

Hypomnemata Mathematica. 
Simon Stevin. 

Leijden 1608 


A briefe instruction and maner to keepe bookes of accompts after the 
order of Debitor and Creditor, and as well for proper accompts parti- 
ble, etc. newely augmented and set forth by John Mellis, Scholemaister. 
(purporting to be a reprint of a book by Hugh Oldcastle, London, 

John Mellis. 

Library of Institute of Chartered Accountants in 
England and Wales (London). 

London 1588 

The Merchants' Mirrour or Directions for the Perfect Ordering and 
Keeping of his Accounts. Framed by Way of Debitor and Creditor 
after the (so- termed) Italian Manner. 

Richard Dafforne. 

Geijsbeek-Lawrence Library, Denver. 
Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mass. 
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

London 1636 
Also 1651-1660-1684 


Schatzkammer Italienischen Buchhaltens. 

Christophorus Achatius Hagern. 

State Library, Stuttgart, Germany. 

Hamburg 1654 

Beitrage zur Gesehichte der Erfindungen. 
Johann Beckmann. 

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 
State Library, Stuttgart, Germany. 

Leipzig 1786 

Origin and Progress of Bookkeeping. 

B. F. Foster. 

Library of Institute of Chartered Accountants 
in England and Wales (London). 

London 1852 

Die Berechtigung der einfachen Buchhaltung gegenuber der doppelten. 
Ernst Ludwig Jager. 

Library, University of California. 

Stuttgart 1868 

Beitrage zur Gesehichte der Doppelbuchhaltung. 
Ernst Ludwig Jager. 

Library, University of Chicago. 
Library, University of California. 

Stuttgart 1874 

Lucas Paccioli und Simon Stevin. 

Ernst Ludwig Jager. 

Library, University of Chicago. 

Stuttgart 1876 

Luca Pacciolo, considerato come ragionere, lezione tenuto alia r. scuolo di commerzio. 
Guido Brandaglia de Arezzo. 

Elenco Cronologico della opera di computisteria e ragioneira venute alia ence in Italia. 

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

Venice 1882 
Rome 1886 

Ueber einige altere Bearbeitugen der Buchhaltung — Tractates Von Luca Pacioli. 
Carl Peter Kheil. 

GeijsbeekJjawrence Library, Denver. 

Prag 1896 

The History of Accounting and Accountants. 
Richard Brown, Editor. 

Edinburgh 1905 


Printing from blocks of wood in which the letters were carved, was known long before the Chris- 
tian era, but this was cumbersome and alow and hence but few books wore published in that manner. 
Printing from loose metal type which could be set up in the way known to us to-day did not begin to 
be a success until after A i>. 1462, when the German city of Maintz or Mentz (where the first well- 
known printer, (iutenberg, and his students lived) was sacked by Adolph of Nassau, and those who 
were printers were scattered far and wide through other cities. 

Even during the first part of the sixteenth century, one-fourth of all the books printed came from 
one city only •• in Italy. Therefore a book produced from loose type in 1494 in Venice, must 

have been among the very first printed, and its subject must have been at that time of such prime 
importance as to make it worthy of being among the first to be published. The oldest treatise which 
has come down to us either printed or written on the subject of bookkeeping, is included as a part of a 
rather large printed volume on arithmetic and geometry. This volume was published in November. 
14!'4. in Venice, Italy. It has been UBed considerably by later writers on the subject of arithmetic and 
geometry, and is mentioned in numerous works of bibliographers, both ancient and modern. The title 
is: Summa de Arithmetica Geometria Proportioni e Proportionalita." Bookkeeping is treated in Part 
One, Section 9, Treatise 11. under the chapter title of " Particularis Computis et Scripturis," which 
translated would mean: "Particulars of Reckonings and Their Recording. " 

The exact name of the author cannot be established definitely from this work, as his full name does 
not appear on the title page nor anywhere else. The author calls himself in this book Frater Lucas 
de Burgo Sancti Sepulchri, which translated into English may be called Brother Lucas of the City of 
the Holy Sepulchre. The City of the Holy Sepulchre, or Sancti Sepulchri, is a city in the northern part 
of Italy near Venice. On page 67-2, line 5, of Frater Lucas' book "Summa de Arithmetica," he states 
that about A. D. 1470 he dedicated a certain book to his students named Bartolo, Francesco, and Paulo, 
the three sons of a prominent merchant of Venice named (Antonio de) Rotnpiasi. From other writ- 
ings and other evidence, bibliographers have come to the conclusion through their researches that the 
real name of this "Frater Lucas" was Lucas Pacioli. 

The copyright of the book published in 1494 expired in 1504, and about that time a reprint of 
the chapter on bookkeeping appeared in Toscana, under the title of "La Scuola perfetta dei Mercanti. " 
A copy of this reprint was not in the possession of the writer, but it would appear that there the name 
of the author was given as Fra. Paciolo di Borgo Santo Sepolcro. In other writings he is known as 
Patiolua, which is supposed to be the Latin for Pacioli. 

In 1509, shortly before he died, he wrote a book called "Divina Proportione," in which he gives a 
foreword and reproduces several letters he has written. In these he signs himself as Lucas Patiolus. 
This book was written in Latin. On page 33-b of this hook, in section 6, treatise No. 1, chapter No. 1. 
the author refers to his book published in 1494 in the following words: "in opera nostra grande dicta 
summa de arithmetica etc. impressa in Venetia nel 1494 et al Magnanimu Duca d'Urbino dicata." We 
underscored the word "nostra," which means "our." 

Lucas Pacioli, as we will call him hereafter, believing that to be his proper name, was born about 
1445 in the little city of Sancti Sepulchri, in the Province of Arezzo, of Tuscany, west south-west of 
the City of Urbino. He was a great lecturer, mathematician, writer, scholar, teacher, and traveler, a 
well-known and famous man, who was the first to translate into Latin the works of Euclid. Succes- 
sively he waa professor of mathematics at Perugia, Rome, Naples, Pesa and Venice, and was chosen for 
the first occupant of a professor's chair founded by Louis Sforza. He was in Milan with Leonardo da 
Vinci at the Court of Louis the Moor until the invasion of the French. It is not improbable that 
Leonardo da Vinci helped Pacioli in the writing of this work as there are indications of two distinct 
styles of writing. He belonged to the Order of Friars Minor of St. Francis. It is apparent that he 
took the cloth late in life, for protection and standing needed in his many traveling tours, during the 
unrest then existing in Italy. He wrote his treatise on bookkeeping when he was about 50 years old, 
and died near the end of the year 1509, at the age of 65. 

It is but natural that bookkeeping should be always in its greatest perfection in those countries 
where commerce has reached its highest stage. It is well known that during the twelfth, thirteenth, 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries Venice was a powerful republic, from which all European commerce 
radiated, until in 1498 the East Indian ocean route was discovered, from which time on the commercial 
power of Venice waned. It is safe to assume that the book here reproduced faithfully depicts the con- 
ditions existing at the time of its writing and the prevailing system of recording the transactions of 
commerce. All the world's commerce, practically speaking, was concentrated in this small territory, 
therefore its system of bookkeeping must have been the most perfect known in the world at that time. 
The existence of a well advanced system of bookkeeping in the centers of commerce must have caused 
considerable confusion and correspondence with the places where such a system did not exist, in order 
to equalize and settle accounts between the merchants residing in these various places. 

It is therefore probable that a great need existed for taking advantage of the facilities which the 

inventions in printing permitted, to present to the commercial world outside of these centers a 

matic treatise of the most important part of commerce, namely, the recording of its transactions 


and results. Pacioli does not claim that he invented double-entry bookkeeping, but on the other hand 
mentions in his book the existence of ancient customs and numerous methods named after the places 
where they were used. Thus he calls the method of bookkeeping he describes, the method of Venice, 
as distinguished from those in use in other cities, the names of which appear in the translation we 
have made of his book. 

While Pacioli gives in his book on arithmetic and geometry copious illustrations, as will be seen 
from the sample page of that portion of the book herein reproduced, he did not give examples and illus- 
trations of the day book, the journal and ledger, which he describes. His book therefore has never 
become as popular as those of later writers who give these examples. Pacioli, however, was very lengthy 
and careful in his minute and detailed description of the various methods employed. The reading of 
his book will be a revelation to those who have an idea that the present high state of development of 
American commerce should have produced methods of bookkeeping unknown at such an early period 
as when Pacioli wrote. They will find that there then existed the little safeguards which are not de- 
scribed or explained in present books of instruction on bookkeeping, but which we accountants are 
always wont to preach about to those bookkeepers who come under our observation, and which we do 
not pass by simply as mere suggestions but upon which we insist emphatically with a "You must do 
this." Pacioli especially describes these little things with great emphasis, and in a style cunning in the 
extreme, fully punctuated with adages to bring the truth home so no one could forget it. He, however, 
on the other hand, does not spend any time in explaining the modus operandi of bookkeeping, which we 
learn only by practice (as he puts it), as he doubtless appreciated that he was not writing his treatise 
to teach bookkeeping to those who did not know anything about it, but only describing the advantage 
of the particular method in use in Venice in order to convert merchants to a change from their system 
to the best system then known. 

Writers who have followed after Pacioli have practically all given full illustrations of the journal 
and ledger, but have rather neglected to explain the "whys" and "wherefores" of the little and valu- 
able details upon which Pacioli has laid so much stress, taking them as matters of fact rather than as 
fundamental principles. As we all know, it is the little things which throw the safeguards about a 
proper system of bookkeeping. 

It is not the writer's aim to go into detail as to the history of bookkeeping. Any one desiring to 
study this subject in its entirety, is referred to the most remarkable records and researches of Jager, 
Kheil, and Row Fogo as edited by Brown, the title of whose books are fully described in the bibliog- 
raphy hereto appended. 

Jager and Kheil were prominent German scholars, who must have devoted an enormous amount of 
time to their researches as to the origin and growth of bookkeeping. Jager was somewhat hasty and 
inaccurate; Kheil is somewhat brief, and therefore difficult to understand by those who have not read 
other books on the subject. Both of these books are written in German. 

Happily we Americans have the aid of the recent book written in Scotland by Brown and his asso- 
ciates. The treatise they present is exhaustive, brief, to the point, and exceedingly accurate, fully 
illustrated, and is of immense value to every student of the subject of accountancy. 

The writer does not wish to duplicate the work of any of these three, but by the present volume he 
desires to emphasize the fact that Pacioli 's work is the real foundation of all books published in Ger- 
many, Holland, Prance, and England within the first hundred years after it was written. We will do 
nothing more than describe the effect of Pacioli 's book on Manzoni and Pietra which appeared in 
Italian, Gotlieb, Schweicker, and Goessens, which appeared in German, Ympyn and Stevin in Dutch, 
Ympyn in French, and Ympyn, Oldcastle, Mellis, and Dafforne in English, as these books undoubtedly 
have been the basis for subsequent works in these various languages, most of which are at present 
available for comparison and study. The titles of other contemporary books can be found in the bibli- 
ography of Mr. Brown's work, for he gives an exhaustive list of over 150 books written on this subject 
between Pacioli 's time and the beginning of the nineteenth century. Of these, 50 were written prior to 
the publication of Dafforne 's "The Merchants' Mirrour" in 1636, which is really the first popular 
English work. Most of these 50 were written in Italian, Dutch, or German, with the honors about 
evenly divided. 

As we have said, Lucas Pacioli 's book appeared in Venice in 1494, with a ten-year copyright. At 
the expiration of that period, or in 1504, the same printers published an exact duplicate of this book, 
under a different title. Twenty-one years after the last date, or in 1525, there appeared in Venice a very 
unsatisfactory and incomplete work on bookkeeping by Giovanni Antonio Tagliente, of which the his- 
torians do not say much. 

Forty years after Pacioli 's book of 1494, or in the year 1534, Domenico Manzoni published in Venice 
his book on bookkeeping, which proved very popular, as during a period of 40 years it went through 
six or seven editions, which may be termed a tremendous success, considering the conditions of those 

Manzoni dedicated his book to Alouisius Vallaressus, a rich brother of a friend of his named Petrus. 
It seems apparent from his preface that he commenced the book years before it was published, when all 
three (the author, his friend, and the latter 's rich brother) were going to school in Venice. In the 
title he mentions "the method of Venice," but he does not tell anywhere how or where he gained his 
knowledge and does not give Lucas Pacioli any mention or credit. 

Manzoni wrote in dialect, or what is called "patois." He says in his preface that he is not a 
scholar and cannot use flowery language but only the speech of his mother, which he learned by word 

of mouth. He states too that he is s poor man. In those days only the very rich and the clergy could 
sttend schools. The poor were usually artisans, learning their trade from their parents. 

Manxoni's book may be termed a revised reprint of Paeioli. Page after page is identical and word 
for word, and the remainder is merely shorn of the religious expressions, adages, and peculiar repeti- 
tions which Paeioli so freely indulged in. Much of value and many of the details given in Pacioli's book 
are here omitted. 

This book is divided into two parts, one for the text and the other for examples of journal and 
ledger While the text covers but 12 of the 36 chapters of Paeioli, the two parts combined may be said 
to reproduce about 18 chapters of Paeioli. At the beginning of the writer's translation of Pacioli's 
book herein, a comparative index is given, which illustrates just how- much of Pacioli's book Manzoni 
copied and what he left out. The only new idea in his book as compared with that of Paeioli, is the 
consecutive numbering of the journal entries. In some respects, however. Manzoni is clearer than 
Paeioli, as for instance, he gives definite rules for the making of journal entries ; tabulates six things or 
matters of information alwaya contained in every journal entry; describes the form of journal better 
by mentioning five "standing" or "down" lines; explains the use of more than one day book ; and gives 
a chapter to the apparent transposition of the terms "A" (our "To") and "Per" (our "By") in the 
ledger from its customary use in the journal. 

Manzoni gives full illustrations of the journal and ledger, with its entries, which Paeioli, for rea- 
sons stated, did not deem necessary. The addition of these illustrations of course has made the book 
more popular, and Manzoni, while a plagiarist in other respects, must be given the credit of having 
really been the first to do this. The writer regrets that Manzoni 's book is not accessible to him for on 
that account only one reproduction can here be given, namely, the last page of the journal, which is 
taken from Brown's history of accounting. 

In 1586, nearly 100 years after Paeioli wrote, we find that Don Angelo Pietra published a work on 
bookkeeping fully illustrated with numerous examples. The book was printed in Mantua by Frau/. 
Osanna. Pietra was a monk, born in Qenoa, stationed at the Monastery of Monte Cassino, Neapel, 
Province of Caserta, near Sora. He was the auditor, storekeeper, and cellarer of that monastery. He 
belonged to the Order of St. Benedict, and dedicated his book to Lastancius Facius, the abbot of the 
Benedictine monastery at Mantua. Pietra 's style is very clear and concise, and his book contains some 
60 short but pithy chapters. As will be seen from the comparative index heretofore mentioned, and 
given farther on in this book, Pietra had for his guide the books of both Paeioli and Manzoni, for he 
covered matters which Paeioli did, and also the items which we have just seen Manzoni mentioned in 
his book but which we do not find in Paeioli. Especially is this true in the enumeration of the items 
which always must appear in a journal entry. Pietra uses Manzoni 's six items in the same order, but 
adds thereto two others. He also gives the definite rules for making journal entries, mentions the trans- 
position of "A" and "Per," the five standing lines in the journal, and enumerates several day books. 
He gives further some 30 additional items which neither Manzoni nor Paeioli mentions. Jager does not 
speak very highly of Pietra, but it seems to the writer that Pietra was an ingenious man, fully as well 
educated as Paeioli, and a good deal more experienced in the necessities required of a bookkeeper. He 
recommends several innovations, prominent among which is double entry bookkeeping for those who are 
not in business for profit but are capitalists or associations not organized for the making of profits, 
which we might call eleemosynary corporations. For this purpose he describes three different ledgers, 
one for merchants, one for bankers, and one for capitalists and those similarly situated. He calls the 
ledger for the capitalist "economic ledger." 

Unlike Paeioli and Manzoni, Pietra does not begin with an inventory, but with a proprietorship 
account. He is exceedingly careful in the taking of his inventory, and gives in his book a large folded 
insert containing a tabular inventory. He gives a tabulation of entries for the ledger which do not 
have to go through the journal (such as closing entries). He advocates the vouchering of disburse- 
ments. He minutely explains that expense accounts can show two balances, and that they can show a 
profit aa well as a balance to be carried forward in the nature of an inventory. The detail of some 30 
items which he mentions in his book and which neither Manzoni nor Paeioli describes, we give farther 
on, by the side of the reproduction of some of the pages of Pietra 's book. 

In 1632 there appeared in Bologna a work on bookkeeping written by Matteo Mainardi. This book 
is of a far later date than the ones heretofore mentioned, but it is somewhat remarkable in that it at- 
tempts to describe, besides the system for the merchants, one for the keeping of executor's and trus- 
tee's accounts. In many respects this book compares favorably with that of Pietra, and Mainardi 
undoubtedly had all the three books just described at his command. In the reproductions herein, we 
are giving only the title, the preface, and two pages of the journal, the last for the purpose of indicat- 
ing the method then in use of showing journal entries with more than one debit or more than one credit, 
and to indicate further that bookkeeping made far greater progress in Holland than in Italy, as will be 
apparent from the discussion of Simon Stevin's book published in 1604. 

We will now pass to the German authors. We have mentioned before that Venice and other places 
in the northern part of Italy were the centers of commerce from which the distribution of merchandise 
was made to the inland. The nearest commercial city of the inland known in those days was Nurem- 
berg, and it is therefore but natural that we should find there the first work on bookkeeping published in 
the German language. The author was Johann Gotlieh, and the hook was published in Nuremberg in 
1531, three years before Manzoni, the second Italian writer, published his book. The author states 
frankly that he has translated his work from the "Welsh," meaning by this term "Italian." His 
book is considered a brief and very poor copy of Paeioli. 


Gotlieb's book, however, is not the first that we know of in Germany. Henricus Grarnniateus, who 
called himself in German Heinrich Schreiber, lived for a long while in Vienna and there wrote in 1518 
a book called "Rechenbiichlin, Kiinstlich, behend nnd gewiss auf alle, Kauffmanschafft gerichtet" con- 
taining mostly a text on arithmetic, but devoting some pages to the description of a very poor system of 
bookkeeping, which by a stretch of the imagination may be identified as possibly covering double-entry 
bookkeeping. This work was printed in Erfurt in 1523, and in Frankfurt in 1572. 

After Gotlieb's book we find one published in 1549 at Nuremberg entitled "Zwifach Buchhalten," 
by Wolfgang Schweicker. This work can not be called excellent, nor is it as exhaustive or as good as 
that of either Pacioli or Manzoni, but there is no doubt that he had both of these books at his command, 
and especially followed Manzoni. The three German books thus far mentioned were undoubtedly not 
good enough to have become standards, and they have exerted little influence on the methods of book- 
keeping used since then in Germany. 

The first writer who was able to leave an impression which is lasting to this day was Passchier 
Goessens, a Dutchman from Brussels. He wrote, in 1594, at Hamburg where he was then living, a book 
on bookkeeping. Goessens states very plainly in his preface where he had learned the art and the 
title indicates that he followed the Italian system. He obtained his information from some of the 
earlier Dutch writings, which we will soon mention. German bookkeepers therefore, have benefited 
more by the knowledge which the Dutch imparted to them than by that which their own countrymen 
brought direct from Italy. 

Next in importance and period of time, we come to the influence of the Dutch writers on the Ger- 
man, French, and English subsequent authors on the subject of bookkeeping. The Dutch for centuries 
controlled the supremacy of the seas, as they were great ship-builders and navigators. They were ex- 
cellent, careful and honest tradesmen, and their trade was sought far and wide. Yet the Italian cities, 
through their ancient relation with the eastern nations, had become the world's leaders in commerce 
and the Dutch people were therefore forced to trade with these Italian republics until the discovery in 
1498 of an all-ocean route to the eastern countries. Thereafter the center of commerce was shifted 
from Venice and its surrounding republics to Holland. As the Dutch were such travelers on water, 
they naturally sent their young men by water to the trade centers, for education and training, and in 
this way the knowledge of commerce also shifted from Venice to the Dutch countries. 

Jan Ympyn Christoffels was one of the Dutch merchants who visited Venice and the northern part 
of Italy and he remained there for twelve years. He returned evidently wise in the knowledge of the 
keeping of books according to the Italian manner and wrote a book on that subject. He did not, how- 
ever, live to see his book published, but his widow Anna Swinters published his manuscripts in the 
Dutch and French languages during the year 1543. Of the Dutch edition there seems to be but one 
copy in existence, which is in the City Library at Antwerp. The French work, however, can be pur- 
chased. The discovery by Hugo Balg of an English copy of this book in a Russian library was reported 
by the German scholar Kheil, although it was so mutilated that the name of the author does not remain, 
and the exact date of its publication is not known. However, from the similarity of the contents Kheil 
established the authorship of this book. The widow of Jan Ympyn Christoffels (better known as Jan 
Ympyn), says very distinctly in the preface of the Dutch book that it was written by her husband and 
that she merely published it, which statement would indicate that the English book was written prior to 
1543. The illustrations in the book bear date of 1536 and 1537. 

Ympyn claims to have obtained his knowledge in Italy, and says he used Italian books for the foun- 
dation of his work. He gives credit, however, indirectly to a person who has never been known as an 
author on bookkeeping, and historians rather indicate that this person was merely an excellent book- 
keeper from whom he gained considerable knowledge. He mentions, however, very distinctly the book 
of Lucas Pacioli, although he calls him Brother Lucas de Bargo. We find Lucas Pacioli 's name thus 
quoted in a large number of books subsequently published, from which we may infer that Ympyn 's 
work was well known and used by a good many writers, because from no other source could they have 
obtained this faulty version of Pacioli 's name. 

The next important writer in the Dutch language was Simon Stevin, who wrote in Latin a book on 
mathematics, which was published in Leijden in 1608, in which he includes several chapters on book- 
keeping. These were a reproduction of a book published in the Dutch language on "bookkeeping for 
merchants and for princely governments," which appeared in Amsterdam in 1604, and was rewritten 
in The Hague in 1607 in the form of a letter addressed to Maximiliaen de Bethune, Duke of Seulley. 
This Duke was superintendent of finance of France, and had numerous other imposing titles. He had 
been very successful in rehabilitating the finances of France, and Stevin, knowing him through Prince 
Maurits of Orange, was very anxious to acquaint him with the system which he had installed and whicli 
had proven so successful. This manuscript of 1607 was published in book form by Stevin 's son Hend- 
rick "in the second year of the Dutch Peace" of Munster (1648), which ended the eighty year war with 
Spain ; this would make the date of publication 1650. Hendrick Stevin dedicated the book to the sister of 
the deceased Prince Maurits, expressing the hope that she may continue with the system of municipal 
bookkeeping which had made her brother's stewardship of the affairs of government so successful. 
Stevin 's book becomes very important to Americans, because he materially influenced the views of his 
friend Richard Dafforne, who through his book "The Merchants' Mirrour," published in 1636, became 
practically the English guide and pioneer writer of texts on bookkeeping. 

Simon Stevin, who was born in Bruges near Antwerp in 1548, and died in The Hague in 1620, was a 
traveler, author, mathematician, engineer, and inventor, a highly educated man who thought bookkeep- 
ing important enough to induce Prince Maurits of Orange, the then governor of the Dutch countries, to 


iiisUll double-entry bookkeeping throughout bia territory, thus practically putting municipal accounting 
on the double-entry system, th.- wry thin* we are today after more than three hundred years sighing 
for. Stevin wrote part of the text of his book in the form of a dialogue, consisting of questions and 
answers, which he says actually occurred in the arguments he had while teaching Prince Maurits the 
art of bookkeeping. 

Simon Stevin served his apprenticeship in a mercantile office in Antwerp, where he learned book- 
keeping. After that he held important public ofl h as quarter-master -general, surveyor of taxes 
of Bruges and, under Prince Maurits was minister of finances and chief inspector of public works. 
There he displayed such inventive ingenuity in engineering that lie may be said to have been the founder 
of modern engineering. His discoveries were in dynamics and hydrostatics, and among his many other 
inventions may be mentioned an important improvement to the canal locks. He was the first to bring 
into practical use decimal fractions. His works on engineering and fortifications have remained stan- 
dards until the last decade or two. 

Stevin was a prolific writer on many varied subjects. Among other things, he wrote about the art 
of war on land as well as on sea, about the construction of buildings, residences, and fortifications, the 
improvement of cities and agricultural lands, about water mills, canals, the art of singing, the art of 
oratory, rhetoric, mathematics, geometry, and about the weighing of metals and alloys through the 
difference in weight above water and under water. 

The writer would consider Stevin to be one of the first men of whom we have a record as perform- 
ing duties equal to those of a modern accountant. We have seen that his regular work was that of 
superintendent of finance (secretary of the treasury) and chief engineer of fortifications and public 
buildings of Holland, besides being tutor and adviser to Prince Maurits of Orange. In addition to all 
of this, he was continually called in to settle disputes between partners, audited numerous mercantile 
books and drew therefrom financial statements, made up partnership books to obtain their settlements, 
installed systems in all departments of government, in mercantile houses, royal households, municipal- 
ities, for construction of specific fortifications and public buildings, traveled to England, France, Ger- 
many, Italy, Denmark and Belgium, in order to appear before courts to give testimony in the settlement 
of financial affairs, and performed numerous other duties of an accountant, which we may infer from 
his remarks throughout his book. 

Jager, Kheil, and Row Fogo through Brown ridicule to a considerable extent the old writers on 
bookkeeping, instead of describing the worthy things about them and marveling at their accuracy and 
ingenuity. Especially do they harangue about Stevin 's Latin, but overlook entirely the many worthy 
suggestions from Stevin 's inventive genius. 

In Brown's book on the history of accounting Stevin 's treatise on mercantile bookkeeping is highly 
spoken of but Stevin is ridiculed for his endeavor to put municipal accounting on the double-entry sys- 
tem. We feel this to be an injustice to Stevin, for the reason that while his descriptions on municipal 
accounting may at first blush appear to be faulty, we learn from the descriptions and illustrations he 
gives of mercantile bookkeeping that he was exceedingly brief but accurate, and that therefore in the 
text we should take much for granted. 

Stevin did not fully illustrate municipal accounting, for three reasons : first of all the officials who 
were to use the system he installed received regular orders with forms attached from headquarters ; 
therefore his book was not a full exposition of all these orders with their forms, but was merely a re- 
view of the entire system. Secondly, (as he states) he was writing an argument in favor of his system 
to those officials who were forced to use it and might hesitate to support it loyally. This he did in an 
authoritative manner, by quoting continually the friendly and close association he had with the Prince, 
which of course he could not make use of in his official orders. Thus he put power and dignity behind 
his orders. Thirdly, he fully illustrated mercantile accounting and insisted on the employment only of 
clerks who were well versed in the art of bookkeeping according to the Italian method. After illus- 
trating mercantile accounting thoroughly, he then simply describes the difference between the two sys- 
tems, which (he reiterates) is his only aim. He gives eight pages of journal and forty pages of ledger 
on municipal accounting, although they contain only opening and not closing entries. The latter he 
explains fully in his text by stating deviations from the system used by merchants. 

Yet apparently Stevin 's treatise on municipal accounting is judged only by the absence of illustra- 
tions, but no credit is given him for the ingenious devices he mentions and which we now call 
internal checks. Brown evidently had not read much of the text, nor his son's subsequent book and 
notes, which as we have seen heretofore were published in 1650, at which time his son states that while 
some defects were found in the previous treatise, the system had survived until that day and had been 
improved upon, he describing such improvements in addition to reproducing his father's works. 

Stevin was very ingenious in prescribing methods for what we now are wont to eall "internal 
checks." For instance, in order to check the pay roll of the soldiers and other public officials, he de- 
manded that the pay roll be sent direct to the auditors (and he calls them auditcurs, the French for 
auditors), and then insisted that the cook at the mess-house where all the soldiers and officials were 
being fed, should report independently to the auditors the number of meals served. 

Another internal check which he suggested in order to stop the making of errors and the stealing 
in the collection of taxes and rents, was to make the sub-treasurer's report to the general treasurer each 
month of not only the cash receipts and disbursements but the persons remaining delinquent in their pay- 
ments. After the reported delinquents remained so for three months, he suggested the sending of the 
sheriff by the general treasurer (not the sub-treasurers) to sell the property of the delinquent tax-payej 


or to collect from him a bond. He explains that thus you can force the tax-payer to demand a receipt 
from the sub-treasurer when paying, and display it to the sheriff, and thus get evidence against the sub- 
treasurer of stealing. 

Towards the end of this book we are reproducing Stevin's journal and ledger, and appended there- 
to we have given some further remarks describing the superiorities of Stevin's work, which will prove 
interesting reading. Stevin undoubtedly followed Ympyn, who in turn as we have seen, obtained his 
knowledge from Pacioli. 

Up to this date then, we have, besides general mercantile books, records of specific systems of book- 
keeping for merchants, branch stores, traveling salesmen, partnerships, household accounts, bankers, 
capitalists, monasteries, executors, and municipalities, as we will see from the specialties enumerated 
by these writers. 

We next will make a survey of how the knowledge of bookkeeping came to England, whence it prob- 
ably came to America. 

We find that a school teacher by the name of John Mellis wrote in London in 1588 a book on book- 
keeping, which in his preface he states to be a reprint of a book by Hugh Oldcastle, which Mellis says 
appeared in London in 1543 under the title of "A profitable treatyce called the Instrument or Boke to 
learne to knowe the good order of the kepying of the famouse reconynge called in Latyn Dare and 
Habere and in Englyshe Debitor and Creditor." No copy exists as far as is known of this book of 
Oldcastle, and it is not therefore an absolute certainty that it ever existed. It might have been a man- 
uscript only, and again, the date may not be reliable. It may also be that the book was written by some 
one else, and given to John Mellis by Hugh Oldcastle. It may therefore have been Jan Ympyn 's book in 
English, especially as the dates are so close together. However this may be, Mellis 's book is nothing 
more than a translation of Pacioli 's book, and Mellis states that he had traveled and studied in the 
Dutch country. Brown in his history of accounting openly says that every English writer on accounting 
in the early days gained his knowledge from the Dutch, because Holland was the training school for 
English merchants, and he gives numerous instances to support his statement. 

Any one doubting that Mellis 's book is a translation of Pacioli, should compare Mellis 's descrip- 
tion of the checking of the ledger, as quoted by Brown, with our translation of this same subject in 
Pacioli 's book. That Mellis is undoubtedly a copy of Pacioli, appears from an error he made in refer- 
ring in one of his chapters to a chapter previously mentioned, naming it chapter 15, the same as Pacioli 
stated in his chapter 16, but as Mellis left out chapter 5 of Pacioli, containing a short introduction, and 
also chapter 7 about the certification of books by notaries, Mellis's chapter 14 is the same as Pacioli's 
16, and Mellis's chapter 13 is the same as Pacioli's 15; yet Mellis makes reference to chapter 15 the same 
as Pacioli, instead of using chapter 13. The discovery of this error is mentioned in Brown's history of 

Next in importance, and the last book we will mention in our survey, is ' ' The Merchants ' Mirrour, ' ' 
by Richard Dafforne. Dafforne says that in Germany, Italy and Holland, there had existed a great 
many able writers on bookkeeping, and he gives a large list of authors. He attributes the existence of 
these books to the demand, stating that there would not be a supply unless there was a demand. He 
very much deplores the fact that such a demand did not exist in England, nevertheless he contributes 
his book, which is undoubtedly a very able treatise. He even speaks of his acquaintance with Simon 
Stevin, and he writes his book on the same order as Stevin, namely, in dialogue style, or questions and 
answers. Dafforne 's book was published in London for the first time in 1636, and appeared afterwards 
in 1651, 1660, and 1684. Later English writers have followed Dafforne and Mellis. Therefore, direct- 
ly and indirectly, Pacioli through the Dutch, has laid the foundation of our present accounting litera- 
ture and our present knowledge of bookkeeping. 

We are reproducing most of the text of Dafforne 's book and a few pages from the daybook, journal 
and ledger. Anyone doubting that Dafforne followed Simon Stevin and other Dutch writers on bookkeep- 
ing will be convinced by reading his text. Numerous quotations are made from these and other Dutch 
authors throughout the text and even in the title page. In one place an abstract from the bible is ren- 
dered in the Dutch language. Further Dafforne states that he received his knowledge and ideas in Hol- 
land and that part of the illustrations and text was written in Holland. The mentioning of so many Dutch 
customs and Dutch names in the ledger accounts shows that he himself succumbed to what he feared: 
' ' They being then at Rome, will do as there is done. ' ' 

While we have described thus far the oldest text books in existence on the subject of bookkeeping, 
the records of books of account predate these considerably, and for further information on this subject 
we can do no better than refer you to Brown's history of accounting, where not only detail is given but 
where also convincing illustrations are reproduced. However, the purpose of presenting to the reader 
a correct idea of what was done in this line, we might state that the books of the steward of the city of 
Genoa in 1340 were kept on the double-entry principle. The oldest mercantile ledger at Venice is dated 
1460, and is that of the firm of Donado Soranzo & Brothers. This ledger has a profit & loss and a capital 
account. Specimens of this ledger are reproduced in Brown's history of accounting on pages 99 to 106, 
and will greatly help the reader to understand Pacioli's instructions, in respect to the year, the Roman 
figures in the money column, and the Arabic figures for the smallest coin or Picioli, etc. 



\V. find in the translations of the old treatises on bookkeeping the terms debit, credit, inventory. 
journal, cash, capital, balance, per (modern by), a (modern to), assets, liabilities, etc., and a definition 
of each of these with their use in the olden times should prove of interest. 

Our word debit is put in Italian as "debito", which comes from the old Latin dcbita and debeo, 
which in business and from the standpoint of the proprietor means "owe" or "he owes to the pro- 
prietor," that which was loaned or given him by the proprietor. (The old authors do not use it in ledger 

Our word credit is put in Italian as " credit o," coming from the old Latin word "credo," which 
means "trust or believe," as in business our creditors were "believers" in the integrity of the pro- 
prietor, and therefore loaned or gave him something. Therefore, from the proprietor's point of view, 
the word should be translated as the creditor "is owed by the proprietor," that which was loaned or 
given to the proprietor. (The old authors do not use it in ledger accounts.) 

Inventory in Italian, "inventario," comes from the Latin "invenio," which means to find out or 

Journal in Italian "giornal" comes from the Latin "diunuilis" which means daily happenings or 

Ledger comes from the Dutch "Leggtr" meaning "to lie down" and was originated probably from 
the necessity that the ledger, which was called the big book, became so large and cumbersome that it 
remained, or was lying, always in one place. 

Caah in Italian, "cassa," comes from case or box, which is the same as the Italian borscia from the 
Latin bursa or purse. 

Capital, which is mentioned in Italian as "Cavidale," comes from the old Latin " capitalis, " which 
means "chief" or "head," and also from the Latin "capitali," which means property. Thus capital 
would mean "the property of the chief," i. e., proprietorship. 

As to the word "balance," the following will indicate its meaning. A clear distinction is made by 
the old writers between (1) the difference in an account between the debit amounts and the credit 
amounts, (2) the reason for entering this difference in the account, and (3) the status of the account 
after equalizing both sides by the making of an entry and closing the account. We term all three 
balances and balancing, while two are distinctly opposite. In Italian they call the difference or tin- 
remainder, "resto," and say they have entered this remainder in order to close (saldo), and then they 
state that the account is in balance (bilancio). 

As to the terms "By" and "To," Manzoni says, as does Pacioli, that in the journal entries the word 
"Per" denotes the debtor and always precedes it, and that "A" denotes the creditor. 

Manzoni then goes on to point out that the prevailing system (which Pacioli describes) in his time 
was to use "Per" only (and not "A") as far as it relates to the ledger. He calls it a misuse which 
experts do not condone, and in his examples of ledger entries he uses in the debit of the debtor's ac- 
count "A" because the name following it must of necessity be the name of the creditor and, as "A" 
denotes the creditor, so it must here precede the name of the creditor, as well as in the journal, in spite 
of the fact that it is written on the debit side of the ledger. Likewise he puts on the credit side "Per" 
in front of the name of the debtor. Stevin, as explained, follows Pacioli. 

Until the very recent present day we used in the ledger "To" on the debit side as a prefix to the 
name of the creditor and "By" on the credit side as a prefix to the name of the debtor. 

It is difficult to say whether we can translate the Italian "Per" into our "By" and the Italian 
"A" into our "To," as these two expressions or words can be translated in many different ways ac- 
cording to the noun or verb following or preceding it, together with the consideration of the tense and 
case used. 

If, however, we take a literal translation of the Italian ledger heading used for our debit, or "dee 
dare," we come to "shall give." Putting this into a sentence read from a ledger we have as at the 
present time, "John Doe debit to Richard Roe" and in the old Italian, "John Doe dee dare (shall give) 
A (To) Richard Roe," and as to the credit, we have in our present day "Richard Roe credit by John 
Doe," and in the old Italian, "Richard Doe dee havere (shall have or receive) Per (by the hand of) 
John Doe." 

Our version, therefore, is that today we follow Manzoni rather than Pacioli and Stevin in this 

As to the journal, the old necessity for being particular in designating and separating the debtor 
from the creditor by Per and A and the much commented upon little diagonal lines (//), has been 
obviated through the use of two columns in the journal — one for the debit amount, the other for the 
credit amount — and by the use of two lines of writing and by careful indentation. Thus, while we do 
not use the old expressions (Per and A) in the journal, we are more careful and systematic in separat- 
ing debits from credits than the old authors were. 

It would be interesting to learn when and where and under what circumstances and conditions the 
double column in the journal originated. From the fact that a trial balance, with total debits and total 
credits instead of differences between debits and credits, is called a French trial balance, we might infer 


that that system originated in France because a French trial balance is based upon the system that all 
entries are journalized and the total debits and the total credits of the journal are added to the total 
debits and credits of the previous trial balance in order to arrive at the totals which the present trial 
balance should show. Such a trial balance makes an absolute necessity for the having of two columns 
in the journal. 

Stevin explains debit and credit as follows: 

"Genomen dat ymant met naem Pieter, my schuldich vvesende, doet daer op betaling van 100 L: 
Enick 't gelt in een casse leggende, al of ict heur te bevvaren gave, segh dat die casse my 't selve gelt 
schuldich is, vvaer deur ick haer al oft een mensch vvaer, debiteur make, en Pieter crediteur, om dat hy 
syn schult vermindert, stellende int Iornael 't begin der partie aldus, 'Casse debet per Pieter'." 

The above translated would be about as follows : 

"Suppose that some one by the name of Peter owed me some money, on account of which he paid me 
£100, and I put the money in a cash drawer just as if I give it the money for safe keeping. I then say 
that that cash drawer owes me that money, for which reason (just as if it were a human being) I made 
it a debtor and Peter of course becomes a creditor because he reduces his debit to me. This 1 put in 
the Journal thus: 'Cash Debit Per Peter'." 

From the above translation of the previous Dutch quotation it would seem that the journal entry 
shown is rather a hasty conclusion. The entry, in order to follow his explanations, should have been 
a double entry somewhat as follows : Cash Debit to Myself — Proprietor Credit — for the money I gave 
the cash drawer for safe keeping. To be followed by : Myself Debit to Peter Credit — he gave me money 
which I may have to return to him if he does not owe it to me. 

As most of the entries, if made in this form would have both a debit and a credit to the proprietor 
for the same amount, these are simply omitted. 

If we eliminate on both sides, according to algebraic formulae, the word "myself," we then have 
abbreviated the two entries to a real algebraic term, namely, "Cash Debit to Peter." Thus we have 
condensed two entries of thought to one entry written down, very much the same as in algebra a = b ; 
b = c ; hence a = c. In many of the old Dutch books Stevin 's idea of a twofold double entry is men- 
tioned, and is brought down to the present day, which accounts for the existence of a clear idea on this 
principle in Holland and in modern Dutch books on bookkeeping (see N. Brenkman, 1880, Theory of 
Double-Entry Bookkeeping). 

It must be admitted that if we today would abolish the use of the words debit and credit in the 
ledger and substitute therefor the ancient terms of "shall give" and "shall have" or "shall receive," 
the personification of accounts in the proper way would not be difficult and, with it, bookkeeping would 
become more intelligent to the proprietor, the layman, and the student. 

Elsewhere we have seen that Stevin insists upon testing when a journal entry in debit and credit 
must be made by asking the question, "When does proprietorship begin" or "When does proprietorship 
end," from which it is apparent that proprietorship must enter in the consideration of each entry and, 
if it is not there, it is simply eliminated by the rules of algebra. This, of course, would at once lead to 
the personification of the capital and profit or loss accounts into "the proprietor" as differentiated 
from "the business," and would then immediately show the fallacy of the statement that capital and 
surplus are liabilities, as well as of the absurd theory that assets must equal liabilities. 

The following translation of the dialogue between Simon Stevin and the Prince Maurits of Orange 
on this subject fully illustrates that Stevin then understood his subject far better than do some modern 
text writers and theorists, and it makes certain recent so-called "discoveries" appear mere mental 
vagaries, as far as the credit for discovery is concerned. It merely illustrates that they are today as 
deep thinkers as Stevin was 300 years ago. 
The Prince. I must ask another question. The entries stand in my ledger as debits and credits. Which 

of these two stand to my advantage and which to my disadvantage 1 
Stevin. Debits in the ledger are your advantage, for the more Peter owes you the more your cap- 

ital is, and likewise much pepper in the warehouse, which stands as a debit, will make much 
money in the cash drawer. However, credits are the reverse. 
The Prince. Are there no exceptions to this ? 
Stevin. I cannot recall any. 

The Prince. Yet capital as a debit does not seem to me as an advantage, and capital as a credit being 

a disadvantage to me appears entirely wrong. 
Stevin. I forgot that. You are right. I meant to say that capital is an exception. 

The Prince. Further, expense is a debit and it, together with the debit in the profit and loss, are both 

Stevin. Because these two are a part of the capital account they are included in the exception. 

The Prince. The credits in the cloves account in the ledger are in excess of the debits by £74-4-7. 

This is an advantage to me because it represents a profit, yet it is in the credit. 
Stevin. The reply to this would be that if the account were closed (which you can do when you 

please, but usually at the end of the year) , the excess in the credits would be transferred to 
the profit and loss account and your question would not arise. 
The Prince. Yet it remains that with accounts like the cloves account, where they show a profit or a 
loss, it is not so frequently true that at all times debit is an advantage and credit a dis- 


vin. That appears to be true and in that reaped it ia somewhat similar to your exception, but 

it sliows all the more positively that in all accounts of capital, or those pertaining to cap- 
ital, debit is always a disadvantage and credit an advantage. 
The Prince. Why has capital more exceptions than all the others! 

St e vin. Because capital debit means as much as though the proprietor said, "I am debit to all the 

other accounts." It follows that the more a proprietor is debtor in this manner the more 
it is to his disadvantage, and the more he is creditor the more it is to his advantage, for 
which reason capital must be the reverse of other accounts, and it is not therefore really 
an exception. 
The Prince. If capital stands for the name of the proprietor, why is the proprietor's name not used 
instead of the word capital inasmuch as through the use of that word so many things be- 
come so difficult to understand t 
Stevin. Merchants often form partnerships with many who together put in one principal sum of 

money. For this reason we need one designation indicating them all at once as proprie- 
tors, and for this the word capital is used with good reasons. 
Furthermore, at that time the words assets and liabilities were not known in bookkeeping. Happy 
days they must have been. These terms ought not to be known or used now. What we now term lia- 
bilities, and some of which some of us are almost tempted to call "near liabilities" very much the same 
as we define "near silk," never are and never will be liabilities, for at the time the financial statement 
is prepared these amounts are not supposed to be due, hence the proprietor cannot possibly be liable 
for them at that time. At most he is "trusted" for them by his creditors, as the old authors expressed it 
correctly. Neither are assets at any time, in a going, solvent business, real assets. The words assets 
comes from "osaer" which means "enough." The question of whether the proprietor has enough to 
cover his liabilities does not come up until his ability to meet his obligations is questioned or until he is 
called upon to render a statement to the court wherein he is brought for this purpose to answer the 
question whether he has enough (assez — assets) to cover that for which he is liable (liabilities) or past 
due credits or trustings by the creditors. Those who doubt this should study from the reported court 
cases the difference between mercantile insolvency and legal insolvency. 

In analyzing a financial statement I believe these assets and liabilities may be interpreted to mean 
something like this: The proprietor, in order to be permitted to continue to do business on credit, 
makes here a showing to those interested by which lie agrees that his books show that the personifica- 
tions of cash, real property, personal property, merchandise, as well as the persons owing him, are 
obligated to him and "shall give" him the amounts stated on the left hand side of the statement or the 
amounts appearing to the debit of these accounts in the ledger and to the credit of his own account, 
and that thereby the proprietor will be able to meet whatever obligations he contracts with those with 
whom he has dealings. He further states in this report that persons interested should take notice that 
the books show that the following persons "shall have" or "shall receive" from him the items when 
they become due and payable and standing on the right hand side of the statement, or the amounts 
appearing to the credit of these accounts in the ledger and to the debit of his own account. That these 
items are to be deducted from the items of cash, real property, personal property, etc., before those in- 
terested in the statement can judge as to whether they shall trust (credito — credit) him further. Thus 
it becomes at once apparent that capital, together with surplus and losses and gains, represent the owner- 
ship of the things owned less those owed, leaving a net ownership, and net ownership can never be a 
liability (i. e., a thing to be liable for). If surplus ever can be a liability then a minus-surplus or a 
deficit must of necessity become an asset, which is an absurdity. 

The statement of affairs described by Stevin and elsewhere reproduced, may be considered to be 
merely a statement of the closing entries as they would be made in the respective individual ledger ac- 
counts in order to make both the debits and the credits even and equal. For whatever each debit account 
shows more in the debit than in the credit, as Stevin explained, it is given by the owner to that account 
for safe keeping as if it were a person — hence this person or this account owes the proprietor; there- 
fore, the proprietor trusts these personified accounts and becomes the creditor. With the credit accounts 
it is the reverse ; hence Stevin 's statement of affairs is the capital account itemized with a preponderance 
of credits to represent net capital. The English follow this method of rendering a financial statement 
to this day. Why Americans reverse the process is difficult to perceive. 

From the foregoing it will further be seen that thus with the aid of ancient terms we can read in- 
telligently and explain the abbreviated forms used in bookkeeping so that it becomes at once apparent 
why accounts like the cash account, which to the uninitiated looks like proprietorship, can be shown 
on the debit side of the ledger and why capital account, which always represents ownership, appears 
on the credit side. This at first thought may seem contradictory, but the reason for this apparent in- 
consistency lies in the elimination (through bookkeeping) of equal terms (as per rules of algebra) 
brought about by the theoretical making of double entries (two entries, each with a common debit and 
credit) and thus abbreviating it beyond the interpretation of ordinary language. Thus we may go on 
and with equal ease prove, as the German scholar Jager has done, that double-entry bookkeeping is 
much older than single-entry bookkeeping, the latter being a still further shortening of methods of 
classification by the use of the terms debit and credit. Stevin very clearly suggests this in his ex- 
planation of the rules of partnership. 

It is to be regretted that in the transfer of the expositions of the theory from the Dutch language 
(as so plainly exemplified by the scholar Simon Stevin) to the English (by the flowery schoolmaster 
Richard Dafforne) should have been so badly done that all records of the scientific part of the art and 
theory have been so completely obscured as to suggest even in the present day an argument on theories so 
well known in those olden days. 



The following eight pages, from 18 to 26, and the succeeding 32 left-hand pages, numbers 28 to 80, 
represent photographic reproductions of the oldest extant book on double-entry bookkeeping, published in 
Venice, Italy, in 1494. The reproductions are of the same size as the original, and fully illustrate the 
make-up of the book, which is one of the oldest books ever printed from loose metal type in Roman letters, 
as explained at the opening of the historical chapter. The ink used was vegetable dye ink, and is today 
as black and as fresh as India ink, after 420 years of use and exposure. It is printed on hand-made rag 
paper, unsized, which after so many years of exposure to air and light is still so far superior to the very 
best modern paper that a comparison cannot be made. 

On page 18 appears the title of this book, ' ' Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Pro- 
portionalita, " (Review on Arithmetic, Geometry, and Proportions). Below the title is a brief synopsis of 
the contents of the book. Part 1, Section 9, Treatise 11 of this ancient book treats of double-entry book- 
keeping and begins on page 199-a of the original, or page 32 of this volume, under the title of "Particu- 
laris de computis et Scripturis" (Particulars of Reckonings and Their Recording). This can be found in 
the seventh line of page 32. The picture directly under the title, on page 32, is said by some to be that of 
the author of this book, but there is nothing in this or any other book which substantiates this assertion. 

Page 19, which immediately follows the title page of the original, contains a dedicatory letter by the 
author, whose name appears on the second line. The lower half of this page is occupied on the right by 
an epigram of praise to Pacioli by a friend of his and on the left by an epigram by the author to the reader. 

The first of the four last lines of this page contain, a list of the letters to be used by the printer, 
merely as a guide for those who are not familiar with this style of printed letters. Thereafter, on the last 
line, the year (1494), then the date (November 20th), and then the place (Venetia or Venice), all of these 
pertaining to the record of publication. 

Page 20 is another dedicatory letter to the Duke of Urbino. The author's name appears here in the 
third line. 

On page 22, in the third line of the center paragraph, the author's name is given again, this time in 
the genetive case, hence Fratris Luce instead of Frater Lucas. 

Pages 24 and 25 are reproduced in order to show the marginal notes there given, indicating the ab- 
breviations used in the book, and their interpretation. Page 25 is also given for the reference the author 
makes in line 7 to three of his pupils, Bartolo, Francesco, and Paulo, the three sons of a prominent mer- 
chant of Venice named (Antonio de) Rompiasi. The dash over the "o" in the original indicates that an 
"m" follows the "o." 

Page 23 is given to reproduce the type of numerous marginal illustrations the author gives on nearly 
every page of his chapters on geometry and arithmetic, considering the many illustrations here used it 
seems very strange that he should not have given some in his chapter on bookkeeping. 

Page 26 is given to show that our modern so-called "efficiency engineers" have nothing the best of 
this monk of over 400 years ago, as to " organization charts. ' ' This chart illustrates the intricacies of 

Pages 28 and 30 contain the index of the chapter on double-entry bookkeeping. No translation is 
given of these pages, because they are merely repetitions of the headings of each chapter, and therefore 
their translation appears at those places. In their stead, a comparative index is given of four of the earli- 
est writers on bookkeeping, in order to illustrate how closely they have followed each other. 

On pages 32 to 80 (left-hand only) are the reproductions of the original chapter on double-entry book- 
keeping. Opposite each reproduction is given the translation in modern English subject to the qualifica- 
tions mentioned in the preface. 


©uma fcefirid?metica f£>to> 
metrialfrzopomom i ifcio/ 

£on tincn tia IX tutta (opera. 

be numeric inlurc fn rutrt modioceurrenri. 
£?opomome,ppo:ri6a[itaanofirta ocl f? oc£ucfi 

du xx rom d aim' foi libri. 
£btaui oucro cuidenric numero. i ;.p le qttta conn 

nucppo;ri63liocI.6?c.7tDc£udtdccrtrarte . 
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plicar.fumare.c fotrarc co tunc fuc ,puc i fani c rot> 

ri.c radici c pzogrcflioni. 
be fa regola mercanrefca ©itta od.;.c foi fodamen » 


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• m ax tutte Com' radio'. 

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ogmcafoebcperregole.o:dinariend fi podeflc. 
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Z"uttc regole re algebra Cttte oc la cofa e k» fabri' 


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vna cum fcrafico noftro fancto ^rancifco adiuuantibus cofratribus noftris frequenter ozabt'mus: vt 
libi pares gratis ingenio Doctrine virtun 7 nobilitati tuc rcferant. Uak Sid uota 

f a.l&ompilij cpigf ama ad lectojenn 

Cue fuerant inedijs cane confumpta latebris 

"llseft twit lucas lecto? amice tibi 
flftoenia filapi'deaquor babcrcrcaa fubauras: 

jautubtppoebeos itmperet annus equos: 
£t que ccrulew ducat te fMIa per undae; 

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jtmca:qutd co2pus:quid drcus et angulus 01s: 

0.uc fit apcllea picta tabclla manu: 
CJIrima que tern's regio.qu as fluctibus urbes 

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feunc eme:quicquid crit liber bic coducet agetf: 

&uod non dantplures:bic fcrct units opem. 

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l&er lop?anonbumana:madfuina 

l^oggi iin p?efla iruienetia alma cita te 
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iJftrcnomiatc in liberal foccina 

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S-era da tutto flmondo Etounata 

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iflntLDici mfecfidopofter.Zficeni manmc fcif aliqd cfi babct fuujqd eft u. 

©ifTminoncs 1 oiu ifio oif cr ct c 1 continue qua n r ir an* arncu lu* pzunua ptimc 

03 co adoca. £a quanta eff ere im ed larc bimemb ze.-cice cot in 11 a e o 1 f cr era. 
Xa conrmua e quell* lecbut parti fonno copulate e gionte a certo tenninc 
comunc.ccmcf6nolcgm:fcrro:cfaj:a':c. Harder era oueramete nfiero: 
e quella lecui parti no fonno giore adalcuno t ermine coe:como e. 1 .2.5 .if. 
© icb e puma vela oif cr eta: cioe ocl nfiero: e poi vela continua eioe geo in err u:qui 
co alo intento afpecta cbiaramente traetar emo. 
©iffinitto n u men piopm fTima.arnculue fecundu*. 

•^^Omero e( fecodo eiafcunopbflofopbarovnanvilhrudmetternira copo/ 
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r mediate laqualeogni cofa eoirtacflerc vna.£ fecodo el feuenn 23ceno in 
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na e fendamcro oogni nuinero lapella. ilaqual piu m agm fi cid a in le cofe natural! 
pifle in qllo cbe fa oe vnitare t vno.(D mne qo eft: id eo ert.qz vnfi nfiero eft. £nc ark 
coza el nfiero in ifinir 1 mebzi oiuifo.p quel cbe efTo fir ifto. uirc: cioe. © igd ifinitu in 
eftmfierus eft.C t>la tersa petitioc oel fcprlo oe Nuclide:!* fua ferie in ffinito potC' 
repccderciet quoeuq5 nfiero oato:oan pot maioz vnitatc adde'do.SBa noi piglia 
remo quelle parti anoi piu note e accomodated pero oico co glialrri alcuno effere 
pnmo: ede quello cbe folo oala vnita e uucrar 0: c no ba alrro nfiero: cbe itegralmeV 
te apoto lo part*. airro e oitto copofto: ed c qllo cbe oa alrro nfiero e mefurato: oue 
ronfierato.CriplfipziiniC6mo.3.7.i 1.1 j.e.i j.%c.€tipUi fccfidt./£6ino.4.cbct 
voilomefuraenfiera:e.8>cbeLz.e.4.£Li z.14.1 3.efunili:tutifdno uimnucricd folo cbe coftino er. oigno 1 articulo ( fecondo facro bufco in fuo algozifinoj 
ma pebe f tegralmcte palm nneri ft poffano mefurare e ptire:fecodo el fefo oe Cucu 
dc in fcptfo an c be. z 0. 3 0.40. cbe fono men arti culi.p eflb fono oitn copofiti. TSl- 
cuni fono nfieri cotra fe pi mi 1:1 fono qlh i como e ocrtoj cbe p fola vnita fono mef tu 
rati e nficran: come fono. 1 1 . 1 3 . 1 7. 1 9. cbe luno a lalrro ejlalrro a.luno e pmomec 
rcUqufi p alrerfi ftegrahrer oiuidi pot vtp3 ituct 1. Dc qli alcuno po ciTerc copofto e 
lalrro pzimo e luno lalrro po efler pzuno: com p la, 14. oct f (1 oimoftr*. £ rep lu j 



In the historical chapter, we have stated that the name of the author of the first book on bookkeep- 
ing was not definitely known. This is quite apparent from the different versions of the spelling of the 
name, which we find in the various books, and it becomes rather amusing to read how the various au- 
thors mentioning this name take delight in stating that the other fellow is wrong and they are right. Yet 
no two of them apparently give it alike. 

Brown in his history of accounting especially ridicules Ympyn's version, and with it all Brown him- 
self spells it Paciolo, with an "o" at the end, whereas all the authorities he quotes spell it with an "i" at 
the end, and he gives no explanation as to why he prefers the "o". Below we give a tabulation of the 
various spellings of these names by the various authors, each one being preceded by the authority from 
which we have taken the name. We have adhered to the spelling of Lucas Pacioli throughout, because we 
believe that to be the proper spelling, from the two best researchers who have written about him, namely, 
tlii- two Germans Jager and Kheil, and further, because we believe that the "li" in the old Italian was 
Latinized into "lus," and the "c" is the old Italian for the Latin "t" in most all cases where the Latin 
"t" is preceded and followed by a vowel. Furthermore, we have the author's own version of his own 
name, as we have seen elsewhere, in the only book that is published with his name in full, namely : ' ' Di- 
vina Proportione, " which was written in Latin and where he gives the Latin of his own name. While 
"Luca" is the Italian for the Latin "Lucas," we follow the author's own spelling in his Italian as well as 
Latin books, namely "Lucas": 


Summa de Arithmetics 
(author's original) 

Frater Lucas de Burgo Sancti Sepulchri 

(The above name appears first on the second line of page 19 of this book, which is the second page 
of the original; also on the third line, page 20 of this book, which is page 3 of the original; and in 
the third line of the second paragraph, page 22 of this book, being page 4 of the original — here, 
however, it is given in the genitive, hence Fratris Luce instead of Frater Lucas). 

La Scuola perfetta dei Mercanti (second edition 
of Summa de Arithmetica by same printers) 

Divina Proportione 
(author's original) 

Contemporary writers 

Jan Ympyn Christoffels 
(in his French book) 

Guido Brandaglia 

Ernst Ludwig Jager 

Carl Peter Kheil 

Beckmann's History 

Anderson's History 

Clitofonte Bellini 

(Trattato Elementare Teorico — Pratico di 
Ragionesia Generale) 

V. Vianello 

(Luca Paciolo nella Storia della Ragionesia) 

Pawell Ciompa 

(Grundrisse einer Oekonometrie) 

L. Gomberg 

(Grundri8s der Verrechnungswissenschaft) 

V. Gitti 

(De Computio — modern) 

Moritz Cantor 

(Geschichte der Mathematik) 

Sigismund Gunther 

(Geschichte der Mathematik) 

Catholic Encyclopedia 

Richard Brown 

John B. Geijsbeek 

Fra Paciolo di Borgo Santo Sepolcro 

Lucas Patiolus (the Latin of the Italian Pacioli) 

Lucas Pacciolus 

Frere Lucas de Bargo Sancty Sepulcry 

Luca Pacciolo 

Lucas Paccioli 

Fra Luca Pacioli di Borgo Sansepolero 

Lucas von Borgo 

Lucas von Borgo 

Luca Paciolo 

Luca Paciolo 

Luca Paciolo 

Luca Paciolo 

Fra Luca Pacciolo 



Lucas Pacioli 

Fra Luca Paciolo Da Borgo San Sepolchro 

Lucas Pacioli 


ir&.j&ttpotfflc pxpoxitelit* pont intcndcnCmo nullo fti dx Ml laudc fc arrribucfca .lafdo 
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| troucra dx fo«o numercpcfo c inrfura non fia conltituta commo c oino oa falamonr.nd fccondo 
OcUfap(cntia.bancocniq5pxociMi8fun»mu0opifcrinfdtfh'um tcrrcfmumq5 rcrum otfpofitionc 
fcmper babuit.bum o*ium moras: curfufq5 f^dcrum 7 planctarum omnium ojdinan'ffimc oifponc 
m.|^cquandx)erixrafinnabarfurfum.£tappendctxitfundameiuatcrre-.? lilwabar fotuco aqua' 
rum.£t mart tcrminum fuum cireundabat Icgcmqs ponena aquis nc tranfirent fines fuosicum to 
crat cuncra componca iLPXon fia cbi remcrariamcfc giudicado oica quel <\> c fin qua oc le JR»tlX' 
raand oifco:fo babiamo i pcrfuafioi a.£J .&.£\fta facto.illa quaKjiando 01 lo:oedc ognaltra Qcd' 
lcntc)non acadcua pcrconnumeranonc oc lurilita ficguc in ognf Oocrrina c piocica per eflc pcrfuadcr 
licinfiamnwrta afeguirfee abzaciartc. cEh folo a fuafionic apcrimcntooela nobilita c vrilita 
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crcrdm fonno o j ri. b i quaU la ocgna.U jCira oc d rbino pxnripalmciuc c picna.lafrio oc la dta oe 
Ogobio rife nrial membJO quale oc ogni traftco reluct, lafdo ^ofamBronc.Cagli c 
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b.b.rottopofhncliqnatoonmcraroftcndcrnicpcrcte^ c cbi con 

afai fua vit3 crerritandofempxinfu Ic famofc ficrc per aqua e per terra. &n auinegia.02a a ■ fcoma. 
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do fu dx in la a ruttc occurromc(commo babian ocductb)li fia fuffraga tojijc fcruentc.^on altro 
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ptaai a acrcfccrc t ronferuarc con turn oc la cafa fua etcclfa-.c oi quclla benwoli cadcrenri. Ualc. 

Ed fllufhiflimum •j&indpcm 6ui.Ubald um ttrbini Duccm flfconria fcrctrt : ac ouranria 
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5rubinaKc:7£Jcofl«mc. £piftola. 

Horn anOnaducrtcrcm JUulWffimc ^nccps imenfas oukedineeiac 

man'mae militates quae cr biis fdentijs alTcquimur: que grcci marbc 

mata noftri oifdplinas poffunt appdlarc: ft rcctc p:aricc ? X \xo:icc 

•nimooemandcntur»£onftifuinouumboc volume p» ingenij nofhl 

lcnuitafccoraponcrcman'mcinco2umTfum ac voCuptatcm ederc qui 

rirturam ^cTo affeai cttcm.$n quo (w cr fiibfcripto indice fadlc pcrfpl 

ri porcfiywriae oiucrfafq^ruf?mcrtcc£xomctric j&?opo:rioni8 cc 

^opoTtionalitan^partcaplurimumneccnariaditumin p?ari:tum in 

2HxoncacoQcgimu8:firmimmtfq5 ran'ombue 7canontbU8 pcrfccrinli 

mi8fubtcdmu8:ctanttqut87 recCntibus plxlofopbis cuuifcunq3p?a' 

tisindubitata fundamcnta.Quamob?cm nom'mmcritolib:i rindue. 

9nmma£rin>merice£feomctrie$?opo?rionum 7 i&jopo:tibnalitaruin Dicatur. tJbi ante omnia 

Ruduimus eraaam in buiufecmodi facultatibua p/arim tradcrc qijcmadrnodil er o:dinariiK ma cms 

fenc!>aud orffiailterinrucriliccr.'Ocruniquu temporalis nolm'8 verba p:op?ia nurlxfcoaob ran 

tatcm bonomm pxccpt02um apud latinos ferine intcriere: cupicne ego vfui cfTc bus qui veftre otrioi 

parcn r( non ignaruo fhlo degannon.£(oquto £iccroniano tc falientcm eloquenrie vnda; adiriopox 

tcrc)quid op vnufquifcy non Ixc capcretifi larine per fcripta cflcnt:poriu8 vernaculo fennonc Qtfcri/ 

pfimus.litttcraturc iraqs pcrins paritcr.£t imperitis bee commodum ct iocunditarem alfercnt:fi in 

cis fc crrrcucrint vaccnt qikbuHibct f acultaribus ct arribu b :ob per tractata que comunia vnicuiq; vv 

denrur ? optime applican poiTe. £c pnmo quia non oico ooctue: fed multo minus cp mediocriter 

cruditue cfhqui non pcrfpicuc vtdcat quantum bcrcant quantumq3 ncccflaria ftnt, aitrologiecuiua 

pimdpcB Ixic r em peltate vigent auunculus tuns pnnccpa 0tauianua: vna cum Kcucrendimmo fori 

fimp;omj £pifcopo f^aulo mindeburgenu quoe in omnibua (emper admiro: 7 vencro; : quo?umq$ 

txacua iudiC4J9 boc ipfum opus non uumerito caritatc fabicdmue; vt que bene fcripta Qnt appzobcut 


©fth'ndfo fata Capffulom tertium. 4 8 

tfo alq.ffata ltnca.q Jt-cacetfo ocf triangolo.q b d.nclquale menaro rah' equediftart; 
ttal.i k.fira.f r.equale a la linca.iK.percbecqucdifrance e la linca.f tab c4> k.c fia.r 
bogualcal.f U il criangolo.q i f.e.f r Monno fimili.£>nde fc craremo.r k.doc.if.ocl.k b. ri- 
marranno.b r.;.e pcrdx eglic/cofcb f.cofi.f i.aWq. &ndc mulciplicando.r f.pcr.f i. c 

£ innuna fpcrafipigfiavH pontooalqoalc.4.rcttc Imccfimcnuio tnfra=lo:o 
iguali c vadino ala fuperfide oc la fpcra e quelle lince no fieno favna fuperfide 
piana quel porno fia il cencro oe la fpera. tJerbi gran'a fta la fpera.a b.c in qlla 
fia il pouro.j;. t»alq ualc ficno menatt. 4.1 incc infra lo;o igualf.c, b.£ g.$ d.( ex no 
ficnno li ponri.b.g.d»e.muna fuperfide pfar a oieo il ponco.c,.elfere centro oe la oina'fpcra e 
quefto euidentcmente appare e £o nona bifogno oe oimonftrarionc. 

CJando fira nienato oal poncb oel capo oognf piramidc colonnalc al cerro §la 
bafa fua pcrpcndiculare fopja la fua bafa:alo:a le It'ncc recce dx fonno menace 
oal porno ocl capo fuo al cercQio concenenfe la fuperfide oc la fua bafa fonno t 
J fra low iguali.£ (a multiplier toe buna oi quelle linec dx fonno menace oal ca> 
do \d:o al cerd?lo conccncncc lafua bafatne la mica od ccr&io conceuente la oitca bafa<£ la 
rca oc la fupcrfidc oc oicta piramidc colonnalc verbt grankna la piramidc eofonnalca bg 
d.odaquale la fua fomica fia -a. e (a fua bafa fia il drculo.b g d.ocl quale fia il cencro.c.£ (a li 
rca .a conogonalmcncc fia ricca fop?a il piano oet ccr&iob g d.c oal ponco.a.ala linca dp 
omfcrcnriale conccncncc il drculo.b g d.oe (a bafa oc la oaca piramide oi colonna fc menf 
nioltc lincc.a b.a g,a d.oico cercametc le rcrcca b.a g.a d .infra I loio cficre igu a I i.% a.pua me 
tit'fc oal cencro.c.le rcrice b.c g.e d-dx fonno cuccc iguali infra I020 j6 perebca e.e pcrpen 
diculare fopza il piano ocf d.fienno gliangoli-at b.a eg.a ! e dretn.iQnde li 1 cria 
goli foiino c: toaonu.a e b.a c g.a c d .e (>a no le bafe iguali clx fonno.c b.c g.c d x ilia tea c.e 
commune, ©ndc li larifubccndenri a gliangolirccri d?c fonno.a b.a : g.a d.fonnotnfra lojo 
iguali.£pcr quefto e manifefro dx time le ret ce lince dx fi poflbno menare oal.a.ala linea 
drcunfcrcnte.b g d-cflere iguali a la linca.a b. 

0cou oico clx tnnlriplica to. a b.ncla mir3 8c la line,a drcu nferen tc.b g d. fara 
(area oe la fupcrfidc oc la pframide:doe larea oifuoza oe la fupcrfidc.a b g 
quale fupcrfidc c oal drculo oc la bafa.b g d.inn'no ala fua fummita .£ fc no fof 
fc cod. Blo?a fia la mul dpi ica tide oc la linca . a b r oc (a mica ocl drculo.b 
gtoeominoxquclfa,dxfadalareaoc la fupcrfidc oico dx'quella.quanrica dx fe mul/ 
n'plica per .a b.a fare larca oe (a fupcrfidc fua m 1 1 1 :c oucr m agio:c oe la mica oc la linea cir 
cuferenccb g d.£ fia fe quanrica.f te ilooppio oel.i «j.e ptu dxl cerd?io.b g d . .adonca fa> 
ro fopra il cercbib.b g d.vna- figura recti linea bauence e lan'e gliangoli igualieonccncnte 
qucllo:c ficnno li lati infkmi agi'onri meno dx lo ooppio ocl.i $.dx fia la figura.l k t.£ me 
tierola linear b.laqual<c pcrpcndiculare fopw la linca.b' qucfto modo.flK>eiicro la li 
nea.e c.ficn no (i quad ran oc le littece b.?.b t.igu .ili al quadraco oc la linea .c ce commune a 
turn' fia il quadraco oe la pcrpcndiculare. a e.firanno li q n ad rati oc (e linece b.c-b a. ^jgua' 
li al quadraco oe la linea.c ce communamencefagionga il quadrato oc la pcrpciidicularca 
cfienno li quadrate le lincca ex b-b ccioc li quadrari oc le linee.a bx.b ciguali al qua' 
draco.a c.ondc langolo.a b t.e retco.^crpcndicularcc adonca la linca.a b.fop?a la liuca.t ft. 
^imflmence fimoftra lalinea^ g.etTcrc pcrpcndiculare fop.'a.k t.e.a d.fopw lalinea;tl. £ 
pcrdx le rectca b^ g.a d.fonno infra lo:o iguali virf a oc la mulciplicacione duna oi quel- 
le eommo od^ la mt'ta oc lari ocl criangolo.c k Uembado oucr area oe la fupcrfidc oc 
la piramidca c k l.magi'ox oc la fuperfide oc la piramidca b g d.condofia cofa cbc (a con 
tcnga quellatdoc quello cbc inftal ccrcbio.b g d.c il ponco.a.e la mica oclan' ocl criangolo 
•t k l.e minox cbc la qnanrita.ic,. Sdonca gia fo la mulciplicacione oe la linca.a b.qncllo S 
e meno oe la linca.i ^.e magiox oe la fupcrfidc oc la piramida oi colonna dx c impoflibi • 
k.fldonca non ne potTibde dx la mulciplicarione oe la linca.a la linca dx fia magib' 
re oc la miCa od d.fia lembado oucr conrinencia oe la fupcrficic.a b g d. ilnco- 
ra pozjola linca.i^.miox oe la mica oe la rircufcrcntia ocl drculo.b g d.c fe poffibilec cr> dl 
outco.a b.i.icnegucg3larcaoclafupficiedlapiramidc.abgd.^ mulnplicarcadocad la 
. j.& la cfrcfiferctia ol drculo.b g d.fara la fugfi'.oua mtox piramide 6 la piramidca b g d. 

Birtiiutio qiiinf a .Trad atns primus. 6 7 

rtxm:c pantndorordipcr.20.nciK JMScrcbclalira S-P<>»« fame 
o:o:fi part ano per (a valuta oc quel 0:0 occurrence: fecondo It luogbi.£ quelle cfe auan(a 
oc I dpartendoii in . 1 2 .fonno d.£ no cbe MM oc li fcpa ntritn.2 o.fono P.£cio dx aua> 
ca'oc Ic I partite in (a valuta oc lo:o occurrcnte fonno. #.£t fie in ccrcna wfoirrcndo: ver 
bigraru.i&oniamodx tu babiarcdurc ale magio:ivalutcouer in agiori monccc quc/ta $ 
tita oc piaolccioc picioli nu tncro.96) ]$.£> ico cix prima facet commo fdti oi fop. J in li pc 
iio:dinamcnfcrcdueendop?unaalaunmediatamonctafcqucntc:quaIcccIfo(doiti qut' 
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fkf6uoj.ocvaluta:cauan^a.9.clxfon.9.foidi.£poipcrfarnco:o.-^anirai Ic S-pcr la 
valuta ocl oitto ;o a $ .£ virratte lo:o.£ quell dx auancara fir j $ . £omo fc vole lie far 
oucii quail in qucfto baucmo potto valcre 8.7.luno.Hc oittc %. venute pam'rai per .7. nc 
ucn.f 7-£ fan ouc\c auanc,a.}.dx fon %.£>i dx oc primo ad vlrimuin reducendo li oicri pi 
doliala magioz inonoa firannoouc^J-i^-d'' ^ «>fi rcgeratc in wttcvolutc meno 
rurcduccndolc ale magion: vt in ilta. 

Zcrrium notandum.£adcm via p:occdcns. 
Oello dx baWamo octto oeli pefi c monct3:aneo:a fc babia a intcderc oc le cp 
tita dx vadano a numero:e andx a mcfura fia colma: longaic rafa fecodo lo - 
ro ing02dita:fi commo oefop?a oicemmo.£R>eglio:c pegio:e longoe co:to:e i 
go:do oiucrfamente fc atendano:fecondo le quaiutta: vt fup» oedarauimue. 
$3idx bauendo tu octaui oc b:acdo oc panno numero.46 J9^. oc panni a votcrli rcdu 
it a canncla qual communiter fc tien bzaccia^-l^rirna pardrai oitri octaui per. 2 . e virrai 
tc quartc:per dx fempx in ogni quarita.2 .octaui ranno.^.c lo remancte fira octauo. £ poi 
Ic quarte parrirai dcm* virratte breccia per dx.4«fanno b?accio./ .£ lauanco fira quar> 
tc.£ poi litaacd partirai pcr.4.c virratte cance lauanco firan teaccia. Si cotnmo baueflc 
M octaui pxdirriparrili in.2.ncuen.2$297.£fon quarti. £ auan^a. 1 .dx e.i .octauo . £poi 
parti.2j297-Ptr.4.evuTannt.c824.£ fonno toacda caua^a.ixlxc^ 3 .quarta>£poi par 
rili bMcria fKr.4-ncucn.i 45"6.e fonno canoc:c auanp nulla dx fon:nuliob:aceio.£>idx 
oe pnmo adulrimum la oitta reducttone fa cannc.i 4tf bzacda quarte. 1 .oaaui. 1 . £ tu i 
cunt alrr c fi'initi per te farai it. 

fiuartum notandum oc carattcribus purine lx* in opert vfiratw. 
L f Mai j £fticro c ancoja oa norarc qucllo itnpo:tino li earartcri per noi m qucftoper3 

\M7A I *^ an ac *° ^ lo?0 aDt> 2euiaturc $ m lntc ^ c PC cl>1 ' c Scr a baucngadx moln per 

|RV3] le px>pofte qucfhbni per fc ftefii' le ap:cnditio.jOon oimanco piu fonno qudli 
J 01 poeapjarieaCperliqualipnneipalmentc qucfto Irtwofi fa )dxnon fonno 

qudli dx intcndano.£ impero qui fequente mm' Itaratteri: c abxuiature dx per noi cd' 
munamente in qucfto Iib:o fe vfaranno:ocd?iararemo:fi in larte menoxouer mercatona: 
commo in arte magioxtoucr algebraic qualipiu per4ipdi:e monctc-.c mefurerdx f> al' 
rro fonno trouari:actpto in algeb?a cbe per fo2(,aCoifferenriecaufa)fo bifogno trouare. 
jfeer dx non fi pottc a tutte quanrita mcttcr nome.Jdeo ic. 

Chicfticaratterie abxuiature commo vedi. aicuni fonno dx piu oc vna cofa 
rtpxfcnrano.^erodxale volte pefo:t ale volte valuta oimonetcSi commo 
qucfto $.dx wei lira a valuta oc monaa:dx fintende foldi.2o.£ libra a pcfo 
dx fintende oncc.i 2.c cofi quefta.p.dx oid.piu. pirioli. pcftc .picdi.'j&cr la q( 
cc^mnelliluogbioouelerroucraipamoingegnodjurocognofecrai'qualcoe luno oc 
quelti tc repxfcntara-.fecondod fuon oc la msreria dx life cofinra.findc fra le vslutc .p. 
ocnota picioli. fra mefure piedi.^ra quanrit3 oc panni pcfta . Jn operatibne oc algebra 
piu:e cofioc riafcuna oc laltrc:fecondo li led?ie le materie re repxfentarano luna vc le CO' 
fe oittc qui al fuo incontro ftdx tu per te vdni lo ingegno tuo:d qual bifogna fia fupple/ 
mcntoaqudloebio mancanc. Quia fupplcrio fit loco oefecrue. i&erdxnoncpofTibfle 
mai ponac tutto qucllo dx alarre fc ricerca: fi com mo c manifefto a qucllidx oi componc 
r tvolumif e odetrano.Jurtafllud.bidte piendes non omnia poflumue omnee:c cofi fa/ 
rai odt-fequenndx fon per algebza. 

Jdcni notadum oc carartenbus a(gcb?atid8.| 
£r loper3rt oc lartc HMgtot.ptU oal vulgo la regola oc la cofa oucr algcbM 
c amucabala feruarnno noi in qucfto le qui oa la to atxeuururc oucr caratten: 

« P» 

buc. oucati. 
f . €»oldo. fotdi. 
p. i&idolo4)idoli. pcfta. 
qAquarri.qp .cp J $'. 
Oct. oaauo. octaui. 
b. £>ncio. bMri. 
m.jfd^ina. mine. meno. 

m'. flftarca. m'.marcb. 
g*. grane. gram". 
g°. 0rofTi. groflbni. 
of. 36olognino.bolognin 


flf>c3re. multiplicare. 
OP»cato. mulnplicato. 
bx. oifferenne. 




•gr.^.ce. ccnfo. 


•p. $*. cc. ce. ccnfo occenfo, 

•p. 0*. p .^. pa'mo relate 

•51. 7 J . cc. cu. ccnfo occubo t an/ 

dx cubo occenfo. 
•£. s*. 2 - r: fecundo rclato. 
•£. 9'. cc. cc. cc. cenfodecenfo oc 


•gr. 1 o*. cu. cu. cubo occubo . 
•£. 1 1*. cc. p°.r! ccnfo oe primo 

ipr. 12*. j^.rfterco relate*. 
■y. 1 ;*. cu. ce. cc. cubodecenfo 

occenfo.fiuOi oir cconucrfo. 
*£. 1 4 J -4°- rT quarto rclato. 
•gf . 1 j J . cc. 2 . rt ccnfo oc fedta' 

do rclato. 
-$. i6 a ,cu.p°. rtcubo oc primo 


ifc. 1 1 1 . cc. cc. cenfodeccfo 
"occenfo occenfo. 
•£. 1 s 3 . 5°. r! qufoto rclato. 
•jg. 1 9 J - cubo occenfo 

oe cubo. ucrccfo cubo cubo. 
ip.2o J . 6°. rfferto rclato. 
-jz> 2 1 "• ce. cc.p°. rt ccnfo oeccTo 
"oe p:i'mo rclato. 
•PC. 22 a .cu.a,°r:cubo oefedort 
TJT. 2 5 J . cc ;*r! ccnfo oc tcrc,o r! 
•5c. 2 4 a . 7 r p . fcptiino rclato. 
jc. 2 s'. cubo oecefo 

occoifo oeccfo. Ouer ccnfo oc 

cubo vecenfo oeccfo. Oucr ccn 

fo occenfo occenfo oe cubo. 
(Que oia idem important. 
#. 26 s . 8°. r".octauo relate 
*£. 2 7 J . cc, 4 . r°. ccnfo oe quar/ 

to rclato. 
•$r. 28 a . cu. cu. cu. cubo occubo 

•5:. 2 9'. ce. ce. 2 °.r°. cenfo oeccfo 

oe fecundo rclato. 
•$Z;o 3 r°.nonordato. 

tf . "Radio. 


"gf v. TRadid vniuerfalc. ©ucr 

radio legata. £>uoioire radio 

ij? cu. TRadid cuba. 
qp 1 . quantita. 

©iftincfio fctte ZnctitiiQpiimue. 

fi commoanco:a ncUrtrttri uoftri quatro volmni oc fnmli oifdplinc per uoicopflarifoauc' 
mo rfati:doc in qucllo dx alt gioueni oc perofda in timlai nel.i wb.filcl quale non coo 
tauta copiofitafe rrarto.£andx inqudlodxa can nd.1481 .oecafipiufuaUcfo?ri com 
ppnemo.£ andx in qucllo (foe nel.i 47o.ocri$mo alt noltri releuati oifcipulifcr £>art°< 
francefco c paulo fratdliocrdpiafioa la iudeca:ocgni mcrcotautt in rincgiaifiglluoli gi« 
oc fcr Antonio. iSotto la cui omfca patcrna cfratcrna i k» propria cafa mc rdcuai.£ a (i 
mill* fdentie fotto la oifdplina oe mifcr bomeneco teagadino It in vinegia oa la excclfa ft 
gnoria-lcctox oc ogni fcicria publico oeputataOual fo imediare fucceflb?e:al perfpfcacif' 
fimo c t^° ooaoze-.e oifan dftorco canonico maeftro paulo oa la pergola fuo pxcepto/ 
re.£o:aalui:alp2cfcnteel fltognfficoctejimioooctee mifcr Antonio comaro noftro 
condifcipulo:fotto la ocarina oel oitto b?3gadino.£ quefto quando erauamo ai fccolo 
£E>aoa poi dx labito indegnamante oel ferapbyco fan francefco eje votoptgliamo:p ol> 
uerfi paeft ce conuenuto andareperegrinando.£ al pxfeme 4 1 perofda per publico* me 
lu memo a fauffanon comuna:a fimili faculta d rerrouiamo.£ fcmp:e g o:dine oe !i noltrt 
lRcucrcdip^ fraw 
ccfco fafone oa bxfcia:co::endoglianni oel nortro kgnox Jefu £l«ifto. 1 4S7.lanno.4 n . 
oel pontificato oel (ancrilTimo in cbnfto.p.imiocchb octauo. 
»gq lr\a to:nando al pzopofico oeli caratten quelK fono marie in algebw .£lxi 
ucHgadxminftnicmnjIpon'apJoccdcrenonoimenoquatpal pzopofiio no/ 
ftro in queftotli trenta gradiafcendam' per vi&5 ct modum algctee ct almuca' 
bala.l^eftrcftauranotU0toppofinoni9fonn6baltonri.£fcpur tu put ne 
vowai per te ftcflfo gradarij po::ai fo:marne.£ quefli fonno-ltgradi quafi modcrnametc 
cofi noiati bauenga clx m mtte le cofc li nomi-fieno a?plflcito.£ fc codo qualdx finnliradi 
ne materiale iporti fi comma oi fop?a nclla oiftincnbne.2- , .ncl trattato.i:alarriculo.9 .oc/ 
cl?iarammo.£ cofi ancoza fonno a plao'to tuttili caratten quali noi qui babiamo pofti D 
cbc rantetcrrc tantc Wanie.3urta illud tot capita tot renfus.£t vcllc fuo cuiqs ciqucftoci' 
co ado tu imperitonon credeftc necc(!ttaflero.£)e li quali poi in algcbza rratrado fo^narc 
mo I020 hbzetri fi commo in quefto al fuo luogo vederai. £ quelle figure oenansc poile 
geb:a fecondo li arabi p^imrinucntoa oe fi facte pzadcbeopcratiue.flfba oel numero b&t 
nere apxffo U" greo fox>n fecondo yfido2octymologiarum;e mold altri ^loagoa el pHo 
e oa poi lui /5u:omaco:oal qual el piu oe la fua aritbmcrica 36oe.p2Cfc. £ a p:eflb lilatifit 
fo»n pjima Bpuleo c poi 3&oce oe lageometria foronoliegypnj ab in vndationeUili w 
ipfe ibidem indudt.^dco ipfum lege qui oprimc oe buiufmodi materia iplerifq3 Ions nrat' 
tat qucm pluriesmemini mc legifle vadc 1 tu fee finulitcr 7 proderittibi u. 

Difhnaio fcrta oe p^po«ionibue 1 pwpo^ibrtalitanbua.Z' p?imua. 

£inuno dx oi nu men alciuw cofa ba fenpto fempx anco» in 
ft'cmi co qlli oc mrfurc al quJto ba tractato:c i cdpagnla oefle 
oel coinun I02 vefttmcto oitto^pojtione.£ q'fto fia maniftfto 
fc be fi leggi oimolnpljy I02 lib2i:oemadxmandx foculta co 
pibti.£6mo oe£ucudc mc^arenfe:3U cuioga femp?crotri li 
antid>ig»nnafii:dococ ftoyo:academici:peripatenci: platoni' 
d tcanc oioegna oifdplina madxmariea tlluflrari.^dla q 
Ic lui oe aritbmencairioe oe numcrttratrandoiancori oe gee 
mctria:rioc oe imfurc largamcte oiffcecon quelle a giofe (co/ 
mo e oitto^el loz comun vclo oitto ( pjx>:tioc.'a ndc oiuifc viv 
ta opa i.i *.lib2i ii qli.i cfono oe gcometria:doc p°. 
\4».6°. 1 1 *. 1 2 . 1 ;! 1 4 . 1 ?.£ quatro fonno oe aritbmcrica 


pndpfllmete:cioe.7".*°«9 . 1 o°.e vno(a turn* qfti cpetdoc el qnto")fo oc la< ql 
(como fc oira)cofi fc afpecta al mb:como ala mefura.£>d feuen'no jBoerio acoja feben N 
guarda i (a fua antbmctica-.troueraffe Ic fo^eoe gcometriaie andx particulare mftidc oc rixbitanco?a oegno pBo(ocl ql molto JGoetio erponcdo £ucfidc (a mc/ 
rioncmariino nel cJnto)pfucopc oiffufameteo lunae oilaltra ifiemico fcppoftfonf trat £iinaofis(iuolooe5ofepbCod qual clcampaiio erponcdo el quito oe £udidc i% 


©irtinrtio fata Zfracf atoa quarfue 






fl yyg J nguBparttolartoJ I fi Siemens [j (GSM £55 

IWrfafl fl OuaiiruDh I I \ fl S«pffWp«l fl fi Buptrquadrfparfl / \ ft auadruptf 


Q , **«* (] 

* h 0CPMNI 1 






ft fir in ififutum fit vto'mie fpedcbue.^iie ofa i fin 
gula fup:a Zbcoikc * qfcaf ice figillarim etcmpla 
nicr ocdarata font .©uarusjvirce er fcqucntibua 
cocluTtonibiie icafibue maiufeftclirtcratia ? vulr 
S^ribus apparent, Wltibi. Jdcoic. 







Chapter 1. "Where there is no order there is confusion." 

2. "Every action is determined by the end in view." 

3. ' ' Defining diligently and truthf idly so that truth will always guide you. ' ' 

4. ' ' More bridges are necessary for a good merchant than a lawyer can make. ' ' 

' ' The merchant is like a rooster, which of all the animals is the most alert, and in winter and 
summer keeps his night vigils and never rests." 

"Also it is said that the head of the merchant has a hundred eyes and still they are not suf- 
ficient for all he has to say or do. ' ' 

' ' The law helps those that are awake — not those that sleep. ' ' 

"Dante says: 

'My son, it behooves that you quit your laziness. 

God promised the crown to the watchful ones. 
He who lies on feathers or under cover will never amount to anything. Such a one leaves on 

this earth the same trace as the smoke in the air or foam on the water'." 

"Work should not seem to yon strange for Mars never granted a victory to those that spent 
their time resting." 

A sage said to the lazy man to take the ant as an example. 

Apostle Paul says that no one will be worthy of the crown except he who shall fight valiantly 
for it. 

Remember God and your neighbor. 

Attend religious meditation every morning, for through this you will never lose your way. 

By being charitable you will not lose your riches. 

The Saviour in the book of St. Matthew admonishes, "Seek you Christians first the Kingdom 
of God and then the other temporal and spiritual things you will easily obtain." 

18 and 31 Who does nothing makes no mistakes ; who makes no mistakes learns nothing. 

22 Officials do not bother about details. 

23 Accounts are nothing else than the expressions in writing of the arrangement of his affairs. 

which the merchant keeps in his mind. 

If you are in business and do not know all about it, your money will go like flies, that is, you 
will lose it. 

29 Books should be closed each year, especially in partnership because frequent accounting 
makes for long friendship. 

33 If the losses are in excess of the gains — from which state of affairs may God keep every one 
who really lives as a good Christian. 

35 If you do not put the place and date on a letter, you will be made fun of, because we say the 
letter which does not bear the date was written during the night, and the letter which does 
not bear the place we say that it was written in the other world and not in this one. 


jfto f.vnalrro mcttc.2o.contra.: 7.Pimandafc cbi cbc 
uanragio c quanto p c. f% cofi pjmia uedi quanto mcritaria.: o.dc fcoarro a>^^lxbara.:o.nfrrabaucr.;o.ooiicfliicdi d>c non 
ba dcbito feontro babiando.i 7 o: uedi dx (i mancadx li madxra 03.2 7.a.;o. 
cbc fonvucdi cbc ptc fon dc fuo capital cbc c. ■ o.dx fon li.^.e tato ctoc oi oano n I fo ca 
pit ale refpecto a laltro.oonca arguefci clx laltro babia uatagio U.^VdcI fuo capitate c& uol 
dir.i ?.per.c^dx ft troua andx aquclto modo dicendo colui mettendo. 1 o.tiraria 1 f.fc me/ 
ie<Tc. 1 oo.dx tirarauc opera riraria 1 jo.qual falua.-iboi p laltro oirai 7-ebc uo- 
ra.i oo.dx uirra a uolerc.i ;?.cr>nedidxinancodx.ifo.dclp°.fidxcb!xfi]atagio. 9 fjge 
i^to p c'.abbari.i ;f.dc.ifo.rcfta.i f.c tato ebbe dimo 1 tuttopcr bauer mcffo.ioo.cioelxiuc 
darmo tal parte qual fotu <.dci oo.dx fon li £m fup:a la'rro auaitfo p u clx lui.t \.m tut' 
co clx fon li.,?.piirdc.ioo.fuocflpitale:fidxauantaaio.i?.p.c°.fattaper dxfcinp tal pap 
te quale pdc Inno qlla medefima pre ucne a narc lottro e cofi i baram. 

it auol a del iQuadcrno. 
Dc quelle co r e cbcp:incipalmctcfono ncccflfaric al ucro mcrorantetc oe fo?dinc a faperc K 

nerc bene vn quadcrno co lofuo c,o:nalc ir. uenctia:e ancbe p. altro luogo. a'.i 
be la prima ptc principal oe qucltotractato data inucntario:c dx cofa fia inucntario:e co 

me fra mcrcatanti fi l?3bia a fare. ca'.i 

f o:\ni crcmplarcico ruttc fue folennita f lo inuctario requifite. ca*. \ 

Grrtiflima ero:tarionc:c falutifcri document!' al bon mercatautcpfincti. ca'.4 

bela. 1 J .pre pM'ncipale Del p:cfetc tractato ditta dilpouccomc lafabbia a itcndere:e f cbc co 

filkreirca at rrafico.c dc (i. Uib:i principal! del cojpo mercanrefco. ca*.? 

t>d p'Uilw ditto memoriale ouer fquartafoblio uadxtta qllo cbc fc iteda:c cdmoi ciTo 

fe babia a fcriucrac per dii. ca*.6 

bcl mo como t molri locbi fi Ixiblo autcticare tutri li lib'. mcrcatcfcbi:e p cbe:c da cbi.c.7 
£6mo fc debino oittarc Ic ptitc I Ditto memoziale co ecepli. ea°.8 

be ii nouc modi p li quali com una mere (i coftuma fra li mcrcatanti copazarcc die menitie 

quali d piu de Ic uoltcdr nccclfita 3 tcoo fi cop:ano. ca°.<? 

bcl fccondolib:o principal mcrcanrcfco Ditto giornaletqucl clxl (iaceommefcdcbiaoi 

fponere o:diratamcnte. ca*. 1 o 

bcli ooi termini ncl ditto giomale vfitati inariinc i veneria-.uwo ditto fitr. laltro ditto. & 



The following is a schedule showing comparatively the contents of the chapters of Pacioli, Manzoni, 
Pietra and Ympyn, so that the reader may have a quick perception of the extent to which Manzoni, Pietra 
and Ympyn have followed Pacioli. Only the most important items are given. Carefully note the coin- 
cidence that even the order in which the chapter is given practically remains unchanged from that of 


The things a merchant needs and description of sys- 
tem of keeping a journal and a ledger 

Description of an inventory, movables, immovables, 
accounts receivable, accounts payable 

Sample of an inventory in full detail by lots 

Useful instruction to a merchant 

Introduction to second part of the treatise covering 
' ' Disposition ' ' 

Description, etc., of the day book 

The marking of the books and the use of the cross 
on them 

Authentication of books by notaries 

Sample entry for the day book 

Nine methods of purchasing goods, as many for selling 

Description of the journal 

The two terms "Per" and "A" and the two little 
lines // 

The term ' ' Cash ' ' 

The term "Capital" 

Samples of journal entries 

One kind of money in amount column 

Line under each entry and through money column, 
diagonal line through day book entry when jour- 
nalized, or check off at beginning or end of entry 

The Ledger 

The Index 

Four lines for money, one for ledger pages, two for 

Posting from journal to ledger 

Two diagonal lines, one on left and one on right, when 
entry is posted 

Posting figures one above other, divided by a little line 

The place for the date 

Year in Roman figures 

Change in year between entries 

In personal account more detail required 

Spacing of ledger to save transfer 


Further instruction about merchandise entries in the 







Vol. 1/1 




Vol. 1/2 




Vol. 1/3 



Vol. 1/4 





Vol. 1/5 






Vol. 1/7 





Vol. 1/11 



Vol. 1/8 




Vol. 1/10 




Vol. 1/9 




Vol. T/9 




Vol. 1/12 



Vol. 1/12 




Vol. 1/12 




Vol. II/l 




Vol. 1/11 




Vol. II/l 



Vol. 1 1/5 




Vol. II/6 


Vol. II/7 




Vol. 1/11 



Vol. II/2 




Vol. 1/11 



Vol. II/4 


Vol. 1/12 




Vol. 1/11 




Vol. 1/12 



Bifhnrtio nona TnctatoQ.xi'.&c fcrtpturia. i 9 g 

e qudTo dx per lo?o fc babis 3 ocnorarc. ca*. 1 1 

bd modo a fjper poncrc t oitrare k pttrtc i lo gfom jIc od oarc c oc lancre co molr i ercm 

pli:eot'ltdoi3ltnrcrminindquadcrnouru3ri(uno octtocalfcc lalrro caucdalcic quelle 

dx per cfli fc babto inrendcre. ca°. 1 : 

bd rcr<;o 7 vltimo libx) pjinopalc merc3ntdco ocrto cl qderno commo oebbe cfTcr farco c 

od (110 Jlr'dbcto como fc oebbia o;dinarc vgniolo e oopio. ca*.i j 

bd mo 3 po.Tjre If prite od gioaiale i qderno:c p dx de pna f giomalc fc tic faria ooi in q 

dcmo:coclmodoa rxpcnnarclcparntcin guwnalccdcliooinumcnDlccam oclqua 

dcrnodx in Ic fuc marginc fi ponc:c p dx. ca". 1 4 

Del mo a fapc oirtarc k prite oc la calTa c caucdalc nd quadcrno i oarc c baucre :c od mile 

fi'mo dx 01 (op:a nd p: incipio oc la carta a lanrieo fi metre in ciToic oe la fua mut ationcx 

dd copnr li fpacij oc Ic carti fcoo Ic prirc plccolc c gradi fcoo cl bifogno 6 Ic fae edeca. 1 5 
Como E debiuo oirrare Ic partite oc le mcrcannc dx p inucntario altro modo lomo fc n 

rrouamel quadcrno in oarc c in baucre. ca°.i 6 

bd modo a rener como con li officii pupliri:c per dx:c dc (a camera odimpxfhtti in vcne 

fia dx fc goucrna per ria oc fcrticn. ca? 1 7 

/Commo fc oebia tener cohro conloftlao oc (a meffetaria in ucneria e od oitrare Ic fuc par' 

tire in mcmorialcgiornalcic qdcrnoic anco:3 oe limpxfh'. > ca°. 1 8. 

bd modo a fapere not arc e oitrare rna pru a 6 robba cop ata a cotiriii r urn. - .(i libri doc me 

mo:ialc:gio:nalc:c quadcrno: c come a pre cdriri e pte tepo a( medefimo £apitolo. 
Commo fc ocbia o:dinarc el pagamento dx baucflc a fare per ottta e ba ncbo dtferipta ne 

li roi libri principals ea°. 1 9 

be le ptirc famofc e priculari ntl maneggto traficatc como fdno baratti copagnie iLcbmo 

k fc babbino afcttarc c o:dinarc ne li libri mercarefebite p:ima oc li baratti femplici copo 

fli c col upo co apti erepji oe turn i mcmoriale:giojnale e qd crn 0. ca c .2o 

be (jlrra panirta famofa oirta £ompagnic:commo fe oebino o:dinarc:c dittare in rum li 

modi ocurrenti in ciafcunolib:o. ca".2 1 . 

&c fo.'dinc oc le prite ocdafcuua fpefa:como oc cafa o?dinaric:frraordinaric:e oi mcrcan 

ria: fabrij oc ganjoni c facrori como fabino a fcriuerc:c oitrare neli hbzi. ca°.2 2 

be !o:dinc c mo a fag tener vn coto oc botega in ma mano adalrri rccdmaud ara e como 

fcocbino nc It lilvi autcnrid'dd parronc c aiidx in qucllidc botega fepararamentc fcrv 

ucrcc oitrare. ca".:; 

£dmo fe babino a fcttarc nd giomale c qderno le prite oc (i bacbi oc fcritta:eqli fe inridi' 

no e oouc ne tone de cabiiro co lo:o fiando mercarantc-.e ru co alm'quado folic bicbicri: 

e oc Ic quictaccdx g licabififanno:c p dx fe nefacia ooi oe medefimo tcnox. ca°.24 
be vnaltra parrita cbe ale uolte fe'col tuma nd qderno tenere oetta entrata e tifdta e alcuolt c 

fencfa lib:o parncularc.e per dx. ca 8 .2 $ 

Como (e babin afcttarc nd i lib:i (e pntc de li uiaggft fua mano:e qlle de li uiaggi recoma 

dan:c comooc nccdHra oe tali nafcono ooi quaderm'. ca?26 

be unalrraptita famofa Dicta p;oeoannooueroauanc.teddauano':eommo lafabia a tc 

ncrc ncl quadernoie p dx ella non fi merra nd gio?nalc como Ic aftre ptitc. ca J .2 7 
Como fc oebino reportare in ancr le prite od quaderno:quando folTeropwie:e i dx luogo 

fabbi a portarc el rcfto:ado no fia pxfa'maliria nd quadcrno. ca".2 8 

bel modo a Paper in u tare cl mtlefimo nd quadcrno fra le prite cbe a la gio;nata acafcano: 

quando ognianno non fi faldaffc li libn. ca'i 9 

Com mo fc debia leuare vn conto al debirore cbe lo oomandafTetc ancora al fu pair one fi 

ondo faaox c comeffo dc tutta la amimlrrarioc dc le robbe. ca'.jo 

bd modo e ordinc a faper rcrracrare ucroiftoznare una piu parritetcbe p error baucilc 

poftcin alrro luogo dx douefftro andarc como aduenc p fmcmozagt'nc. rijM 

Commo fe debia fare d bflando od lib:o c c\d modo a rcpoHare vn libro in laltrorcioc d q 

dcrno vcd?io nd qderno nuouo e del modo a ponrario con lo fuo giornalc c mcmo:ialc c 

alrri fcontri detro e oifuo? od ditto quadcrno. , ca ? 2 

bd modo c o:dinc a fcriuerclc facende dx occurreffcro nel tempo dx fi fa cl Wlancioiiioc 

dx ft faldano li lib?t c commo nch li libri ucd?t non fi debiafcriuerc neinnouarc cola alcu 
nam ditto rempote la cagione per dx. •'•M 



About the entries in accounts with public officials and 
banks _ 

Transactions with the market master, and sales for 
cash or on time with brokers' commissions 

Transfer of money through an order on another firm 
or a bank 

Trades and exchanges, and their book entries 

Joint venture accounts and trades 

General expenses, commissions, and salaries, income 
and expenses, profit and loss 

Branch stores or houses 

The bank or private draft and their duplicate receipt. 
A separate book for income and expenses 

A separate ledger and journal when traveling with 
goods _. 

Profit and loss 

Why these entries do not go through the journal 

Transfer of an account to another page in the ledger 
(difference only) ; not entered in journal 

The change in the year between entries in the ledger... 

The preparation of a statement of account for cus- 

Correction of an error in posting 

Balancing of the ledger and transfer to a new ledger.. 

Checking with dots 

Checking with other marks - 

What to do with new entries during period of closing 
ledger _ 

The balancing of all accounts 

Profit and loss account 

Final closing of the profit and loss into capital 

The trial balance and balance account 

Letters and documents — how preserved and filed; 
mercantile letters give date and place at top; non- 
mercantile at bottom 

Resume of entire treatise 

Balancing entries marked Ro (resto) 













Manzoni Pietra 






Vol. II/9 40 

Vol. 11/12 60 

Vol. 11/11 41 



Vol. 11/10 





Vol. 1/13 56 

Vol. II/9 11 












Bififndfo nont.Trirtme jd # ©e fcripturte 

Commo fc otbiano faldare turre If partite od quadcrno vcct>io:e i cbi:e per cbee oc (a (5 

ma fumarum ocl oarc coclaucrc ultimo fcontro ocl bilanrio. ca".;4 

t>e\ modo c o:dic a fapcr tenerc Ic fcriprure menute como fono fcripri oc mauolrc fainilia 

ri poiKciXcm-finrcnrc aim iftameric^ ca°.^ 

£pilogo o ucro fiimaria recolta dc tunocl pxfente tractatouidocon bxuc fubftaria fc ba 

bia mandarc a memozia Ic cofc octtt. fa". j6 

&i!tiHCrio.nona.Zraaawe.rf.priculari0 Oe copuris 7 fcripturia. 

be qudlc cofc clx fono ncceffanc al ucro mcrca»anrc:c oe lo:dmc a fapc be rencre vn q'/ 

dcrno co fuo giomalc i rincoia e anclx p ognalrro luego- £:ipirolo primo. 

^rcu<rcnrifubd^irio<.tl.b.!?.(nj>a(>n3nimo.b.aao a pinio 
oc rurtoloxiinc mcrca ntcfco babino cl bifogno: oclfperai. Coir". 
Ic cofc oinantf i qfh nfa opa oittc) anco:a particular rracrsro 
grandemcic nccclTario eopillare.£ in qfto folo lo ifcrto: p clx 
a ogniloro occurred cl pfenre Irtwli pona fcruirc.S>i ocl mo ; 
do a conric leriprure:c6mo oc ragiom.£ per effo iutendo oar/ 
li no;ma fuffidente c balrante in rencre ordinatamenre rurri lor 
conrie hba.j&cro dx.(comofi fi)rre cofc marime fono opor 
tunc:a d>i uolc con ocb'ta oiligctia mcreautarc.ibe Ic qlilaporif 
fimaelapccunianumcrata cognialrra facultafu ftanrialcju 
rta illud pby vnu aliquid neceflario?u e fubltanria.sScsa cl cui 
fuffragio mal fi po cl mancgio rraficantc crerdtar* Huegi dx 
mold gia nudico bona fede eorocniandoioc gra facade baWo fatto.£ mediante lo crediro 
fcdclmctc feruato 1 magnc rtdxs'tf fie no pcruenutu£lx afai p vtalta otfeurredo nabiamo 
cognofdurt. £ piu gia ndc gra republidx non fi porcua oirc:clx la fede od bon mcrcatan 
tc.£ a quclla fi ferroaua lo: giuramcnro-.otccdo.fl (a fc oc real mcrcatanre. € do no ocud 
fercadmirario;x:c6dofia clxila fcdecarolicamc'rc ognuno fi falui:e fenca let fia ipolfibilc 
piacerc a mo. la fecoda cofa clx fi reccrca al oebito rrafico: de clx fia buon ragioncri: c 
«pmpro copurifta.£ p qucfto cofcq:iire.(oifop:a eomofc ueduro)oal p:idpio alaunc: lx»' 
ucino iduao regolc c canoni a riafcuna opadonc rcquifiri.3n modo dx oa fcogni oiligc> 
tc Icercwe.turto porra ipxnderc.£ d>i oi qucfta pre non folfc bene fequere in in 
no \i ferrbbc. la.; \e vlrima cofa opomina ficalx co bcllo o:dic time fuc faccde ocbira- 
mete oi«ponga:ado con bxuitatpofla oc ciafcua bauer noririarquanto alo: ocbitoc anclx 
treditoidx circa altro non fatcde cl rr afir o.£ qfta ptc fra laltre e alo?o unlifTunaidx i lor 
faccde alrramerc regerfetferia ipolTibile:fcXa oebito o?dine oe fcriprurc.£ fec^a alcii repofo la 
lo? mere fempa: ftaria in gran trauagli.£ po ado con laltre qfta pofltno baucre.d pfetc rra 
a ato o?diai.^d qlc fc da cl mo a tutte font oe fcnpturc:a ca'.p ca°. ; pcededo£ be dx no 
fi poflb cuf!aporo tuno el bifogno fcriuere.ji^o oimeno p ql dx fc oira.£f pegrinotgegfa 
qlticalrro laplicara. £ feruaremo i effc cl mo oc rincg;a:q!e certamere fraglialcrie molto 
da c6m£dare.£ mediante qlllo i ogni altro fc po:ra guidarc.£ qfto oinidcremo L: axi pn 
dpali.luna dxamarcmo iuetario.£ laltra oifponc.£ p ] .oe lunaiepoi oc lalrra fucccffiiu 
mete fe oira fcoo lo:die i la ppo!^a tauola contenuto.i5>er (a ql fadlmente cl lector po:ra Ic 
occur Jcurie rrouare fecondo el numcro oe fuoi capitoli e earn. 

fei co lo ocbiro o?die clx fafpecta uol fap be rencre rn qderno co lo fuo gio:na 
le a ql dx qui fe dira con otlig^ria IKa a tcto.£ acio be I'm ted a el .pccifo iMurrc; 
mo i capo vno dx mo oinouo comctf a traficarc como p oxlie deba proccderc 
ndrenere foi conri e fcnpiuretaciodx fudramcte ognicofa pom rirrouarc porta 
al fuo luogo p dx no afettandole cofc oebitamcte a li fuoi luogbi ucrebbe i grandillimi tra 
uagli e cofufioi oe tutte fue- faccdcJJurra coe oictu vbi n5 c o:do ibt eft corufio.£ pcro a p 
fccio oocumcro oogm'mcrcarantc oetutto nfo a^ceffof arcmo como oi fop:a c ditto.!, rxi 
pncipali.lcqli apramctcci fequere cbiarircmorado fructo faluriferofabia ip?edere. £ p:ia 
dimoftrando cb cofa fia iuftafio c como fatna fare £>c la p J ptc pndpalc oe qlto tnaato 
ocra f ucf arib.£ dx cofa fia iuctano:e come fra mercarand fabia fare. ca*. 2 £6uienft 
adonca p'mcre .pfupponcrcc imaginare dx ogni opante c mono oalfine. £p porcr qllo 
ocbiramcre cofccjre fa .mi fuoffo?c.o ncl fuo pccflb.mde d fine oe qludx traficantec JX 
edfcqm're licito c copetcif guadagnop fua fubftctanic»e .£ po fempxeon lo nome oemder 
»omenedio: ocbiano cdmen^are Iojo faccndc£ i nd pn°. dogni I02 fcripwrcd fuo fanoo 







In order that the subjects of His Illustrious Highness, the most honorable and magnanimous Duke 
of Urbino (D. U. D. S. — Docis Urbini Domini Serenissimi) , may have all the rules that a good merchant 
needs, I decided to compile, in addition to the subjects already treated in this work, a special treatise which 
is much needed. I have compiled it for this purpose only, i. e., that they (the subjects) may whenever 
necessary find in it everything with regard to accounts and their keeping. And thereby I wish to give them 
enough rules to enable them to keep all their accounts and books in an orderly way. For, as we know, 
there are three things needed by any one who wishes to carry on business carefully. The most impor- 
tant of these is cash or any equivalent, according to that saying, TJnum aliquid necessarium est substantia. 
Without this, business can hardly be carried on. 

It has happened that many without capital of their own but whose credit was good, carried on Dig 
transactions and by means of their credit, which they faithfully kept, became very wealthy. We became 
acquainted with many of these throughout Italy. In the great republics nothing was considered superior 
to the word of the good merchant, and oaths were taken on the word of a good merchant. On this confi- 
dence rested the faith they had in the trustworthiness of an upright merchant. And this is not strange, 
because, according to the Christian religion, we are saved by faith, and without it it is impossible to please 

The second thing necessary in business is to be a good bookkeeper and ready mathematician. To be- 
come such we have given above (in the foregoing sections of the book) the rules and canons necessary to 
each transaction, so that any diligent reader can understand it all by himself. If one has not understood 
this first part well, it will be useless for him to read the following. 

The third and last thing is to arrange all the transactions in such a systematic way that one may 
understand each one of them at a glance, i. e., by the debit (debito — owed to) and credit (credito — owed 
by) method. This is very essential to merchants, because, without making the entries systematically it would 
be impossible to conduct their business, for they would have no rest and their minds would always be trou- 
bled. For this purpose I have written this treatise, in which, step by step, the method is given of making all 
sorts of entries. Although one cannot write out every essential detail for all cases, nevertheless a careful 
mind will be able, from what is given, to make the application to any particular case. 

This treatise will adopt the system used in Venice, which is certainly to be recommended above all the 
others, for by means of this, one can find his way in any other. We shall divide this treatise in two prin- 
cipal parts. The one we shall call the Inventory, and the other, Disposition (arrangement). We shall 
talk first of the one and then of the other, according to the order contained in the accompanying Table of 
Contents, from which the reader may take what he needs in his special case. 

He who wants to know how to keep a ledger and its journal in due order must pay strict attention 
to what I shall say. To understand the procedure well, we will take the case of one who is just starting in 
business, and tell how he must proceed in keeping his accounts and books so that at a glance he may find 
each thing in its place. For, if he does not put each thing in its own place, he will find himself in great 
trouble and confusion as to all his affairs, according to the familiar saying, Ubi non est ordo, ibi est confusio 
(Where there is no order, there is confusion). In order to give a perfect model to every merchant, we will 
divide the whole system, as we have said, in two principal parts, and we will arrange these so clearly that 
one can get good results from them. First, we will describe what the inventory is and how to make it. 



First, we must assume that every action is determined by the end in view, and in order to pursue this 
end properly, we must use every effort. The purpose of every merchant is to make a lawful and reasonable 
profit so as to keep up his business. Therefore, the merchants should begin their business with the name 
of God at the beginning of every book and have His holy 

NOTE — The words in parentheses are the author's, as also the punctuation and paragraphing, as the 
original is extremely deficient in these. The words in italics are copied exact from the original. 


DiUnctio noiuXractarusri 4 . ©efcriptarfe in 

nome bJUtra mere 7c£ go p\c$ucn dx foil fuo otligciirc iuctario:i qfto modo.cbc fern 
p:cp J .fcriua in vn foglio o ucro Irtvo oj greXioclx k ntroua baucr al inddo:oc mobflcc 
deft abtfcXomcnc.andofcmp Oi Ic cofc cl>: .fono 1:1 pin pgio e pui labili jI perdcrc. £oii»o 
f6lr6^6tann.6ioc.i|rgciui7C.i&ercbclcitabili.£6inoldiioXjriXcrrcii!.i.«cunc val' 
lc.l&:febierc c ftmiti no fi polfano finartracdmo Ic cofc mobiliX fuccciTiu amcte pot oc nu 
uoimanoiaiujrctaltrc.^oncndofcp.'i'p'doucinilciiiiioidloogo.clnoiucfuoiiel oirto 
iucurioc tutto oitto iuctario fi dcuctcncrc in vn tncdclimo gio:no:g dx alcraiuetc oarebe 
rrauaglto ncl inicgio fucuro.£ go a ruo ercplo:po:rc 4 vn p: n'.cdmo fc ocbia farc.Jfcerto 
ql ru gtc po:rai i ogm luogo d jppoUto Icquirc 7C.V5. 

;f o:maVrcpl3rc co tunc fuc folcnnita in lo inuentario rcquifitc. &'r y 

Bl nome oc oio.i 495.0 di.3.noucmbx in vtnegia. 

Ucftofcqucrcficloiutta.ioocmi.^.oavinc^ela cotrada ocfco apoftolo. 

£1 q'le ojdenatamcte 10 oc mia mano ix» lcripro:o <vo fatto fenuerc oal talc 7C. 

DC turn It mm bciii:£Jt>obili: c ^rabili:fccbiri:c£rcditi dx al modo im ntro 

uo:fin qftopfctc giorno lepra oino.p'.gnra. 5I11 p-.nii trouo DC cotati fi a 020 
c moncta:ouc.tanri7C.C>i qli tin fono do:o vcninaui.£ tan ooioo.igari .£ largbi 
fra papali:fcndi:c fuwerini 7c.tauii.o moctc oargcto c rame oc pin fo:ti:cioe.'£rbi. 3f>ar 
cdli£artini dc re.£ oc papa.£ groifi fio2ctini.'£eftom inilancfi 7C.i* ptc mi trouo i \o 
icligatc c ddlu;atci^csV ' ir'.tatrvc. be li qli tanti fono bjlaifii tauola lig3ti:io20 ancilipc 
fano. g.ecarattigrani 7C.tanoo ucro i fuma.Guipoi oire a tuo mo 7 c". £ tann fono fafili 
pur a tauola ifcwnagli oa odna.^Vfano 7C.£ rati fono rubi coculcgui ocfligadi pcfauo ?L 
Italtri fono oiamari grcc^i a tauola:c poridt 7c.^arrado Ic io:ric pert a tda iioglia.', J Jtc 
mi trouo vdrc dc piu fo2rc.ratc oc la talc c tantc dc la rale 7c". IR arrado fuoi colinoi. £olo 
rv.fodrc c fogic 764 1 . Jrc rm trouo argcrt lauoran oc.p. fo2ti.£omo taftc badtt lrUmi. 
£ofilcri. ptroni 7c.£ cj narra tutto k fo:ti a rna g rna 7C.£ pda ciafcuna lo2fa dagfe lb 
tflmdcXtk : c6(OOcpcfticocprfi7c.£oclclcgl?c.0 veuctiana.£>ragufca 7C.£ anclx 

ftirYrt r> >\,'rs\ ("/./-nrti-fv \-\-\\\s(ffrr\ ( True in/"Hf i'Ai' Tf C* Tlr^ ...i n-.-\, • •> ■' .11 1 (Tin 1 n /I 1 11111 1 1 

mi trouolccri 6 piua-n'-tanri 76c6 foi cauccali dc piu 1 noua o ^o vfata 7c.fcdcra uoua 7C. 
qlipctanoi tutto.owvnog vno.g.tontc icJ&tgudd miofig*.odalt°.cdmoficolru 
ma 7C. - J ^tc mi trouo oc mcrcantie i cafa oucr i magaicni.7c.oc pm foni.p 1 . Colli tan 
ri oc tffiri micbini pdauo. S .ran c .7C.^ cgnari ocl tal fcg°.7c.£ cofi audarai narran'.a fo: 
la p fo? J .dirtc mcrcantie co rum corrafegni fia polTibflcc to q-ta-piu cbiarcfta fi pofTa.ocpc 
fo n°.c mifura 7C. 8* 5re mi trouo colli tanti dc (cgri bdlidt ?c.£ carcbi rati oc pip 7C. 
piQ lpgo.o ucr pip todo fc6o dx fira 7C. £ fardi tanti di candle 7C.pda°.7C£ colli tann 
garo'.7c pcfa" fufhpolucrcccapdlcri.o^ofc(a 7c£pcfttrati^dc faint 7c.ptfa°.7C. 
t pc«ji tanri fan'.roffi o biancbi pcfa°.7c.£ cofi andarai met tedo g ordtc v'.fotto laltro 7C. 
9* 5<cmt rr'.pclamt dafodrc.cioc agndi c bia'^ albcrrbi puglicfio mardM'ani 7C.n*.tan 
ridclatal fo2 t .7c.cvolpcmar t .n!°.tantccnjd~C7c.£camcH.c cons'cc tru 
dc7c.n°.tanrc7c. io* 5temirrouopcllcfi t .fo r .armc'.ooffi.v , ari.icbclini7c.n .tanti dc 
la ral fo«c.£ n°.ranti dc la rale 7C.£ofi dc ftigucdo a v'.a v'.otligctcmcrc con tutta vei ira : 
ado d uerote l>abia agradarc7C. 3uendo fcpauertc^a a lecofe dx uanoa n°. £ a qllc &c 
uano a pdo.£ a qllc & vkno a mifura.pocR di qfre.5/02 1 . fi cofrfia fare el trafico p tntto. 
talcunc fimercaiio a.fl^*.3lrrea.c°.a(rrea-S : alrrea.-5jltrcan'\doe acotocbnjopdla 
mtecaltrc a pcW.como tfoicc pcrlefinc 7C. S3i dxdi tutte fa be it uota acofa per cola 7c. 
£quefterebaftmoatuaguida.lalrrcpcrtcpoifcquir3ifcmp:c7c. »'< V 10 }} 

mi trouo ocftabtlc p?iam.vna»c3fa a tanti fulan'7c:a tantc cam';re.£o:fc. P*&' ® n0 ' c ' 
porta in la contra oc fancto apcftolo-.fora canale 7c.ap?clTo d talc:c talc 7c./Oomiiiaiido 
u coftnirc rcferedoti ali mflfi fc ui fono 3tkbi piu vert 7c.£ cofi fc piu naucffc oc Ic calc 1 ct 
oer fi luogbiincfark a fimili7c. 1 x*. 5tc mirrouotcrrcm lauoranui capi-o ucro faipx. o 
uero pano?a 7C. ^nominadoli fcrfo lufo ocl pacfe couc tc rroui.o ucro oouc fono fimua 
ri7C.n!tati 7?.^tircdcdo cl capo ucro ftoioza oe tauole tare o cane ptidx bcuoklx 7c. 
*>ofti in la tal villa oe padouana alrrodc 7c. ilpxffo libeni ocl talc 7c£biairudo li co 
run' 7c.£ infrrwncti.o uero ptita occarafti.gli qli pagbitc farioni i cdnmno ?c. ©iwu I tla 
uora d rale 76.redano lano oe ftrro comuo-.ftara rari c.6.tan7c.£ cofi ptc ua narado ru 
OJOipoffcffio7C. j&cftiarnufod'.ij 1 Jtemirro'lw'ala camc J .d ipili'. oucraU^moteiV 



name in their minds. To begin with, the merchant must make his inventory (inventario) in this way: He 
must always put down on a sheet of paper or in a separate book whatever he has in this world, personal 
property or real estate, beginning with the things that are most valuable and most likely to be lost, such 
as cash, jewels, silver, etc., for the real estate, such as houses, lands, lakes, meadows, ponds, etc., cannot be 
lost as personal property. Then all the other things must be put down one after another. In the said in- 
ventory give always first the day, the year, the place and your name. This whole inventory must be com- 
pleted in one day, otherwise there will be trouble in the future in the management of the business. 

As an example for you, I will give you, now, an idea as to how the inventory is to be made, so that 
you may use it as a guide in any particular case. 



In the name of God, November 8th, 1493, Venice. 

The following is the inventory of myself, N. N., of Venice, Street of the Holy Apostles. 

I have written down systematically, or had written by Mr. So-and-So, this inventory of all my prop- 
erty, personal and real, what is owed to me (debiti), and what is owed by me (crediti), of which I on this 
said day find myself possessed in this world. 

First Item: First I find myself possessed in cash, in gold and coin of so many ducats, of which so 
many are Venetian, and so many gold Hungarian; of so many large florins made up of Papal, Siennese 
and Florentine, etc. The rest consists of many different kinds of silver and copper coins, i. e., troni, mar- 
celli, papal and royal carlini and Florentine grossi, and Milanese testoni, etc. 

Second Item : I also possess, in set and unset jewels, so-and-so many pieces, among which are many 
balassi set in gold, rings weighing so-and-so-many ounces, carats, grains, etc., per piece or in bulk, etc., 
which you can express in any manner you wish. There are so-and-so-many sapphires set on clamps for 
women ; they weigh so much. And there are so-and-so-many rubies, unset, weighing so much. The rest 
consists of unpolished pointed diamonds, etc. Here you may give such descriptions and weight as you 

Third Item : I have clothes of many kinds ; so many of such kind ; and so many of such-and-such kind, 
etc., describing their condition, colors, linings, styles, etc. 

Fourth Item : I have several kinds of silverware, as cups, basins, rammi, cosileri, piromi, etc. Here 
describe all the different kinds one by one, etc., and weigh each kind diligently. Keep an account of pieces 
and weights, and of the alloy, whether the Venetian or the one used at Ragusa, etc. Also mention the 
stamp or mark that they might have. 

Fifth Item : I have so much massaria dei lini — that is, bed sheets, table cloths, shirts, handkerchiefs, 
etc., so many of each. Of the bed sheets, so many are made three-piece sheets, and so many are three and 
one-half, etc., mentioning whether the linen is Padua linen or some other kind, new or used ; length so many 
braccia, etc. ; so many shirts, etc. ; table cloths of so many threads ; so many big handkerchiefs and so many 
small, mentioning whether new or used, giving the different kind in your own way. 

Sixth Item : I have so many feather beds and their respective pillows, mentioning whether the feath- 
ers are new or used, whether the pillow-cases are new or used, etc., which altogether or one by one weigh 
so much, marked with my mark or with some other mark, as the custom is. 

Seventh Item: I have at home or in the store so much goods of different kinds: First, so many 
cases of ginger michino, weighing so many pounds, marked with such-and-such mark, and so on, describing 
each kind of said goods with all their marks that you might possibly give and with all the possible accu- 
racy as to weight, number, measurement, etc. 

Eighth Item : I have so many cases of ginger bellidi, etc., and so many sacks of pepper, long pepper 
or round pepper, depending on what it is; so many packages of cinnamon, etc., that weigh so much; so 
many packages of cloves, etc., that weigh so much, with fusti polvere and cappellctti or without, etc., and 
so many pieces of verzini weighing so much, and so much sandalwood, red or white, weighing so much, and 
so on, entering one item after another. 

Ninth Item : I have so many skins for coverings, that is, so many white kids and so many albert oni 
or marchiani, etc., so many of such-and-such kind, etc., so many fox skins, so many tanned and so many 
raw, so many chamois skins tanned, and so many raw. 

Tenth Item : I have so many fine skins, fore armenti, dossi varii, ztbelini, etc., so many of such-and- 
such kind, and so many of such-and-such kind — defining diligently and truthfully each time so that truth 
will always guide you, etc., distinguishing the things that ought to be entered by pieces from those that 
ought to be entered by weight, and those that ought to be entered by measurement, because in these three 
ways business is conducted everywhere ; certain things are reckoned by the bushel, others by the hundreds, 
others by the pound, others by the ounce, others by number, others by a conto (by single numbers) as leath- 
er goods or skins, others by the piece, as precious stones and fine pearls, etc. ; so you will make a nota- 
tion of each thing. These examples will serve as a guide for all the rest, etc. 

Eleventh Item : I have in real estate : first, a house with so many stories, so many rooms, court yard, 
wells, garden, etc., situated in St. Apostle Street over the Canal, etc., adjoining such-and-such parties, etc., 
giving the names of the boundary line properties, making reference to the oldest and most reliable deeds, 
if there are any ; and so, if you have more houses in different localities, you will enter them in a similar 


Bifhnerto iionatra^ata«.ri*.©cfcripfuri3 

Dueari rsnn* decaucdafc nd frrncrdccan3rcggio7c £>ucroptci rnofcrticricprc i vnof 
iro O jrrjndo aurora i noinr de d>i fomio fcrfpn. £ cbumando d lilvo oe quelle officio 
£1 numc ro PC l<r earn oouc c la rua parrif a£l nomc od fenuano dx ncn Ditto Ut>:o:acio co 
pi:i tua fccihra cf do uai a fcorcrc li pclfi rrouar.t&croelx in tali officii bifogna touere inol 
litomri alciiohc per la gran miiJnrudincdxditcruicnc7c.£ nora dmiicliino cbcrcfpd 
dano a ripO p rcpo acio fappia quado ucngano lifo prox quaio per ccto rrfpddino 7C. 1 4 
3trm m»i rrouo ortMron numcro ranri 7cMuno c f rale Dd rale 7c'dx me dcuc oaic ouca 
ti rann 7c talrroc cl rale pel rale 7c.£cofi narrali a vno:a vno con bonicorura fcgni:cco 
gnomr.e luogbr.c quanro tc ocbano oorc:c pdx.£ cofi fc ui Ion lenpn ocmi mirruinc 
ri oe pedari fra 001 fane menone 7c'3n fuma ocbo fcorcre oucanraii 7C.£>c boni 6.S>c (1 / 
ri prrdMC w bene Tcaliramen d<rai oc mfh 6.7c.i f . 3 fCrt i mitrouodfcrc oebiroi rut 
to pic an t ann 7c ra nri 3 3I t alee rann al rale 7C./3ommado It roi creditor! a uno a vikx£ 
fc ui fo no cbur. <,<c fra uof dc fenpn oc tnfrrumenn nominarli.£ dM.£ comino. el di d 
\uo$o pa inoln cafi potcneno occo?rere in iudtcio c fo: oe ludicio -, c. 

UnliHima ero:rarione:e faluriferi ooeumcrial bo mcrcatarcptincti ca°.4 
£ofi odcorfo co diligc\'a rurtc le cofe dx re ruroui imobtlc e ItaDile: cdine e oct- 


■ tojum txr una:fcfoflerben wceimilia oiclxcondmomcfaculraO lucbaiicbi 
fj «-*1 e iirpxfrin 7c'.rurrc alPuouo oxline couicnfe nominarlc in Ditto euctano co rur 
''■mi n corrafegm nomi:e cognomicpro fia piu polTibilc-l^cr d> al mcrcatarc nd porta 
no mailt cofc cflrrc noppo cbiarc i!!xr linfiniricaft clx nd rrafico polTano occo:rcie:coin 
mo ala gioroar a fa cbi in effb fe eTcrcira£ pcro be oin el p:oucrbio clx bifogna piu poiui 
fare m bd mcrcarart. clx a fare rn oocroxDC IcggiXbi e eolui clx polTa nucrare 1 1 ptiti: 
rcafi dx ale mam uengono alimercarann. G:a p mare.O.'a ptcrra.C)?a a tempi oe pacie 
dabondamia. £>?a a rempi de guerre e care(lje.t)?aa tempi oe famra c moibific quad te 
pie occurrac li eonuiene faper prendere foi partiti Sip li mercan:c6mo p le hen clx o?a 1 
una parria e eira fi fano.£ o:a in lalrra 7c£ pero ben fe figura c afnmglia el mcrcaianre al 
gallo. Quale e fraglialrn d piu uigilanrc animalc dx fia.c oiuerno e 01 flare fa le fuc norur 
ne trig/lie. crx maiptr alcfi tempo reffa.£3uengadxDcfiiomciiafeoica:cioc del rofigrmo 
lodx runafa nocrecanri:nonoimcnoquefto*np:»oelt3tcalcaldo tempo ucrificarc: ma 
non oinuerno: cdmo la crpcrienca r unpronro adimoflrarlo.£ andx> Ha fiinigliaia la lua 
refra a ma dx l>abia ceroocbi.clx anelx>?a no li fono bafiitiine in Dir nc i farc.lLc quat co 
fefolole«cael>i le pua.lRarrmolo.Oenirianr^ oxrini.0ciiouefi.a^apoluaiu.Qftiilane/ 
fi. ancoirai fireffmi iDcrgamafcbi. 3ejlani.i?enefi ludxfi.^crufini.arbian.^o:ofun 
pToniani £adiefi.£ tlcaibini.£afrellan(.j6o?glxfi.e f ulignanc6^ifii.]G>ologndi.e ft 
orefi LlfWrouai 2ram.Iecia.i3ari.c6 £>erora teql rpu'ira 
Iff'rrc i rralia Del rrafico rcngano d p?incipato.flp>ai ic la crcelfa eita oc vencria co fio.'aa. 
a^omia e regola oogni>al bifogno apxndcr labia. i?i clx be ouio le leggi mum 
dpaliv^ uigilannbuo 7 non Do?miennbu8 Jura fubuenumrtaoeacbiueggbiaenoa cbi 
DormrlelegcifouengJoX cofiudipiuini officii fieanraoa la fancracbiela.elx idio all ri 
gilanri a pwrncflb la corona. £ pcro quefTo fo d oocumcro di rirgilio Daro a Danrc:coino 
a fuofigliuolo Ouando nd caro..'4°.de lo iferno li oici cro:randolo a la fangarper laqle 
fllmonredeleuinnfeperuieneO?maiconuienfigliuolodxru re fpo!m. biffc el mae 
frro miodxpurin piuma .^nfama nofiuicne neforrocolrrc. Sottola qual ebifuauita 
cofuma. £oral urfhgio oifc in rerra lafda. Oual fume i aire e i aqu3 la febuima 7c. £ vnal 
fro vulgar rveta al mcdefimoci edfo?ra oiecdo.i^r n tepara ffrania (a fariga cl? mar« no 
coneefltmaibatagl a B quelliebepoffandofenurnea7C.'il.oeremplo andx>?adclfap»erc 
molro fo acio conuemete.Dicfdo al pigro clx fifpeelMaffe nella fo:mieba.£ paulo apolro 
lodicidxmufiradcgiiodieorona faluocbed>il>ara leginmamerc combattuto 7c.Gue 
fti rccordi lio uolun adure per ri)3 unTiraracio non re para gr3ue la condiana fotidrudinc 
in rue faccnde.marime m re nere la pena '" eartare rurrf fonoeTC a dipcr dcqnel dx k oc 
co?re:ee»mo fe dtra nd fcqmeOf>3 fep fopr3 nirro p' idio el ^»rio re fia aujn gliocbi e mai 
no mand>i daludtrc la mefTa la maria iR reojdadorr clx p lei mai fipdccamio .fie pla c^ 
rirafifenna cdmo p qfto fao uerfo le ciici.fiu canraf opdtncc miffa miuir uer 7C 
£a qftoci ero?ta cl falujro: i fa marlxo epdo otci.^imu qnrc rrgniDXi:7lxc oia aducir 
tur uobio.^ercaterpunipinamcrcdrcameDii cieiiepot lalt/eeofe icpozaliclpualifacil 


Twelfth Item: I have so many pieces of land under cultivation (fields or staiore or panora) etc., enter- 
ing them by the name according to the usage of the country where you are, saying where they are situated, 
etc., as, for instance, a field of so many tavole, or canne, or pertiche, or bevolche, etc., situated in such-and- 
such town in the Province of Padua or somewhere else, adjoining the land of so-and-so, giving all the 
boundary lines and referring to deeds or the description from the recorder's office, for which land you 
pay taxes in such-and-such municipality, which are worked by so-and-so with a yearly income of so much, 
and so on; you will enter all your possessions, etc., cattle, etc. 

Thirteenth Item: I have in deposit with the Camera de l'lmpresti (a bank), or with another bank 
in Venice, so many ducats ; or with the parish of Canareggio, etc., or part in one parish and part in another, 
giving the names under which they have been deposited, mentioning the book of the bank, the number 
of the page where your account is, and the name of the clerk who keeps said book, so that you can 
easily find your account when you go to get money, because in sucli offices they must keep very many ac- 
counts on account of the big crowd that sometimes goes there, and you must also see that dates are put down 
precisely so that you know when everything falls due and what the per cent. is. 

Fourteenth Item: I have so many debtors (debitori) -. one is so-and-so, who owes me (me dee dare — 
shall give me) so many ducats, and so on, giving the names of each one, putting down all annotations as 
to the names, their family names, and how much they owe you (te debbono dore — shall have to give you) 
and why; also whether there are any written papers or notarial instruments. In total I have so many 
ducats to collect, you will say, of good money, if the money is due from good people, otherwise you will 
say of bad money. 

Fifteenth Item : I am debtor in total to the extent of so many ducats, etc. I owe so many to so-and- 
so. Here mention your creditors (creditori) one by one, writing down whether there are any documents or 
writings or instruments; if possible, mention the persons present when the debt was incurred, the reason, 
the time and the place, for any case that might arise in court or out of court. 


And so, as we have said, you shall enter diligently every thing that you have, whether personal prop- 
erty or real estate, one by one, even if there were ten thousand items, putting down the condition and 
nature, whether deposited or loaned, etc. You will have to mention each thing in proper order in the said 
Inventory with all marks, names, surnames — as far as possible — for things are never too clear to a mer- 
chant on account of the different things that may happen in business, as anybody in business knows. 
Right is the proverb which says: More bridges are necessary to make a good merchant than a lawyer 
can make. Who is the person that can count all the things that can happen to a merchant — on the sea, 
on land, in times of peace and abundance and times of war and famine, in times of health or pestilence ? 
In these crises he must know what to do, in the marketplaces and in the fairs which are held now in one place 
and now in another. For this reason it is right to say that the merchant is like a rooster, which of all the 
animals {animate) is the most alert and in winter and summer keeps his night vigils and never rests. And 
they say of the nightingale that it sings throughout the whole night ; however, this may be in the summer 
during the hot weather, but not during the winter, as experience shows. Also it is said that the head of the 
merchant has a hundred eyes, and still they are not sufficient for all he has to say or to do. These things are 
told by people who have had experience in them, such as the Venetians, Florentines, Genoans, Neapoli- 
tans, Milanese, people of Ancona, Brescia, Bragama, Aquila, Sienna, Lucca, Perugia, Urbino, Forosempro- 
nio, Cagli, Ugubio, Castello, Brogo, Fuligno, Pisa, Bologna, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona, Vincenza, Padua, 
Trani, Lecce, Bitonto, which are among the first cities of Italy and have the first place in commerce — espe- 
cially the cities of Venice and Florence, which adopt rules that respond to any need. And well say the 
municipal laws: Vigilantibus et non dormientibus jura subveniunt — which means, The law helps those 
that are awake, not those that sleep. So in the divine functions of the Holy Church they sing that God 
promised the crown to the watchful ones, and this was the instruction that Virgil gave to Dante as to his 
son, in Canto 24 of the Inferno, where he exhorts him to the work by which one can reach the hill of 
virtue: Now, my son, it behooves that you quit your laziness, said my master, for he who lies on 
feathers or under covers will never amount to anything. Whoever spends his life in this way, he said, 
will leave on this earth the same trace as the smoke in the air or foam on the water, etc.; and another 
Italian poet admonishes us in the same way, saying: Work should not seem to you strange, for Mars 
never granted a victory to those that spent their time resting. And it is also very good to quote that 
sage who said to the lazy man to take the ant as an example ; and the Apostle Paul says that no one will 
be worthy of the crown except he who shall fight valiantly for it. 

I wanted to bring in these reminders for your own good, so that the daily care about your business 
would not seem heavy to you, especially the writing down everything and putting down every day every- 
thing that happens to you, as we shall unfold in the next chapters. But above all, remember God and your 
neighbor ; never forget to attend to religious meditation every morning, for through this you will never lose 
your way, and by being charitable, you will not lose your riches, as the poet says : Nee caritas, nee Missa 
minuit iter, etc. And to this our Savior exhorts us in the book of St. Matthew, when he says: Primum 
quaerite regulum dei, et haec omnia adiicietur vobis, which means : Seek you, Christians, first the king- 
dom of God and then the other temporal and spiritual things 


BWnrtfonona2*adaftj0.^Bffcrfpmrte 200 

tncnte confcquircte "faro cbd padre tortro cricftfole fatnolrobcne rofrro bifceno ?c£ ft 
fto ucglio tc fia bafrare a ruo arparftrsmcro Ciuerario tcx altritoni oocuinri olbcnfarc ?£ 
Dc la.: '.parte pricipalc ocl pfeme iractatooitra cifpbnc:conie b fabfa a intenderc c in 
dx (ofiftr .circa al trafVcox dc I1-5 .!ib?i p?tcipali oc I co?po nice irefco. C.c 

jj| £Quifao?alaf(fcodapancpa'na'paFcwlpxffntctranflrol3qiia! r*ccmo efllrc 
I .i n fpofrt iopc w f aqualc afquato piu 1 1 hto tome (bio fia.clx i lapccdcte a ben 
cbiarirfa.£ pero w lei fare mo rot pti.luna our a co:po ucro montc oc rurco el 
trafuo.lalrra oirta owpo o rero montc Oc botcga. £ pjhua oirfmo ocl ca po 
generic ce rutro el inancgio Ic rue ccigcrtc. fll quale oico prima inicdiate ooppo fuo tuen » 
rarvbifognarc.UibVppi'u fua ocfrrca eeomodfta.luno ofrro mcmo:iale.£ lalrro octto 
j5io:nfllc-lalfroofrro.£)uaderno.iluecj dxmolri pjepcdxlojfaeendefacino folocc* 

(bJcqi:ercmejc re liaim" cci ocfo: niodi:ucrfi c vte como ocbwno efferc tenutt £ pnma tw/ 
rcmo fua wfTinirtone. 

Del prime Nbto Ditto memorialeo mo fquartafoglio vacberta ql dx fentcn 
do ccomm ot'n cflb fc babia a fcriucrf :e |> cbf. ca° 6 

fide memojiale vero fc condoalcuni vacfxtta fqrtafbglio e rn f«b:o nd q7c 
rutte le facede fiieel mcrcatatc piecolc c gradidx ami It' regano.a giorno p. gio? 
no e 02a p om ifcriuc i^cl qle ortufame'teegm cofo 01 ucderc e cop2arc (c alrrt 
mancgi jferiuedo fe w'ebiara no lafando vn iota £1 ebi.£I dx.£lqu5do.£I 00 
ticrco" rutte fue cbiarccccie mcricni:ccmo a picno oi fop?a in lo enncnnm'o te oifli: fenfa pia 
oltra rr le rrptobi .£ i quelro ral lib?o mofricofhimano poncre lox» fwctgrio. Cfiapdxd 
ruene a moh? mani c ocbi no laudo re \i mobili c ftabiTi fox a picno poar £ qucflo If 70 
rol fi fa p la furia rx k facede dx (i fefle.ncl onalc peuc fcriucre el t&atroncli ^fartori 6ap 
< ni :k obnc(fe fano^tih abfett lu oc ta'rro.t&ero dxl gra" mcrcatatc no terra fempje fermf 
li garconine facroTi.tffea o?a Fimanda in qua:o?a li mauda in la:i niodb dx afcuoltc luifo 
loro fono fo?a.£W a ftcrc t bia mereati 7c£ folo le voac aim" gar^oni rcftano a cafa cJjc 
fo/ea pena flno feriucrc.£pure low p non erufare Iiauento?i'eonuengano vcudcrcc (cot 
reretpagarr.e eop?arc fecodo loMine dx: ©al pjinripele li fia tpofto.£ lo?o fecodo lo?o po 
rreognieofafDfbonofcr^tercf rtrtomemoa'alenominado fcmplidmete letn netec peft 
cbc fanotc trar fox a turre fo?ic oe monettc dx rendanoe cop?3no ucro pagano e fcota 
no po dx fft quefto rale non fa eafo a cbc moncta ft csui foxcomo nd gt'ojnalc c qnader^ 
nofeb w'fotto fc dira 7c.d*quadcmicri afi tta turto poi Ini quado rcli pbnc t gio?nalc.Oicb* 
lornandopoilo principale v«$e rutte fuefaccndcci'afeftak fcliparc altrainc'rc?c.£ pcror 
neceflario Ditto libro a d>\ fa afai faccde.l&cr cbc fercbe fatiga bellegj'arcic per oxhhc cgni 
eofa la p?ima uolta ntcttcre i li (tb?f auctentici c con vttgenca tcnutt'jf i qi>cfito e in rurri al' 
rri pnm a poncre el fegno dffoia i fula copra:acio ncl fucceffb dc le facede dado pit no 6 frrt 
ptura ucro fonv'to certo tcpo p la qnal cofa ru w>?rai rnalrro lib:o pxndcrc.o ucro dc ne 
ceffira te r ouerra qaado quefto foflc picno. fl^a ale uolte moki cofrumanoHrfucrfc prf: bf 
cbc nd fia picno anoualrcftc far faldi c andx li ltb?i nwoui como oefotto ttedcrai.£ irtltto 
fecondo Iiojo per oebito oxline bubgna renouare fegnalc Diferentc oal pa'ino: a<io Detcni' 
poin tcpo fipofTa co pxrtc«a trouarelovo facade, -^cr tal utcanco?a nulcfimo.£ prro be 
ne fi colruuia fra liucri oaroJvi' fcgnare li pn'mi (o.v lib:i: dc quel glonbfo fcgno Ddq'l fug 
gi ognt n^llro fpin'mal nemico:e fa catcrua tutta infernaj mcriraincnte trema del Jct>no: 
dec de la faneta cron'dal qcale anco;a ndi tencriannt a iparar oc legcrc lalfabeto comen 
cafli. £ poili feqncti Kb?* fcgngrai per o?dinc ^alfabetorrkx oc. B.£ poili tct^i dtH^.^i. 
wTcorrcndo per o?dinc 6*alfabcto. £ d^amafc poi lib:icrod 00c tBeroo«al croct 
6ioanalcroa'rcioe fiuadcrno crocita'oc ^Ifabctdo nero ettratto crocftcioc. iL 
£ poi afi fcoi Itoti fc \y'd Gfocmoml B , £fio?nal. if . (Qi)ademo.B.Tc.£ oc mm'quefh li ; 
bad numero oc lo? carri ficonncn fcgnarc per molti refpecti c cautclc cbc alopcrantc fan 
no re bifogno . Aucuga dx mcrfri oicbino nd gio?nalc c memo:iaIe non bifognarc pclx 
le cofc fe gttfdano 1 hlcatc a di p di: vna fono lalrra dxfia taftante a lo: ritronare. £2ue 
ftitalioircboijocl ucro fclcfaccndcac vna giomata nonpafftficro vnacana.fl^a noivt' 
diinocbCnioWirrelTitrafifantinon dxiinacartartiadoietrcncpiranoin »n giOjno oe 
le qual,poi(dji obfene far malc)nepotrebbct3gfiarc e cau«rcnna.ta q'wl fraude r!5 fi pd' 
crcbe pot per ma b li gibmi cognofcerc nc difccrocrc.l&er cbc lidi fon quclli clx fc^a duWo 


you will easily obtain, because your Heavenly Father knows very well your needs, etc. 

And this I hope will be sufficient as an instruction for you to make the Inventory, etc., and to do 
other things well. 



Comes now the second principal part of this treatise, which is called disposition, and of this I have 
to talk more at length than of the first part, in order to make it very clear. I will divide it in two parts. 
We shall call the one, Corpo overo monte de sutto el trafico; the other, Corpor overo monte de botega (Com- 
merce in general, and Your store in particular) . 

First, we shall speak of commerce in general and its requirements. Immediately after the Inventory, 
you need three books to make the work proper and easy. One is called Memorandum (Memoriale) , the 
second Journal (Giornale) , and the third Ledger (Quaderno). Many, on account of their small business, 
use only the last two, that is, the journal and the ledger. 

We shall speak about the first — that is, of the memorandum book, and thereafter of the other two, about 
their makeup, and how they should be kept. First of all, we will give the definition of the memorandum 



The memorandum book, or, according to others, scrap book or blotter, is a book in which the mer- 
chant shall put down all his transactions, small or big, as they take place, day by day, hour by hour. In 
this book he will put down in detail everything that he sells or buys, and every other transaction without 
leaving out a jot; who, what, when, where, mentioning everything to make it fully as clear as I have 
already said in talking about the Inventory, so that there is no necessity of saying it over again in detail. 
Many are accustomed to enter their inventory in this book, but it is not wise to let people see and know 
what you possess. It is not wise to enter all your personal property and real property in this book. This 
book is kept on account of volume of business, and in it entries should be made in the absence of the owner 
by his servants, or his women if there are any, for a big merchant never keeps his assistants idle ; they are 
now here, now there, and at times both he and they are out, some at the market place and some attend- 
ing a fair, leaving perhaps at home only the servants or the women who, perhaps, can barely write. These 
latter, in order not to send customers away, must sell, collect or buy, according to the orders left by the 
boss or owner, and they, as well as they can, must enter every transaction in this memorandum book, 
naming simply the money and weights which they know ; they should note the various kinds of money 
that they may collect or take in or that they may give in exchange. As far as this book is concerned, it 
is not as important to transfer to standards the various kinds of coin handled as it is with the journal and 
ledger, as we will see hereafter. 

The bookkeeper will put everything in order before he transcribes a transaction in the journal. In 
this way, when the owner comes back he will see all the transactions, and he may put them in a better or- 
der if he thinks necessary. Therefore, this book is very necessary to those who have a big business. It 
would be too much trouble to put down in a beautiful and orderly way every transaction immediately 
after it take place, in books which are authentic and kept neat with care. You must make a mark on 
the cover of this book, as well as on all the others, so that you can distinguish them when, in the process 
of the business, the book is filled or has served for a certain period of time and you take another book. 
You must take another book when the first one has been used entirely, yet many are accustomed in differ- 
ent localities to balance annually these books although they are not full ; and they do likewise with the 
ether books not yet mentioned, as you will see hereafter. 

On the second book you should put another mark different from the first, so that at any time you can 
trace your transaction easily. For this purpose we use the date. Among true Christians there is the good 
custom to mark their first books with that glorious sign from which every enemy of the spiritual flees and 
before which all the infernal spirits justly tremble — that is, the holy cross, by which in our tender years 
we begin to learn to read. The books that follow, you may mark in alphabetical order, calling A the sec- 
ond, and B the third, etc. So that we call the first books with the Cross, or Memorandum with Cross, and 
the second Memorandum A. Journal A, Ledger A. The pages of each of these books ought to be marked 
for several reasons known to the merchant, although many say that this is not necessary for the Journal 
and Memorandum books. The transactions are entered day by day, one under the other, in such way that 
it may be easy to trace them. This would be all right if all the transactions of one day would not take 
more than one page ; but, as we have seen, for many of the bigger merchants, not one, but several pages 
have to be used in one day. If some one would wish to do something crooked, he could tear out one of the 
pages and this fraud could not be discovered, as far as the dates are concerned, for the days would 

©iftinctto noiu rr\i<*3tti0.riM3c fcripttiria 

jtcKTanofiicccffiiiamcntcfcquirctHOn pimancocl mancamcntofira fatto.Sidx perqfto 
calm *h\ rdpccri fcmpjcc buono nmucrarf c figuarc in tutri li Itoti mcreanfrfcbi.£ di ca 
facdiboicgjruticlccarri7C. ca'.7 

Del mo como i molri luogbi fc babio auctcncarc inm li Irtvi mcrcatddM e p d> c d»cbi. 
I t3i.ucfh rali I4):i conucgoli fecondolufantf bone oc oiucrfi pxfi: ncli quail luo ■ 
obi mifo rctrouato pojtarlr e apxfcntarli a ecrto officio oc mcrcaran como fon 
[no confoli nria cita oc pcrota e a lox> narrarc coino quefh' fono li tot Iib:i i Itqd 
I ti» intendi fcriucrc o ucro far fcriuc re oc m-i del talc.7c.ogni tua faccuda oidma/ 
tamctc£ oire a cl>e monetc tu li noli tcnerc:cioc a.Jk.oc p»f toll :o ucro a. S.OegrofTi:o ucro 
aduccS .7C.0 mo a f»o.cX.6.o voa.^.rarigrani.D.7c.lcqlcofc fcp:c cl real nwcarafe 
nclpiinpio oogiu fiiolibjoocucpocii:ndl3p / cartfl.£ epdo manofcmutaffcnclla fcripiu 
ra ralrridx ml pjidpio fc oiecffir:conncnfc p uu del ditto officio d?iarit lo. £J fci ind poi 6 
tutto do fa mctioe i rcgillri d< oitto otfkio como i pi oi m p?cfeniafti tali c tali iib:i fegna 
ri del tal fegno 7c. £biamaco Itr cofi e laltro cofi 7C Nqtiel f ale a tante earn' el tale t«c 7c 
li quali oiffe ooiicre cftcrc tennri p mi fua o dd tale 7c. Cfot i vno (oitto incmorialc.0 ko 
uad?crtJ.o fecondo alcuui oitto fquartafacio ).ciafcuno oi fuoi familiari oc cafa a la gioz 
aata potcua fcriucrc pa Ic ragiont fopja afcguate.£ aloja 01 if o fcriua dc fua p:op2ia m e no 
jn nomc dc {officio fctluara d inedefimo ndla pjima carta oc h tuoi ub?i:c fara fedc o^tut 
to 7c.£ bolcralli dd fegno del oitto officio i fede autenriea per turn li iudidi dx aca4eue p 
durli.£ qucfta tal ufan(a mcriifl fumamCK effcrc comedata ?c'£ cofi li luogbi fix la obfer 
uarre.-^ero dx molri tcgano It lox> libH Oopu'Q no'ne molrrauo al eotip:ato?c c lalrro al 
ucr.diiojce dx pegw c fecondo quello giurano c fpgiurano 7c.dx maliffio ? jno.£ po g 
tal uia dotfido andandomo poffaRO cofi dc facili dir rraudareel.pntno 7c 
ti qualipoieon diligence fegnari c o:dinatatnen:e otfpoftt tu tencuafco lo nomc a dip 
a cafa agomccare a ici lucre tue facedc £. prima ncl gio:na|p ponere per azdumuttcle pure 
Oe lo muentario ncl modo dx fcquaice mteudtTai.Ofia prima intcnduoiuc ncl niemo.nale 

Como fe debino ditt arc le partite i onto memohale co crcpli ca'.g 

3a e oitto fc bene at amente como I dit fo memortateo ucro uadxtt a:o rero fqr 
tafado fecondo aim d?e ognuno oi r uoili po fcriuerc£ pcro od oirrare tal prue 
i cfto no I po oart piena docrrina. (&cro dx cbi mtcdera :e dji uon di toi di ca' 
fa.flf^dcomncofhimeequeftoooe.flfxfamocbcrulxibi cop?ato alquante 
petxcocpanoC npup.:o.biand?ib:cfani)pr>uc.i;.lun3bflftadxfcmplidnictc [>cnc,a la 
prita cofidictclo doe- 5 n qucfto oi Isabiamo o uao to o cop:ato daf fclipo dc rufoi oab:ef 
fajpa ni n*.? oO?(acbi barffai pofti i fit lauolta di i Ire fao t aglia picrra 7c'.)L6ga lua 6 Ic pi <,c.e 
Ot coudobf jan 7c\l^rouc.tflnnlnna 7C.fcgirarc ocl ral it 7C.nominadofc fdnoatrc liii 
o ucroa la piana baffio alti fmi o mccai bcrgamofd>i o uigctini o vcrocfi padoani fio?ciini 
o matoai 7c.£ ftmilitcr nominar fectfefle fenfalc c narrar fcl mrrcatpfo a cotaritutto o too 
parte cotati e ptc termcnc:e dir quito tcpo.G ucro uoiar fc folic ptc P.iotau c parte robbc 
£ (pecificarc dx robber dc numero pdc c miTura.£ a dx p?cgio cl.flf^ Q .o ek°: o ucro . $ . 
o ucro a rafo de conto 7C.O uero fefoffrro tutri a tcpo e narrarc d)e tcrmic. €> de galie 6 
barurto.o dc galie oc fiadra o dc retorni oe naui ?c. £ fpedhcarc la muta dc dine galie 
cenauii-c'.ofcfoflctcrmmcoc ficrc-o altre folcnita: commopcrlafcnfapronmafurura 
H .o uero p la pafqua denadal 7c.o ucro tx rcfurcri.o ticro caricuale ?c*. -|&tu e m jco fi 6o 
dxuoi codudefte cl mcrcato.£ ftnalitcr i ditto memonale no fi conuerna laffarc poio alcu 
no.£ fe pofffbtlc foffc oir quatc parollc ucfintcrpofcro p dxCcomo nclmucntario fopra lo 
detto)aI mercantc k cbiare^c mat fo:6 troppo 7c. 

Oc li.o.modi p li quali coinimamctc fi collimu fra li wcw an cop:arc cdclcmcrcaf ic qua 
1 pi u 6 Ic uolfe oe neceffita atempo fi comp^no. (&*■* 

fioicbe al comp7anc fiamonota dx quello ibe tu compn po xadcrccoinuno' 
mentt i.9.modi:cioc a oenaricontanti.o ucro a tcrmmc.o rcroaimconrrodar 
robba.Qual cao cdmunamentccdittPbM ano.0 ucroaptcbe parte rcrniit o 
vero a pane comJtic parte robbc.outroo pic robbce ptc tcr mine. o vcropafe 
gnatione de ditt a.o ucro parte i oirta e ptc tcrmic a tc.o ueropte ottta e pane robba.lm li 
qli .9.modid piu dc leooltc ie coftunia comp»rc.£ fc per altro ucrfo faccft in ueltitj;i cy 


follow properly one after the other, and yet the fraud may have been committed. Therefore, for this and 
other reasons, it is always good to number and mark each single page in all the books of the merchants ; the 
books kept in the house or kept in the store. 



All these books, according to the good customs of several countries where I have been, should be taken 
and shown to a certain mercantile officer such as the Consuls in the City of Perosa employ, and to him 
you should state that those are the books in which you intend to write down, or somebody else write down 
for you, all your transactions in an orderly way; and also state in what kind of money the transactions 
therein should be entered — that is, whether in lire di Picioli, or in lire di Grossi, or in ducats and lire, 
etc., or in florins and denari, or in ounces, tari, grani, denari, etc. The good merchant should put down 
these things always on the first page of his book, and if afterwards the handwriting should be done by 
somebody else than the one stated at the beginning of the book, this should be recorded at the office of the 
said officer. The clerk should mention all this in the records of the said officer — that is, on such and such 
a day you presented such and such books, marked with such and such mark, which books are named, one 
so-and-so, the other so-and-so, etc.; of which books one has so many pages, another so many, etc., which 
books you said would be kept by you or by so-and-so ; but that it may be that in said Memorandum Book or 
Scrap Book or Blotter, some person of your family might enter said transaction, as explained before. In 
this case, the said clerk shall write down on the first page of your books, in his own handwriting, the name 
of the said officer, and will attest to the truth of everything and shall attach the seal of that office to make 
the books authentic for any case in court when they might be produced. 

This custom ought to be commended exceedingly ; also the places where the custom is followed. Many 
keep their books in duplicate. They show one to the buyer and one to the seller, and this is very bad, be- 
cause in this way they commit perjury. By presenting books to the said officer, one cannot easily lie or 
defraud. These books, after they have been carefully marked and authenticated, shall be kept in the name 
of God in your own place, and you are then ready to start your business. But first you shall enter in an 
orderly way in your Journal all the different items of the Inventory in the way that I will tell you later. 
But first you must understand how entries should be made in this Memorandum Book. 



We have said already, if you will remember, that any one in your family can make entries in the 
said Memorandum Book, or Scrap Book or Blotter. Therefore, it cannot be fully stated how the entries 
should be made, because some members of your family will understand and some will not. But the com- 
mon custom is this: Let us say, for instance, that you bought several pieces of cloth — for instance, 20 
white bresciani, at 12 ducats apiece. It will be enough simply to make the entry in this way: On this 
day we have or I have bought from Mr. Filippo d'Rufoni of Brescia, 20 pieces of white bresciani. These 
goods are at Mr. Stefano Tagliapietra's place; one piece is so long, according to the agreement, and paid 
for at so many ducats, etc., marked with such and such number, etc. You mention whether the cloth is 
a trelici, or a la piana, wide or narrow, fine or medium, whether the Bergamo kind, or Vincenza, or 
Verona, or Padua, or Florence, or Mantua. Also you have to state here whether the transaction was made 
through a broker and whether it was made in cash entirely or part only in cash and part on time, stating 
the time, or whether it was part in cash and part in trade. In this case you must specify the things that 
were given in exchange, number, weight, measurement, and the price of the bushel or of the piece, or of 
the pound, etc., or whether the transaction was all by payment on time, stating the time when the payment 
should be made, whether on Oalia de Barutto, or on Oalia de Fiandra, or on the return day of a ship, or on 
the date of some fair, or other festivity, as for instance, on the next harvest day or on next Easter, or on 
next Christmas, or on Resurrection day or Carnival day, etc., according to what was understood in the 
transaction. Finally, I must say that in this memorandum book nothing should be omitted. If it were pos- 
sible, it should be noted what many others had said during the transaction because, as we have said about 
the Inventory, the merchant never can be too plain. 



Since we are talking about buying, you must know that usually you can make your purchase in nine 
ways — that is: either in cash or on time; or by exchanging something, which is usually called a trade; 
or partly in cash and partly on time ; or partly in cash and partly by trading and partly on time ; or by 
draft (assegnatione de ditto) ; or partly by draft and partly on time, or partly by draft and partly by trad- 
ing. In these nine ways it is customary to make purchases. If you would make your purchases in some 
other way 


BiWncfofwnj.Zricitu9.rf.Bf fcrfpfuria joi 

imxlopjoprio fa ctxmccdialiripef re nd mcinoaalc U rum apontocon ucrtra c farai be 
IK 7C. e" CdlWjtMJkiociJ faecifc let uccompx a tempo £oinmolir colluma air voiic torfi oc 
guartiO vcro biadc.nni.rali £ curaim oabccari.£ fcgix-dx fi obltgn ciucndito:cai cdp'J 
rorcoc oar rucro cl guatodx per quel tempo bar a t <oii cl becaw tc ueudc C p?omcu< rut 
ctlico.'ipcllc.lcgodxpcrqlloannoin fua becarta rai a 7c.latal(o;ui.pcrtantoid y«. 
£ Urate pa tamo 7c. £ coll oc U fcgbi oc manco-taftroni 7C.£ Ic pelle motor mic ncrc p 
canto dc".acdro.£raiito le inon tonuic bundx 7C.£ colt oc liguati.© btadc fptcifi»«rian 
to el Ofy.£. ranto lo Itarood mog£io.o la co?ba.oclc btadciiomo uilul dxuh ov peroloo 
fi cortinna.£ s Peguat(jl *3o.'go falcpolcro noirxo.dFxrcatdio.^anugniloXioi o coitcl 
lo. jpurli7Ci:Mcrxocpontoin pomo.far mcnrtoncoi tutto a picnoui onto inenioriale. o 
per cc:o per aim clx li fcruia£ mm (a cofa Icmplictmciirc.coiumo Icnafcima 7c.£ Oipot 
cl bon quadcrmcri.i capo oc. 4.0. f .0 rcro8.gio.-m. pin e nianco clx HciFe ocl ottto memo 
nalc mecarlc in gio:naU;.a d« per cm tuite commc le \onno n afciutc. Af>a lolo m qucito ortfc 
reutcctx non bilbgua clx in ottto giomatc k oiiteiidj.ion tame hlaltoccr) oc parotic .coin 
mo (c tarto m ottto mcmo.nalc £yro clx bait a aim ma uolt a baucrc lacofa ben oiud to in 
outo mcino.-ialcill qoal poi cl gio:nalcfcmp:c(a arctcrirc&iTo clx quellielx coitmua' 
no rcnercMilwiO modo oirrojmai ocbano ponere cola in gio:u alcclx p:nna non laomo 
in onto mcmonalc 7C.£qudrob3Jhquanioalo.'diiicoc ottto memorial.. £) per uo p al 
rrt toi fu tenuto 7C £ nota dx per quanri modi tu oa aim poi comp.-flrc.eori tu per ran 
npoi vcndcre.£ perconfequcnte alrri po comprarc oa re/3cl qual rendcre non mi Itcdo 
aitra mcnte. |£xro dx ru per ie babiando quel ta to;ma oc coinpa:arcpo.-rai a Inarlo 7c. 

Del ro Ub.-op.-indpale mcrcantclco.oifiogio:nalc:qudilxl fia.ccommefe oebia otfpcv 
nerc o:dinatamente. £ apicolo 1 o 

1 fo lib:o o.-dmano mcrcantefco.c oino giomalc. iHd qualcuomme e oirto) 
oeue cllercd meddimo fcgno clx m lomcmo2fa(r.£ earn Icgnate «c£omino 
oifopja ocl memo;ial e ouro.i&r Ic ott tc cagioni. £ Icmp.-c nd panctpto oc ca' 
duna tarra :fc oeue inert ere el OC*lcfuno.c cn.£ oipoi ocinano in mane ponere 
pjtina Ic partite tutte od tuo cuent zno.fia qual giomale. c, per elkre tuo lib,-o leireto)po2 
rsi q pieno narrarc e Dire rurto qudlo dx 01 mobile c 1 labile 1 e 1 uroui. IKcfcrendoic lepre 
al oitto foglio dx per rc.o per alrri folk quale in qldx t alia .0 ft. a tola .0 f il^i.o mac. 
co. rafca : dx coli fc ufa el feruarat. £ommo tc oiro oc Ic lettcre. £ tci ipmrc meuure. m j 
lepanite od oirto gio:nale:ficonucngonoloima?ec oittarc per alrrcj modo piuligiadro: 
non andx rroiv oiminuto : com 1110 qui (cqtienre oe alquaute partite te oaro 
crcmplo. Afra pnnia e oanorare cl bifogno 01 001 termini dx in Ditto gio:nalc 1 1 coftuma 
cfarr.nda dta marime credfa DC Uuucua.Di qualli immediate cxreino. 

De li-- .rcrmmi nd ottto gio?nale vfitan.mar ic i Ucuegta.Luno outo. i&cr. c lalcro oit 
to. a.cquclloclxpcrlo.-olcbabia aotnotare. £apitolo. 11. 

£>i fonnoC commo e ditto )U termini vfitari i ditto giornalciimo editro. ^er 
£laltroc ditto. B. liqlibanolororignificati.aalcunofcparato.^er lo. per. 
icmprcfedinoracldcbitore.oi'noopiu dxleficno.£pcrlo. &. fedmotalo 
crcditorco rnoo piu dx fe ficno.£ niai li mctte pnta ordinaria i giornalcC cbc 
al Ubro grade fabia apo.Te) dx no fc dinoti p J .p lidit ti doi rermini.Ddi qli.t'epac nel p?in 
cipio dc ciafcuna prit a fi mate el ^cr . £ero cr> p J .fi dcuc fpectruarc ddcbuox.e di poi imc 
diatc elfuo creduox.diuifo hi dalaltro p dot S?golctfe cofi.i I .£6mo udo cr" difotto tc fira 
noto 7C. Del modo a fap ponere e dittarc le put c 1 lo giojuale" del dare c de laaere c6 
tnoln crcpli.£ deli doi altn rcrmmi nd qdcrno vutan luno deno £af6.c lalrro Caucdale 
£ qudlo dx per dli le babu inrendere. £apttolo. 1 : . 

£>6ca co lononic de dio 1 omewai apocrc nd mo giomale. £a p J pnra ddtuo 
iiicr.ino.cioc la qp'.dcli t>xdtati.clx re rurout.£ p lape ponere dtuo lurntano 
allil\-o.c giornale.bilogna cb ru imagini dot altn tcrniiiu.luno dir io.£ aifa c (al 
ttro ditto £auedale.i?erla cairalmtcdc la tua p J owroboj(cia.i»er locauedaleie iicderuc 
rod tuo mote eco?podc taculta puir£lqle caucdalci rum lip.-inapiior qdcrm:c gicrnali 
mcrcardcbi:feprcdeiitllcrcpoltocrcdirore.£ladutacalla Ict^rcdcuelTvr porta dcbirrui. 
t'mai p nullo rpo nel mancgiomacatcko.lacafla po ccrr folo dcbunci overo 
para.^ero cr> qii nd bilaeio del libro (1 trouade credim'ci denot arebcerrorc nel libf eomo 
difonoaluolototcdaroliimana record jnva.Ora nclenoranalc dun priradeioiiranufi 
Dcuc mcttcrc c dittarc in quclro modo. yy p 


you must state in your memorandum book with precision the way that you have made the purchase, or have 
somebody else do it for you, and you will do well. 

You buy on time usually when you buy guati or oats, wines, salt, remnants from a butcher shop, and 
fats. In these cases, the seller promises to the buyer to give all the guati that he will have in that season. 
The butcher will sell you and promises to give you all the hearts, skins, fat, etc., that he will have during 
that year. This kind for so much a pound, that kind for so much a pound, etc., and similarly for the fat 
of beef, of mutton, etc. ; the black skins of mutton at so much apiece j and the white mutton skins, etc., and 
so with the oats, or guati; you must specify the price for each bushel or other measure and the kind of oats 
as is the custom at Chiusi de Perugia. In buying guati you must see whether they are of our city San Se- 
polcro, or Mercatello, or Sant' Angelo, or Citta de Costello, or Porli, etc. 

In this memorandum book, whether kept by you or by others, you must mention every single point. 
You state the things in a simple way as they happened, and then the skillful bookkeeper, after four or five 
days, or eight days, may enter all these transactions from the said memorandum book into the Journal, day 
by day ; with this difference, though, that it is not necessary for him to put down in the Journal all the 
long lines of words that were used in the memorandum book, because it is sufficient to put them down in 
an abridged way, and besides, references should always be made from one book to the other. Those that 
are used to keeping these three books in the way we have said never must enter one thing in Journal if 
they have not first entered it in the memorandum book. This will be enough as to the arrangement of 
the said memorandum book, whether it is kept by you or others. Remember that there are as many ways 
to buy as to sell ; therefore, I need not explain the ways of selling, because you knowing of the ways of 
buying can understand the selling. 



The second common mercantile book is called the Journal (Giomalc) which, as we have said, must 
have the same mark that is on the memorandum book and the pages marked as we have said in talking of 
the memorandum book. 

Always at the beginning of each page you must put down the date, and then, one after another, enter 
all the different items of your inventory. 

In this Journal, which is your private book, you may fully state all that you own in personal or real 
property, always making reference to the inventory papers which you or others may have written and 
which are kept in some box, or chest, or filza, or mazzo, or pouch, as is customary and as is usually done 
with letters and other instruments of writing. 

The different items entered in the said Journal ought to be entered there in a neater and more syste- 
matic way, not too many or too few words, as I will show in the few following examples. But first of all 
you must know that there are two words or expressions {termini) necessary in the keeping of a Journal, 
used according to the custom of the great City of Venice, and of these I will now speak. 



As we have said, there are two expressions {termini) used in the said Journal; the one is called "per," 
and the other is called "a," each of which has a meaning of its own. "Per" indicates the debtor {debitore) 
one or more as the case may be, and "a," creditor {creditore) , one or more as the case may be. Never is 
any item entered in the Journal which also is to be entered in the Ledger, without preceding it by one of 
the two expressions. At the beginning of each entry, we always provide "per," because, first, the debtor 
must be given, and immediately after the creditor, the one separated from the other by two little slanting 
parallels {virgolette) , thus, //, as the example below will show. 



With the name of God you shall begin to enter into your Journal the first item of your Inventory, 
that is, the quantity of cash that you possess, and in order to know how to enter this Inventory into the 
Ledger and Journal, you must make use of the two other expressions {termini) ; the one called "cash" 
{cassa) and the other "capital" {cavedale). By cash is understood your property or pocketbook {borscia: 
from bursa, or bag) ; by capital is understood the entire amount of what you now possess. 

This capital must always be placed as creditor {creditore) in all the principal mercantile Ledgers and 
Journals and the cash always debtor. Never at any time in the management of your business may cash be 
creditor, but only debtor unless it balances. For if, in balancing your book, you find that cash is in the 
credit, it would denote a mistake in the book, as I will remind you hereafter at its proper place. Now this 
entry ought to be made in the Journal, and ought to be arranged in this way : 




B iftinctio nona . Xracfa tus-rf -Be fmptiOte 
f o?ma 6 merrcr i gfomafc. Ohxca'.tiixtiilz oisnoucjwe i vcnegia. 



" caflb oc etoanri. 5 caucdal oc mi rale 7C\p cotanri mi'trouo i qlla al pfuc.fra 020 e mo 
notaryro c ramo 6 oiucrfi cognuoc ape i lo fogiio odo iuerario pofto i cafl&.sc. i rutro 
ouc.ran oo:o-£ monerc ouc.ranrival i rutro almodo nfovcnirtano.a o:o.doc a groflla 4 
pcpouc".epiciolt'.^.pcrco-oiroaS;.aoK). a*. & P g p 

l^cr gioie licytc c oiftigarc oc piu fori: B caucdal oirro. per balafli ranri. ligari 7c. pcrano 
7C.£ fafflfranri 7c.c rubini e diamari 7cX6c age at fop:aditto iucrario.Ciualt meno n j 
lot a como coMb.l1balafltranro.7c. £cofioiraiocri3feuiufo:raiuopgio cduno.mon 
tatio in runooncari ranri 7c. vaguano. % P g p 

£ banedo ru nominaro mauolta cl oi.£ anco» el oebirox.c anco:ad crcdicox.nd tramc 
candofe altra ptlra poi oirc. £ 01 oirro-i^cr oitto.£ al Ditto 7cpcr piu bxuita. * J . 

#*r argenti lauojari: ill otrro cbe fintedc pur el caucdal p pen fate argcri cA prirc mi trouo 
doe jBacjIi t3nri 7c.£ rami rami 7C*.£ ratfc rantc 7C.£ piron jaiiri 7c.£ coulter tare 7c. 
pcfanoinrurroranro7c.val % f g £ 

Ddtincucdo.bcnc 01 poto p dftc p:imc prire ogni cola coe fefh* in lo inucraao. I&anedoli 
tu pre vncoinunpaio.£ fallograflb piu pxfto cbt mag/odbc 0c ri part dx vaglino. 
2«.c tu vC.i 4. 7cBcio dx mcglio re babia rcufcirc d guadagno £ cofi oe mano in inano 
ponairutrclalcrc cofecon fiioipdin'.c valutc.7C. 4*. 
$*r panm oc lana oc ooflb: £1 oirrop vcfte ranrc ot' ml eolox 7c\£ a ral foggia 7c ;f ode > 
rate 7c.vfate vcro noue 7c.3 mio ooflb-o vcro oe la ima oona.o ucro oe nguoli 7cfl£>ct 
to valerc a comune Ih'maJuna p tutro ouc ranri 7C.£ p maitccUi rati oc tal coktie 
7c£c<oiec(hClewfteecofiotraioetu«ioittipaniprutto, 5*. % f g p 
jfcer pani fini: ai oitto p lenc,olt tanri 7C, £ tutro narra commc fta in lo inucntario. mootf 
no£vag!iano.7C. **• % g a 

;&rlcmoVpiuma:£loitto7cpptumetatc 7C.£ qui narra commo ftainlo foucntano. 
montanoovagliano, f> % g p 

•ptr fencer mecbini: 31 dirro.t> colli tanri 7c.narra como i conrencmomano e 
vaglianoa comune fh'ma7c.Ducranri7c % f g p 

£ cofi poi ru f> re frcfib fa} rai oi po:rc turte lalrre prirc oe qlalrrc robbcoedafcuna fact^ 
do fua ptira.fepata.como c} cc'ccr fe oi'no.^oncdoli pgto oe comu co:fo.coimno oifop:a 
c oirto. £lo2 n? fegni^ pdi.commo oe ponro ftano i oirro {bgho oiuerario»£bi'anMdo oen 
t ro laprira .cB moncta cf3 ru roll •£ nel rrar foja.con uc pot S ficno a vita fo:ra. l&crcb noit 
rlan'a benca cauar fo:a a oiucrfc fbae 7C. £ rutrc oirre pnrc 6 giomale (ercrai a 1 '.awna u 
rando la riga.-oe cr to oura rua fcrtprura. narrariua. fin al rcrmine the ft rra fo: a. £1 mede 
f imo modo feruarai ale prirc oel memo?iale 7c£ f cbc tu od mcnion'alc tuertarai i gio;ua vnafola.nga.arraucrfo cofi./. 
ctS who wr j qlla rale pnta.ccr polb i (ogio;na!c 7C.£ fe ru non volcm trauerfare la priVo 
vna Iinea.e ru I iciara t. la pMfa od pneipio ocla pj it a.o ucro (uuiaxommo al capo oi q(ra^ 
fa no. O vcro faratc ru 00 re qlcft alf.fcgno.rale cb tu i r cda .p qllo oirca prira ccr Ita to mcf 
fa igi'o:nalc7c£ aucgacb ru na re poiYmfarcmoln ' van) couuTiircrnu'iii e wine 
no teoebt'fcp?c(rudiaVc oc vfarc liconium.clx p lialrri iraficarii ralpacfc ficolrunu oifa - 
re. Bdowon para ru fia oidrfpanre caIufiratomodoincrcatcfco7c. 

bri ;°.edn.°.!ibr ptidpale mercarefco.oerro (I qderno como ocba ccr fart e %\ focal/a 
bcto commo fcocbiao:dinarr.vgno(oeoopio. Cap? |£ £poflecUiuba 

rai oiAwmm'cxc nitre le tuoi prite a I gi o:n j f cpoi bifogna cbc oi qllo Jc cam € poctile in lo 
3°.!rtwo turro qderno grade.£lql comttnamcrcHt eolhuna fare oe ooi tate earn cbel giccna 
le.Jn f oqle conuerra vno aifabao.o?ero "Rtprono ovoi oir Xrouardlo fo akuni. ala 
fio?crina fe oici lo ftrarro. j^t I ql po:2aiturti ocbiro:i4: crediroa. Per le If c cbc conKn(jno 
eon lo n'.oclc fue carri.doc quclli cbe cotneiKa p. a. i. a.?c. £ od oopio alfabcto.£ qprto 
fimilmcrc commo fop?a oiccmo conuie c(5 fia fcgnaro od medemo fcgno cbl gio« w/r c me 
1 u oa'alc.-j&ofloui d n*.oclc fue ca:ii. £ oif op:a i margtue.oa luna bada c (altra. d imlcfjmo 
£ in la prima, fua carta.ocnrro po:rai ocbimdla carta, fi commo ellaela p J . ud gioerraK-. 
cofi oeue cere p'.ncl qderno. €.■ runa qlla colhima ttfarla Rare per ofaa cafia.£ in 
Oar nc i l?auere non ft pone alrro.£ qfto p cbe la calTa Tc maneaia piu clx pn'ra Sfio.3 o?a 
P o^.i mcrrer e cauar oinari.£ po life lafta cl capolargo.£ qfto qderno coutfdx fia riqa 
garo.oc tire rtglx.qpre dx fone monetc volitrar fo?c. iBc trarai. t f> 6 p. f »rat-4.nglx. 
c oinage ale gf.ferane vnaltra.p mctarui d n'.odc earn oc le pcuc cbc tuemi oe oarc. J5 bf 


FIRST. November 8, MCCCCLXXXXIII in Venice. 

Debit 1. J Per cash // A — Capital of myself so and so, etc. In cash I have at present, in gold 

1 and coin, silver and copper of different coinage as it appears in the first sheet of the In- 

Credit 2. * ventory in cash, etc., in total so many gold ducats and so many silver ducats. All this is 

our Venetian money ; that is counting 24 grossi per ducat and 32 picioli per grosso in gold 

3 is worth : L (Lire), S (Soldi), G (Grossi), P (Picioli). 

For the second item you shall say this way : 

SECOND. Per mounted and unmounted precious stones of several kinds //. A capital ditto for so 
many mounted belassi, etc., weighing, etc., and so many sapphires, etc., and rubies and diamonds, etc., as 
the said Inventory shows to which, according to current prices I give these values : Belassi worth, etc. ; 
and so you shall state a price for each kind in total that are worth so many ducats. Their value is 

L , S , G , P 

After you have once named the day, the debtor and the creditor, you may say for brevity — if you 
don 't make any other entry in between : On the day ditto, per ditto, // a ditto. 

THIRD. Per silver //. A ditto — by which capital is understood — for several kinds of silver which at 
present I possess — that is, wash basins so many, so many coppers, so many cups, so many pironi, and so 
many cosilier, etc., weighing in total so much. Their value is : L , S , G , P 

You shall give all the details in entering these items for everything as you have them in the Inven- 
tory, giving to each thing a customary price. Make the prices rather higher than lower ; for instance, if it 
seems to you that they are worth 20, you put down 24, so that you can make a larger profit ; and so you will 
enter everything, putting down for each thing its weight, number, value, etc. 

FOURTH. Per woolen clothes //. A ditto, for so many clothes of such and such color, etc., of such 
and such style, etc., lined, etc., new or used, etc., for myself or for my wife or for my children, I give the 
total value, according to the current price, so many ducats. And for cloaks, so many of such and such 
color, etc., and so on, for all the other clothes : L , S , G , P 

FIFTH. Per linen //. A ditto, for so many bed sheets, etc., and put down their number and value 
as the Inventory shows : L , S , G , P 

SIXTH. Per feather beds //. A ditto, etc., for so many feathers — and here put down all that the In- 
ventory shows, number and value : L , S , G , P 

SEVENTH. Per ginger //. A ditto, for so many packages, etc., giving all the details that are con- 
tained in the Inventory, number, value, according to common prices, etc., so many ducats : 

L , S , G , P 

In this way you can continue to enter all the other items, making a separate entry for each different 
lot, and as we have said before, giving the current prices, number, marks, weights, as the Inventory shows. 
Indicate only one kind of money, to which you reduce the estimated values. In the column for the 
amounts, only one kind of money should appear, as it would not be proper to have appear in this column 
different kinds of money. 

You shall close each entry in the Journal by drawing a line from the end of the last word of your de- 
scriptive narrative (explanation) up to the column of the figures. You shall do the same in the memoran- 
dum book, and as you transfer an entry into the Journal from the memorandum book, you shall draw a 
single diagonal line (una sola riga a traverso) through it in this way /; this will show that this item has 
been entered (posta) in the Journal. 

If you should not draw this line through the entry, you shall check off (lanciarai) the first letter of 
the beginning of the entry, or the last letter, as we have done at the beginning of this ; or otherwise you shall 
use some other sign by which you will understand that the said item has been transferred into the Journal. 
Although you may use many various and divers expressions or marks, nevertheless you must try to use 
the common ones which are used by the other merchants, so that it will not look as if you would deviate 
from the usual mercantile custom. 



After you have made all your entries in the Journal in an orderly way, you must transfer them to the 
third book, called Ledger (Quaderno Grande, i. e., big book). This Ledger contains usually twice as many 
pages as the Journal. In it there must be an alphabet or repertory or "trovarello" (finding key) accord- 
ing to some ; the Florentines call it "Stratto." In this index you shall write down all the debtors and cred- 
itors in the order of their initial letter, together with the number of their respective pages. You shall put 
the names that begin with A in the A page, etc. 

This Ledger, as we have said before, must bear the same sign or mark that is on the Journal and mem- 
orandum book; its pages should be numbered; and at the top at the right margin as well as at the left 
margin, you shall put down the date. On the first page you shall enter cash as debtor. As in the Journal, 
so in the Ledger, cash should be entered on the first page. It is customary to reserve the whole of the first 
page to cash, and not to enter anything else either under the debit (in dare) or the credit (mi havere). 
This because the cash entries are more numerous than all others on account of almost continuously paying 
out and receiving money ; therefore, it needs much space. This Ledger must be ruled, and should have as 
many lines as there are kinds of money that you want to enter. If you enter lire, soldi, denari and picioli, 
you shall draw four lines, and in front of lire you shall draw another line in order to put in the number 
of the pages of the Ledger debit and credit entries. 


Bfrtindo nona .Zraetafue. jri'.Be fcripf arte 102 

ticrc fe fcatcnano.£ tx'nike f jrai. : .ngbc. p pottre mcttcx. It oi mano i mano. commo nc 
li aim qdcrni bai vifto cbc pt'u non in titc jo i qrto Tc.p porcr trouar plto Iconic 7c. £ pur 
fir j fcgnatocroa commo lialtn. 

b d modo a po.nar ic pure oc giomalc m quadcrno.e pdx oc una in $io?naIc fcnc facta 
ooiin quadcrno:c ocl modo a ocpcnnare leprirc in giorualc c oc liooi numcri ode carri 
od quadcrno dx in k fuc marginc fi pone c pdx. Cap' 1 4. 

£r laqual cofa.fappj dx oi nitre Ic pritc dx tu barai pofh: in qua 
dcrno gradctc nc couc 1 cp:c fart oouioc vno in oare c lalrra in bauerc pdx Mi 
d>iama oebiroxp lo. $cr. £ lo creditor p lo. M. como oifop:a oiccmo d? 6 ocuc oa pfc fare 1 \prita:qila od ocbuo:c.ponerc ala man fini 
ftra. £ qlla ocl crcdirox.ala man ocjrtra.£ in qlla ocl oebitojccbiamarelacarta. oouc fia 
qlla od fuoVrf dt'ro:c£ co(T\n qlla ocl crcditOTcebiamarc lacarra oi qlla oouc fia. £1 fuo 
ocbiro:c£ in qfto modo fepx ucgano incancnatc tunc Ic pnrc od oirro qdcrno grade, ncl 
ql maifiocucmctttrccofain oarc cbc qlh anco:a non fiponga in bauc:c£coii nuiiioc 
uc mctrcrccofa in baucfc dx anco?a.qlIa mcdcfima co fuo at not a re 116 ft mctta in oare. £ 
01 qua nafdpoialbilando clx od lib°.fi fa.ncl fuo faldo raro eouic dx fia d oarcquo lauc 
rc.£ioc fiimarcruttc Ic price dx firano poflc in oare fe foffcro bene. 1 0000. oa pre in fu vn 
fogl io.£ oi poi lu mare fimilmete tntrc qlle cbc in Ixiucrc li rrouano. ranto ocboc fare (11113 
fumina cfto lalrra-altramete oemoflrarebbe cere crroxndoinoqdcruo.coe ncl modo del 
far fuobilando fe oira apieno tt£ cofi rocouna oe gibrnale nc foi.2&l qdcrno.cofi a qlla 
ptiia dx od giomale leui farai ooirigbc a trauc:fo fo cbrai lcuando.cioc Ic p J .ru la metri i 
oare. pfu farai 1 *.riga atrauerfo. vcri al prin^.octa prira.dx oinora ccr polta in oarc al q 
dcrno.£ fe la merri in bauerc.o prima.0 poi coc acade ale uolte fare al qdemicri <tdo li aca 
defcriucre i luogo.cP* lim qlla carta li nandcra.2.0.5. p no uibauere a romarc.fcne 1'pac.a oi 
mfttcrieli alow.£ po fo dx metre cod Ocuc ocpennarc p bauerla meffa in baucrcfarai lal 
era ocpcnatura.vcrTo man oerrra.oal cmo oouc nnrfrila pfira dx dnotara ccr meife i ba 
uerc.leql lince ftaranno coc oifop?a m qfto uedi figuraro a laptka.ife> a .odacal6. lime oitra 
iinca .oe oare.c lalt'.oe bauere.£ cofioalaro I marginc oinan^e at»p:indpio bifogiia dx po 
gbi.: jiu'.luno fotto lalrro.ql oi (opia dx ocnori (a prira.ocl ocbitox.a qptc- carti cbc la fia 
pofta in lo qdcrno £ qllo oc (otto dx ocnori Ic carri.oc oitto qdcrno.'ooue fra polfo el arc* 
duw-eoc vedi li ala ptita oela cafla oifopia t qfto.dx lb cofi.;. fc\a rramc^o. £ ancoza al 
cuni coflumano cofi co rramc^o. J. a guifa oc rotti.dx no fa cafo.fHfea t piu bcllo fen^a rra 
mc«o. Brio ad>i vede no parcflcro fpeftari. O vero rotti ti.£ vol oire qllo. 1 °.oj fopja dx 
(a cafla.£ liclla p'-carra ocl qdcrno.£l cauedalc£ nella fa carta oe oitto qderno.i tonet c. 
t qlla in oarc ?c.£ nota dx fcp:e qro piu pffo ru po:rai mcttcre dcreditox al fuo ocbrtoic. 
fcra piu iKadro.auega dx pofto ooue fiuoglia tanto mori.fl^ p rifpetto ocl milcfi mo.tbc 
ale udre fe itcrpoe fra 1 a .pri J .e lalt a refpqde malc.£ co poca.fe ritrouano lo? tpi 
coc fa cbi $nz cb ogni cola cofi apieno 116 fi po oircclDa bilb'.cb aco?a ru alcrro co ruo tta 
turalc ingegno ta iuri.£ po fep:c Irudla oaferrur ditto crcdirore immediate a pflb cl fuo dc 
bitox in la medema faa'ara.o vero ila imediarc feq intcrponcdoui fra luno c 
rraprira.^ocbene^?iogib:nocbenafdeldcbito2einqllo medemo nafci d crcditox 
£ p qflo rifpetto fcpre fe dcuc acoftar luno a lalt° 7c. 

bd modo a Tape dittarele ptite de lacaffa e caucdale nel quadcrno in dare c l»uerc:e «M 

milcfimo dxoifop?a ncl prindpio oela carra a lanrico fi mctte in cflb:e dclo fua mutarionc 

edelcopti rlifpacij dclecarn'rbleptitepiccoleegradtfodbifognooelcfaccdc. £ap*. ij. 

/rt-r2«|0:qftccofc dtfco:fc.a mo amacllrJiitcto.oMiwidiratnola p J .prinde laivffc i 

SH d3rc e poi qlla del caucdal in bancrc in lo I'.bro gradc.Of>a coc c duto p\ defo- 

R« P- a nd quadcrno po:rct cl milcfimo alabacco antico. cioc per alfabcto cofi. 

3 Qb cccclrrrriii.7C.£l di no fecoJhima mettarlo difopra in loquado'iio coc in 

Iogio2nale.pdxi\ptitainquacjenio.baradiiicrt"idi.£pon6fipo2ra fcruar o:dmc deli 
di.difopra coc apieno ncl fcqntecap'.fc dira.£)f?>a dctro dcla ptita coe intcdcrat'lap a uolfa 
£ poicofidalato in lo fpadodx difopra diccmo dinani'c ala ptita.q'dotal'parrita nafcclle 
daltro milcfimo clx difopja nel prindpio dcla carta- foflc fcritto clx folc auenirc acbi dc on 
no in anno no ripojta e falda fuoijibri ficbe tal milcfimo fipo?ra difuora.nndoin marginc 
ripcrto a poto a qlla prita linata coc uedi pofto quidifotto.qfto folo auenc in lib? grandc 
cbc in It aim' no po auenirc. boca otaai cofi.t?acdola fore pure alabacco arico p piu belief 

p ii 


Before these lines you shall draw two more lines wherein to mark the dates as you go on, as you have seen 
in the other books, so that you may find each item quickly. This book shall also bear the sign of the cross 
as the others. 



For each one of all the entries that you have made in the Journal you will have to make two in the 
Ledger. That is, one in the debit {in dare) and one in the credit (in havere). In the Journal the debtor is in- 
dicated by per, -the creditor by a, as we have said. In the Ledger you must have an entry for each of them. 
The debitor entry must be at the left, the creditor one at the right ; and in the debitor entry you must indi- 
cate the number of the page of the respective creditor. In this way all the entries of the Ledger are chained 
together and you must never make a credit entry without making the same entry with its respective amount 
in the debit. Upon this depends the obtaining of a trial balance (bilancio) of the Ledger. 

There can not be a closing (saldo) because there must be as much in credit as there is in debit. 
In other words, you shall add together all the debit entries, even if there are ten thousand, on a separate 
sheet, and then add together in the same way all the credit entries ; the totals of the one should be the same 
as the totals of the other ; otherwise it would show that some mistake has been made in the Ledger. We 
will speak at length about this when we talk about the way of making the trial balance (bilancio). And 
since for one entry of the Journal you make two in the Ledger, you shall draw two diagonal lines as you 
make the transfer — that is, if you first transfer the debit entry, you shall first draw a diagonal line (riga 
a traverso) at the beginning of the entry in the Journal which shows that the entry has been posted (posta) 
to the debit into the Ledger. If you transfer the credit entry, either at this time or later, as it often happens 
that the bookkeeper can make two or three entries on the same page in order to prevent his coming back to 
write on that same page — in which case he should draw a line at the right side where the entry terminates. 
This will show that the entry has been transferred to the credit of the Ledger. These two lines, you may see 
in the preceding diagram, drawn in the margin by the first cash entry ; the one is called debit line, and the 
other credit line. At the side, in the marginal part, you shall write down two numbers before the beginning 
of the entry, the one under the other. The upper indicates at what page of the Ledger the debit entry is, 
and the lower indicates the page of the Ledger where the credit is, as you will see at the cash entry in the 
above example, like this \, without a line between them. Some are accustomed to draw a line in between, 
like this, \. This does not matter, but it looks nicer without the line between, so that the figures will not 
appear to the reader as if they were fractions. The upper figure, 1, means cash was entered in the first 
page of the Ledger, and capital was entered in the second page of the said Ledger ; the cash on the debit, 
and the capital on the credit side. You should know that the closer to the debtor you can place the creditor, 
the nicer it will look. It is just the same, however, no matter where it is ; but it may look bad on account 
of the date which at times must be put between entries, and it makes it difficult then to find the dates. 
We can not tell you everything fully, but you with your natural ingenuity must guide yourself. Therefore 
you always try to put the said creditor immediately after its debtor on the same line or on the line imme- 
diately following without entering anything else in between, for whenever there is a debit item there must 
exist at the same time a credit item. For this reason, get the one as near as possible to the other. 



After having told you these things for your instruction, we write now the first entry of the cash in 
the debit column, and then the first entry of the capital in the credit column, in the Ledger. But, as we 
have said, you shall write down in the Ledger the year in the old way by using the alphabet, 
thus : MCCCCLXXXXIII, etc. It is not customary to put the day at the top in the Ledger as in the 
Journal, because one account in the Ledger may have several dates, and therefore you can not keep the 
dates in order by putting them at the top ; but you shall put the days in the body of the entry, as you 
will understand hereafter. 

We put the day to one side, in the space of which I have spoken, just before the entry. If an item re- 
fers to a transaction which happened in a different year than that written at the top of the page, which 
happens when one does not balance and transfer his books at the end of each year, then this year shall 
be put on the side, in the margin near the entry of the item to which it refers. This only happens in the 
Ledger, and can not happen in the other books. In making this entry for the year, use the antique let- 
ters, which are neater, 


Difo'nctfo nona. tnctJtD3.rf*J&c fm'ptur(0 

non oftncno aqual dx tu tc caui non fa cafo ic. bonca piral cofi. 

yfta. dft.eccc Irrrn'u- 
£iffa oc cotanri ok oarc a oi. 8-noucbx.pcr cauedal per con tanri oc piu foxc fra ox> e mo 
mttincrrouobfliia-cinqufllainqucllopxrenrcDnnruttoca.i. S-r™.f g p 
£ qui nobifogna dx rroppo re ftcda.p baucr be gia Itcfo in gio:nalc. Af>j fc?np:c Itudia 
wr bxue.Za prima nd eomengrc fc wci alquanto:alc fcquetf in la medema fd fc oiri.e a 
oioirro7c.perlotale. car. . S f' g p 

t aqual cofi porta dx Ibaraiocpenarai in giojnalc in oarc com m* fop* tc wffi. £ poi i ba 
ucr per lo cauedal oirai c ofi. v*. 

ybe df^cccf.trrrrui 

£aucdal oc mi talc 7e.oic bauere a oi.8noucmbx.pcr caffc.pcr contami mc trouo in qud 

lannalwprcfcntcinoric'mcmacocpiufoxcintutto. can. |JC"J o g o p o 

£ cofianco?a.i qfta bafta fucriniamctc oirc per lacagion fop?a oirta.talrre poiclx q* MB 

a!a medema prira.fir l>aaeranno apoxe fin dx la fia picua bartara adire.£ a oi tanri 7c".pcr 

fatal cofa 7<f. £6c ucdiaccnato quioa ca nro. c anco in fin oi qftobarai crcmplo. cofi fcqw 

rai con bxuita m turte marime in quelle partite dx a te folo a f pettano.cioe dx non bai a 

rendere conto adal cuno. dfca in ql(e cbe tu bauerai a rendt re coto adaknalq'co piu ti co 

uerra oirc.aucnga dx ff mpx fe rccoxc-per le d>iarcftc al giomale 7e.£ poi oarai lalrra oc 

pen at ura.a qlla od giomalc in baucre.c6c fopra n oifli in.i : .cap ? £ in lamarginc oauan' 

ti.a!a prira.poxaf li ocrf numericde oifli pur in oitro loco ode earn ooue fono. £\ debirox 

el crcditox-aoe qllo od ocbiroxocfop?a.£ qllo od credirox oe fono coe faccino oifopw. 

ala prita oc laeafla.£ pen fubito poxai in lo tuo alfabeto.doc rcptojio.qfto oebirox c crcdi 

eox-ognuno ala fua Ira ccx fai dx oifop?a oiiTiXioc la la Ira. £. oicedo ocrro in q > 

fto modo-eioeXarta oe cotanri. K. i . £ anco?a el cauedal pozrai al. £ wcendo. £a 

ucdalocmt.pprio. k. z. £ cofi p tuo ingegnoadaraiafaiando.ruttcleptite.clinol 

tx li ocbttori perfoe e robbe 7c.£ cofi oe creditori-poxai nd oitto repcrtorio. a lefuc latere 

oeiopoiconfaciTiiapofn'fiibitorcrrouariiinoirro quaderno grande 7 cetera. 

£ nota cbe bauendo tu pduto d mo qdemo p alcun cafo oerobana.o inccdio oi foco.o 
naufragii 7C.£ baucdo tu luno oc li aim doi limXioc memoriale.o varo giornale. co effo 
po?rai fempx refarc vnalrro qderno^o le meddime ptite a oi g ot.£ poner Ic a( nume?o Ot 
fe medefime dx i ql pfo fi rcrrouauano.iiBa rime Ixmedo tu el gio;na!c.couc q'do nc leua 
(li le ptite. £ poc fh' allib'.ni imangie pone ft i.l i ooi nu'.Dl i rebi ic:i c acdito: 1 .1 u o foura U( 
tro dx d^iamauano le cmi. od qdemodoneranofituaru dipoto atante cam li po?rai fa 
re hfo?nar co tuo iugegno 7c-£ qflo bafh' qto a vna prita pol ta 7c. ftci la fi prita dS 
fo dele {ofe a( qd«no ponedola a fuocodecete luogo dittarai cofi.£ pri J . fempre fen^a piu 
te rcplicbi .poxai difop?a nd principk) dda milcrimo fc novi foffc pofto p altra pti 
ca.p 1 . podx ale noire in vna m edema facia d qiudeni ie:i afenar a. : .0. ;pntc fo cbe coguo 
feera lo fpario eer baft ate al man wio di qlla. pebe fak ucdara qlla talc prita Ixiucrfi dxa/ 
rchadcadoperar.£pq(rofidaravn luocopiu angulro.dx a quelle dxfptffo liacadc.a 
dopareiafa giomara coe difop? cap? 1 ;°. de la carta e cauedal fo ocrro ql ftcofhimaua 
tafarli rutta Jafariata od lib'.pdx fpeffilli'ine fiadepecre gr5di le faeedc fitonuegano ma* 
negiare. £ qrto fol fi fa pno baucr taro rpcrtb afar rcporro inac/r 7C.02aal,ppofito rrouaro 
(1 d loco coe fe oief-diraicofi in darcaoe wfoVnan finirtracofi fempre f3 apozrc el debiro. 
£>iocde piu fone. dienno dare a di-S.noucbx.p eaur dalc.'j^pc^ci 11? tanti 7C.pefano tmo 
«4Jequalifanrifonnobalaffi legari7C.£ tann?afili7C. £ tarirubinicocultgni 7C. £ tanri 
dtamanri crcd 7c. lequali tn runo.o vero a fojp per fo:ra metro ralcre a eomun pgio.oe co 
tanri di>cranri7C>af car. 2 S4o^o.g jpo. 

£ cod prita in giomalc.nel dare nrando k Una comme dc fopra al. 1 1 r cap? 
ccdint£poiandaraia|caueda(.£ poxaiqfta medcmaconmacoparoUeperlcragfongu 
dffopra adutte in quefto capitolo eporrala in bauere forto qudla p^'gia libai pofto dela 
caffa. £diraicofi.V5. 

a di o detro.per c.oic dc pin commo li apare 7c. car.;. 5 .4o.f o^; 0. p o. 

£ cofipofta farai laltra giomale i bauef.coe te mofrraidifbpra al. 1 2 \a\ 
£ poxai i margine li numen t3le carri. douc ral prirc al quaderno ponefb' como dWcmmo 
vnofopratalrro^omme quidenancc apare dx inetto Ixibi porta la ptita in dar a earn. i.£ 
qlla dcfcaucdal fta pure alogo fuo a carri.2 .p/in tanto dxlla non e pienaxlx dipoi um'ap 

although it does not matter very much. 
Thus, you shall put it this way : 


Cash is debtor (dee dare — shall give) on November 8, "per" capital. On this day I have in moneys of 
different kinds, gold and other coins ; page 2 : L.X m , S , G , P 

Here you do not need to be very lengthy if you have already given the description in the Journal. 
Try to be very brief. 

At the beginning of the page we say more, but in the entries following it is enough to say: on ditto, 
"per" such and such; page, etc., L , S , G , P 

After you have made the entry in this way, you shall cancel in the Journal as I have explained to you. 
Then in the credit side you shall write down this way : 


Capital of myself, so and so, is creditor (dee haver e — shall have) on November 8, "per" cash. On 
this day I have in cash, in gold and other kinds of money ; page 1 : 

This entry is also sufficient ; express yourself briefly for the reason above said. If there are other items 
to be entered in the same account, it will be enough to say, on ditto, "per" such and such, etc., as has just 
been shown. At the end of this treatise, I will give you an example, and thus you will go on expressing 
yourself briefly especially in those things which are private — that is, of which you do not have to give an 
account to any one. But as to other things for which you have to give an account to other people, it will 
be better for you to be more explicit, although for explanations we always rely on the Journal. Then you 
will cancel, by drawing a line, the credit entry in the Journal as I have said above in Chapter 12. In the 
margin, just opposite the entry, you shall write down the two numbers of the pages where the debit and 
credit entries are. That is, you should put the number of the debit page above, and the number of the 
credit page below, as we have done above in the cash entry. Then you shall at once enter in the alphabet 
or repertory (index) this debtor and this creditor, each one under its own letter as I have told you before. 
That is, cash at the letter C, by saying in this way : Cash, page 1. And capital also at the letter C, saying ; 
Capital belonging to me, page 2. And so on, you shall enter (in this repertory) all the creditors under 
their respective letters, so that you may find them easily in the Ledger mentioned. 

Take notice, that if by any chance you should lose this Ledger through robbery, or fire, or shipwreck, 
etc., if you have either of the other two books, that is, the memorandum book or Journal, you can, by means 
of this book always make up another Ledger with the same entries, day by day, and enter them on the same 
pages on which they were in the last book ; especially so, if you have the Journal in which, when you trans- 
ferred the different entries into the Ledger, you wrote down at the margin the two numbers of the debit 
entry page, and the credit entry page, the one above the other, which two numbers indicated the pages of 
the ledger where the two entries had been entered. In this way you can duplicate your Ledger. This is 
enough said for the posting of one entry. 

For the second entries, which pertains to precious stones, you shall enter in the Ledger as follows : 

FIRST, without my telling it to you over again, you shall write down at the top of the page the date, 
if there has been no date written before because of another account, for at times on the same page two or three 
accounts are made. Sometimes you won't give much space to one special account because you know that 
you will not have to use that account over again. Therefore you will give to this account a smaller space 
than the space you give to other accounts which you had to use more, as we have said above in Chapter 13, 
when talking about cash and capital, to which we give the whole page, as we have to use these two ac- 
counts very often because of the many transactions. This is done in order to lessen transfers. 

Now then, after you have found the proper place (in the ledger), you shall write down on the left — 
because the debtor must always be at the left: Precious stones of many kinds debit (dienno dare — shall 
give), on November 8, per capital, for so many pieces, etc., weighing so much, so many are counted balassi, 
etc., and so many sapphires, etc., and so many rubies, etc., and so many unpolished diamonds in bulk (or 
divide the different kinds), for a value of so many ducats; page 2: L40; SO; GO; PO. 

You shall cancel this item in the Journal on the debit side by drawing a line as I have told you in 
Chapter 12. And then you will go to capital, and you shall enter this entry with fewer words, for the rea- 
sons above expressed in this chapter, writing it down on the credit side under the first entry that you have 
already made, and you shall express yourself this way: 

On the day, or ditto, for precious stones of several kinds, as it appears at page 3 : L40 ; SO ; GO ; PO. 

After which you shall draw another line on the credit side of the Journal, as I have shown in Chap- 
ter 12 ; you shall put down in the margin the two numbers of the pages of the Ledger in which you have 
made these entries, one above the other, as I have told you. We shall say, for instance, that you have en- 
tered the debit entry at page 3 ; the capital entry will still appear at page 2, as long as that page is not 


OWindonorta.JCi^artatu^.ri'.Bffmptarte 2<n 

a tuttc lativ la pccrarai.c6inc pifotto nc repom' intcdcrai apicno.£ qfto p qft a.e a fue fftnf 
T(t iia baftare 7C.£ pofta dx laraf al oitto q'derno. £ afettare in riffnwifc tu fubito lapor • 
rai al rcptorio o vero alfabcto.coc oifop:a i qfto cap' fo octro. £ioc ala ma Ira. 0. o vcro. 
3- fot><1?< l:a la .pfcrirai.coc iduirrfi pacfiacadc.clx qui i uincgia molro ficoftumo pone 
reel. 3- roue noiin rofcana poncmo cl g.ficlx 3co»ilarala tu a ttio $uchcio 7C. 

£6e fc Pcbino pittarc Icjxirc oclcmcrcanric dx per inuenrario o aliro inodo Ibonio feri 
t rouamd q uadcrno'in Dare c in baucrc. /Cap*. i 6*. 

£ altrc4-B"tcpoiru fcqucripcl tuo mobilerioc argeri.r^ni.lini.lctriocpium3 
£ vclre w poflb 7C.i*>oi p re ftcfTo facrt mere mctfarai pel iucrano in gio;nalc PC 
poto coeli lc poncfti.pcnotatc.pclx coe oiccmo oifop:a cap*.6? qfto tal inuenf J 
rio no ficaua ocl mcmo?ialcp la ragide li afegnat a.£ po fuo oittarc in giomalc 
£ *ncoia nd gri lib? i pare c baucrc. c pi* po:x alalfabcto.I afci'jro o? mai feqVc al ruo pegri 
noingcgnoodql molromdofido £folola.7 J .pritaoc^c«;cr medM'niclxritroniafctrarc 
mo fgi'o?nolc.£ ancoea al qdcrno laql re fia baftate c futfiocre ainacrtrameto a tutfclc altrc 
dx wmcrcaria alcuo- x ritrouafle.baiicdo fcpx tu pa tc inacc glt'ocbilo? n'.pefi.cinifiire c 
Valine i rurri li modiebe ral mcrcatic (c coltumafle vcdcrcc eop:are fra inert 5 n i rialto o fo' Irpaefi.pclc qli cofc ej apieno no c poflibfle poucrc cd fadlita. oa c]ih' pocbi 
c\ eopediofametc pofh' po:rai oi qluealtri ipjcdcre a tua fuflicie\J po dx fe noi volemo oar 
te ereplo pel modo vcrfo c via.oi ntcrcarc 3rrani.lceia.bari.£ bcrota.cioe alo? nomifyxfilo 
ro.£ mifurclojo ?c.£ cofi oela marca.£ andx Pda nfa tofcana.rroppo ferebbe graded 
vohimcefx co bxuita- ftendo condudcre £ p qlla. 7*. pe tfcer nel giomalc. oirc cofi v$. 
•fcer tfne/ri mecbiuii mote a rcfufox> f colli enrat coe a re pare tc. 31 oirto dx fintcde caue 
dal.pdxlipifop:a imcd , iarelarai^o?diHcoeoittoiuetario.c6coiccmo oifbpja cap". \i 9 . 
in la ptita fa pc le coic.p. colli tantipcfano.7c. £p.&.tantc cfdofofTcro arefuflb i mote 7C. 
qlime retrouo bauere in lemani al df pure metto oieomu co:fo wlereel c°.o vcro la $,7C. 
puctanri7cm6fanofntutronetrfpuc.ranri76val $ f g p 

£ cofi porta eb' laraincl gio?naIe.£ tu al mcmo?iale.o veroinuetario.latMpena.e 
modo Ditto fop'.al.i 2°.cap? 7c.£ cofi obfuaraip tuttc lalr t .7c.£>i (Jfracoe fo oetto e oc qfu 
dx altra dx i gio?nale ft metta.fcprc al gran lib'.fifanno Doppie.cioe i \i oare.e lalrra i ba 
ucrc coe difopja otccmo c;p.i 4°.la qual poind quademo in oare.poncndola oirtarala i 
qflo modo.i^ofto p'.fepx el mileftmo fe no ui foffe in capo ocla carra.faa mcttarui cl gioz 
no oifop?a po dx coe cSccmo oifopjacap.i ?? £1 oino ficolrmna pojre fop:a nel p:in? be 
lacarta ocl quadcrno p rifpetto dx in qlla meddima fada potrcbono cere piu pritc oiucr 
fi ocbiro:i e crcdito?i.lequalibcdx lenafd?ino fottovn milcfimo.Of>a firanno in oiucrfi me 
fie^orni.c6eoifco?redopmttopoiapxndcre.£crdobeiie anco:a in oitta facia odlib:o 
grande no vi foffe alrro dx 1 '.fola prita oi caffa. oaltro anco?a cl co:uo pofto oifop.M nel fiporrebbe fcruarc4?dx in oitta pn't a.oco:ira oi mcttcre cafi oco?fi in oiucrfi 
mcfi.£ oi e p qllo c dx li anrid?i oifopza nel quadcrno no Iwno I libri mercatdebi vfitato 
mettere cl giomo.pdx non bano ucduto vcrfo ne via nc modo dx con uerira fipoflfa afet' 
rareilo 7claquaf partita in dare cofi pojraioicedo 7c. 

5eiKeri me dM' montco uero colli 7coicn oarc a oi.8-noncmb:e per cauedal.per colli 
tanri 7cpcfano. S tantc 7c.quali mi trouo baucrc in cafa. uero magatfn al pxfente qual 
oc comun co?fofhmo palere cl cento 7c.0uc.rami 7c.£ per turn mont3 ouc. g. p.7c. val 
cam'. 2. % f» g? p 

£ cofi ocpennarai la partita pel Romaic in parcrioe a man feneftra come piu uolte to vie 
to £ poi in baucrc afcrtaralain qfto modo al cauedal commc te moriftrai ponere quella 
pele \oic fop?a a cap". 1 <; ? cofi v>. 

a pi ocrto.pcrcenc,c?imcd)ini in montco vcro colli ;. $ f S* p. 
£ cofi porta dx Ibarai pcpennarai la partita pel gio?nalc in bjuerc. "doc verfo mandc- 
ftra.coe pinan<cvedi fatto.£ poni li Humeri pelc carri oinacc alci in marginc vno fOp:a lal' 
iro.£ioc cl.;.Pifop:a d.i.pifotto pdx tu bai meffo el pebito:ca carti. vnd quadcrno. d ere 
ditox e fl.2.£iocel capital.e fubtto poi (a mcrtiuialfabcto.o vcro reptorioala fua If a. Cioc 
al.3-fc p-5-la c6|M'n.o vcro al.0.p Is rafo pt'tta in lo pccdctc ca°.a qlla ptita fa oelejoie 7c. 
t>d modo a tencreconro con li officii publicise pcrdx:c pc lacamcra odimpxrti in vc; 
netiadxfcgoucrnapcrviapefcrticri. ^«P ? ... '7° 


This example will guide you in other cases. 

After you have made the entries in the Ledger and marked it in the Journal, you shall put it at once in 
the index as I have told you above in this chapter — that is, under the letter G or Z, according as to how 
Gioie (stone) is pronounced. In Venice the custom is to pronounce it with Z; in Tuscany, with G. Guide 
yourself according to your own understanding. 



You will be able to transfer easily by yourself from the Inventory to the Journal the four items of 
your personal goods — that is, silver, linen, feather beds, clothes, etc., exactly as you write them in the 
Inventory, as we explained in Chapter 6. This Inventory was not contained in the memorandum book, for 
the reasons therein expressed. 

And as to how to make these entries in the Journal and the Ledger, and as to how to record them in 
the Index, I will leave to your ability, on which I count very much. 

We shall proceed to enter in the Journal, as well as in the Ledger, the seventh item (of the Inven- 
tory), which pertains to Ginger. This must be a sufficient instruction for you by which to make any other 
entry relative to your merchandise. You should always have in mind their number, weights, measurements 
and values according to the different ways in which it is customary to make purchases or sales among mer- 
chants in the Rialto, or elsewhere. It is not possible to give here full examples for all these operations, but 
from those few that we give here you will be able to understand how to go ahead in any other case. For 
if we wanted to give you an example of all the ways in which merchants do business in Trani, Lecce, Bari 
and Bitonto — that is, to give you the names of their weights, measurements, etc., and also to tell you about 
the ways that they use them in Marca and in our Tuscany, this would make our treatise very long, which, 
on the contrary, I intend to make short. 

As to this seventh item to be entered in the Journal, we shall proceed thus : Per Ginger in bulk or 
package — you shall express yourself as you like — // a ditto — by which capital is understood, because you 
have already mentioned it in the entry immediately preceding, when you entered your second item from 
the inventory, that is, precious stones — as we said in Chapter 12 — I possess on this day so many packages 
weighing so much, or 1 possess so many pounds, if in bulk, according to the current prices, of a value by 
the hundred or by the pound, of so many ducats ; in total I give them the value of so many ducats. 

L , S , G , P 

After you have entered it in the Journal in this way, you shall cancel it in the memorandum book or 
inventory, as we have said in Chapter 12, and you shall do the same for the other items. Of this entry, as 
we have said, as well as of any entry made in the Journal, you shall make two different entries in the 
Ledger; that is, one in the debit and the other in the credit. — See Chapter 14. In making the entry in 
the Ledger in the debit, you shall proceed in this way : First you shall put the year, in case there is 
none, at the top of the page, without there putting down the day, for, as we have said in Chapter 15, it is 
not customary to put down the day at the beginning of the page of the Ledger because on that same page 
several entries may be made under the debit and credit which, while belonging to the same year, refer to 
transactions made in different months and days. Even if on that page of the Ledger there was only one 
cash entry or other entry, the day put at the top of the page could not be very well kept because, under 
the said entry, it would be necessary to write down transactions which happened in different months and 
days. For this reason the ancient people never put the day at the top of the pages in mercantile ledgers, 
as they saw that there was no justification for it, etc. 

You shall make this entry in the debit (in the Ledger) in the following manner: Ginger in bulk, or so 
many packages, debit (dee dare — shall give) on November 8 per capital, for so many pieces, weighing so 
many pounds, which I on this day have in my store, or at home in my house, and which according to current 
prices are worth so many ducats and in total so many ducats, grossi, picioli, etc. ; Page 2: 

L , S , G , P 

Then you shall cancel this entry on the debit side of the Journal — that is, at the left, as I have told 
you often, and then you shall enter it on the credit side under Capital, as I have shown you in entering the 
precious stones item in Chapter 15, that is \ 

On ditto per Ginger in bulk or packages, etc. ; Page 3 : L , S , G. , P 

After you have entered it in this way, you shall cancel the entry on the credit side of the Journal — 
that is, at the right — as I have shown you before, and you shall also write down at the margin the numbers 
of the respective pages of the Ledger one above the other — that is, three above and two below, as you have 
made the debit entry at Page 3 and the credit entry at Page 2, and you shall thereafter enter it in the 
alphabet or repertory under its respective letter, which may be Z or G, for the reasons given in the pre- 
ceding chapter. 





Dirtincrto nona Tract itnex'f- Dc fcriptum 

0?a dclalrrc no re nc do.altra no?ma.rioc di qlla dc pcllamldafodre cdfc ton 
dec fine 7c.ddc quali a i "p i *.fo?marai la pnta in guwnafc c quademo p o?dt< 
depe^ando.c fcgnando in tutri li lod>i dx non refcordi pcrdx a( mcrcantc M> 
. fogna altro ccrudlo.dx dc bcecaria 7c. iSfcuclla dcla camera dipxftio M* 
iro mote coc in fircnca.dmore ddc dote i genoa li lodaio ucro altri officii dx fi foflcrocd 
liquali tu baucflc a farc.per alcuna cagionc fa dx feinpx con loro tu babia buono fedtro. 
oc oarc c ex I.KHicrc in turn li modi con qualdx d?urcua fc pcflibilc c or man oeli fcrtuani 
oiqllilucxbiql ticfotto bonacuffodiaal mododxoclcfmnuree latere teoiro.pcbe a d 
fh rali officii fpcflb fc fogliano mutare fcriuani. liqli ognuno a fua fanrafu uolc guidarc hit 
tm' oclo offirio.bfafimido fcmp?e li fcriuan paflan. dx non tcmuan bon ordine rt £ fern * 
p:e ognuno pfuadc clfuo oMiuc mialiox ocli altri.imododx ale volte inorociano le ptite. 
oc tali officii.dx non fenc ricn i J .co laltra. £guat da cotali a afare.£ po fa dx fia a eafa.£? 
roTcapo abotcga.c6 qftf tali.£ certamctc foHi el fino a bon fine no wmeno moftrao igno 
raca. £ cofi tirrai li gabcllarie oariari oc robbc dx tu uea'ic cop?i.cauie mctti ndc 
terre 7c. £6c ft cofruma fare inpmcgia.cfx fi ricne p li pfu ocla terra^otologo co to officio 
©da mcfletflria.cbia 2.p.c? £ d;>ia I'.pc? £ d>ia. 4.pV.7c.£Wamando el fib?o. ©el fen/ 
fa x vifinterponc c notare al tuo lib?o.£ andx la fu d? fa. doc el lib? ooue oa 
in notalimrrcahal Ditto officio cbc cofi lod>iamano in vencriapodx dafcuno fenfaroa 
xno lilvo.o uero luogo in qualdx libro al ditto officio Done lui va a Dare in notfl li mercati 
dx cotem'cri.coe foremen nltramcte caftno in pcna.faltrametc faceffaro. £ fenno p?l 
nari.£ bene qlla crcclfa . $> . licafhga e (oxu fcriuani ct> mal ft ponafcro coc dc mold me ri 
co?do.gia neli tpi palTari ecrc punui ftraniamcre.£ po fantamente fanno a confh'ruirevno 
elqlc a folo qfta renedcre tutti liofFidi.doc feTiloro lib'.fono bri.o#o male temiri ic*. 
Com mc fe oebia tcner conto ccn lo officio Dda mcfletaria in venetia c Del Din a re le fuc 
partite in memo?iale.c.omale.cquaderno.eanco2a ocli imp?cfh'. £ap". i 8. 

i 5 dx cfdo vojaf ed" tali offitii tener camera ocimp?cftfri.farai Dcbi'trid 
dc rutta (afonc dc caueDali a tanto el c°.7c.W oiando li fefrien' douc fon pofh.£ 
fiuuTmcntc fc pin a(a gib:nat 3.ncc6p:aflc dx molri fc nc vendano p te o p altfi 
coc fa d?f rcalto vfa.^oto bii i'nd>i fono fcritri c luogbi .76 £ cofi ncl fcoterc U 
lo?o ,p.fcp:c farala crcditriciJa oi p Dt£ felticr p fcfh'cri 7c£ cofi cdloflirio ocla mcfTetaria 
£( coto n'rrai i qflo modo rioc Cydo ni comprarai alcuna mcrcanna p $ feTan'.alora 
»c tuttolo amorarc.a rafoncoc.z.ODC.'-o oc.4.7c.p c".faranccredito?c dxyitto offkio ocla 
tneffer aria.£ ocbim'd cjlla talc raercan na-pjaql cagionc tu pagbi 7C.£ po coHuenc dxl co 
p?atox fempre rirega alucditox ncl pagamcto.Dc conranri. ore rop altro mododx labia 
afanTfarc non fa cafo.pcbcl ottto, officio'non vol andar cercando altro fenon larata clx U 
ofrctra-aucnaa dx lifenfan" rcpomno cl mcrcaro in not axo mo< cbx dxrlella to fatto. per 
cbiarcft'e cuidcrc oc conrracricrdo fra lojo.nafccflc oifTercnca alcuna coc a#dc. £1 conwn 
^uerbio oiacbinon fa non falla.ecbinon falla non impara 7c.oclcqliofciiolcndofc le pd 
cbiarircl?ano rcgrcflb quale fxtlidecrcri publid lifipfra 
fedecoc a publico inflrumcnroocnotaro.£ft> la fojma ofqllo.dpiu ode volte. £1 ocgno 
do tu alcuna oic fapc.qllo dx krpaga oc m. £ p I amit a ucnditoic dot 
fe la robba paga . 4.p c*.a qllo officio p txreto.publico ocl oominfc).£ ni alui rcricni. j . pc? 
£ tantomanco li'conta.£ fwra d fuoooucrc.£ ru poiocl turtorcfriobligaroal Ditto ohl' 
do.£vd tutto larai afar crcdirox al tuo I ib:o contado col u i. £ qlla tal mrrcantia far ni obi 
Irid^oc oiccmo 7cpcbc d vino officio non uol ccrcare.cbi dai comp:a.£ po po( 
a tal comp:at o:i li c conccflo.oi cauarc tanto oi qlla mercantia.p q>to a paga to la m . fo:a 5 
la loro bolcttc.ala tauola.oc lufcica o per marc o p terra dx la uogliono cauarc ala 
cj^02n3ta.£ po conucgano li mcrcanri tencre bcu conto con lo oino officio, ado fempre fa* 
pino cjpto pomno cauare.pdx non filaffano eauar.pcr piu dx ficompjino fe oi nooo non 
pagbino la m.oe conranu' 7c.odcquali comprc q" fcqucnte ri pongo crcplo.c cofi.ocl 9itto 
Officio.commc fc babtno a oittare in gio2n«lc.£ andx in li'bjo grandc.£ oiro cofi. -ffen' mnnonalcfemplKTimenrcJojo ^ero noi in qnefto oi pofto oiTopra ocomp?3to oa P 
iuan anionio oa mcfina.eucaripafermfni caff? n°.rantc.pani n°4antf.pd'ano* in tutto. netri. 
oc paglic. fi tantc per ouc. tan. cl c'.montano Duc.tati7c.abafto prrfa 
fua parte ocla in.a ragion oc tanto per c'.ouc.g.p.tann 7c.fcnfaro f fljan oc gagliardi.valc 
ntm' Ducari.g.p.tanti Tcpagammo contanrt 


I shall not give you any more rules for the other items— that is, leather goods for coverings, tanned or 
raw, etc., for each of which you shall make entries in the Journal and Ledger, carefully writing down every- 
thing and checking off, etc., without forgetting anything, because the merchant must have a much better 
understanding of things than a butcher. 

If you have accounts with the Camera de L'Impresti, or with other banks, as in Florence, or with the 
Monte de La Dote, in Genoa, as well as similar offices or bureaux with which you have business, see that 
you keep these accounts very clearly and obtain good written evidence as to debits and credits in the hand- 
writing of the clerks in those institutions. This advice you will carefully follow, for reasons to be ex- 
plained in chapter on documents and letters. Because in these offices they often change their clerks, 
and as each one of these clerks likes to keep the books in his own way, he is always blaming the previ- 
ous clerks, saying that they did not keep the books in good order, and they are always trying to make you 
believe that their way is better than all the others, so that at times they mix up the accounts in the books 
of these offices in such way that they do not correspond with anything. Woe to you if you have anything 
to do with these people. Therefore, be very careful when dealing with them, and be observant at home and 
keep your head in the store. Maybe they mean well, nevertheless they may show ignorance. In this way 
you shall keep accounts with the Gabellari and Datiarii (revenue officers) as to the things that you might 
sell or buy, things that you grow, things that you plant, etc., as it is the custom in Venice where people are 
used to keeping an account through the office of the Messetaria (market master or exchange), some at 2%, 
some at 1%, some at 4%. You should mention the book of the broker through whom the transaction was 
made, and also mention the special mark that the broker has in this book — that is, the book in which he 
makes a record of the market transaction at said office which they call "Chiamans" in Venice. For each 
broker has a book in the said office, or a place in some book in the said office, in which he has to make a 
record of all the transactions which he has with the citizens of the town or with outsiders. If the broker 
should not do that he would be fined and dismissed. 

And justly the glorious republic of Venice punishes them and their clerks who should misbehave. I 
know of many who in the past years have been heavily punished, and right they are in having one officer 
whose only duty is to oversee all these officers and their books whether they are well kept or not, etc. 



When you want to do business with the said offices, you shall always charge to the Camera de L'Im- 
presti (municipal loan bank) so many per cent, on all your funds or capital, naming the district where 
one resides. Likewise, for the amount of the daily sales for many are the sales made for you or for others, 
as those people know who are familiar with the Rialto. Be careful to put down the name of the party that 
buys and his place of business, etc. When you withdraw said funds, you shall always credit the said bank, 
day by day and district by district. 

In doing business with the office of the Messetaria (exchange), you shall keep the account in this way: 
When you buy any merchandise through brokers, you shall credit the said office of the Messetari with the 
2% or 3% or 4% of the whole amount, and shall charge it to that specific merchandise, for you are thus 
paying for it, etc. Therefore the buyer, when he makes his payments to the seller, should always retain 
that percentage, no matter whether the payments are made in cash or otherwise, as the said office does not 
concern itself about anything except the rate ( % ) to which it is entitled. The brokers make a report of 
the transaction, how and what for and with whom made, in order to have things clear in case any ques- 
tion should arise, which may happen. 

A common proverb says: Who does nothing, makes no mistakes; who makes no mistakes learns noth- 
ing, etc. «, 

If any question should arise and the parties wish to settle it, they would go and examine the records 
of the transaction made by the broker, to which records, according to the public decrees, as full faith is 
given as to a public notarial document, and according to these records very often the office of the Consuls 
of the merchants issues its judgment. 

I say, then, when you buy anything, you must always know what is due to the Messetaria, and you 
withhold half of this from what you pay to the seller ; that is, if the particular thing that you buy is sub- 
ject to a <±% payment to that office, as per public decrees of the Republic, you withhold 2% of what you 
give to the seller. You give him that much less in order that he receives what is due him. You then will 
become a debtor for the whole amount which is due the said office, and you shall credit the said office with 
it in your Ledger when you keep an account with that office and charge it to the goods that you have 
bought, as we have said, because that office does not interest itself in the party who sells out, but in the 
party who buys. In accordance with this, the buyer will be allowed to take out of the official warehouses 
merchandise in proportion to the brokerage paid and according to their books kept at the shipping coun- 
ter, whether it came by land or sea. Therefore, the merchants should keep a careful account with the said 
office so that they know how much merchandise they can take out. They are not allowed to take out more 
than they have bought unless they have paid the extra brokerage. 

Of these purchases, I will give you here an example and how the transaction with the said office must be recorded 
in the Journal and in the Ledger. First, you shall express yourself In the memorandum book in the following manner: 

I (or we), on this day above mentioned, have bought of Mr. Zuan Antonio, of Messina, so many boxes of Paler- 
mo sugar and so many loaves of the net weight — that Is, without the boxes, wrappers, ropes and straw — so many 
pounds at so many ducats per hundred; I deduct for what is due to the Messetaria at the rate of so much per cent., 
so many ducats, grossi, picioli, etc. The broker was Mr. Zuan de Gaiardi; net value, so many ducats, grossi, 
picioli, paid in cash. 


BWNndo nona.Zrarfatue. ri\©r (rripfurie 104 

la mrdriima in giornale oira cofi acorn arm. 

•£f*cuf3rt©epalcrmo. flcafbcomariafcuan « anroniooamdina^frcaflln'-rantcpani 
n* tain. pdanonctn.oecim".pancllc. co?dce p>jc;lic $.t jiuc.j otic.ranricl c? mdranoouc. 
ranri 7C.abarto.p fa fua parte oda m.a rafon oe ranri per e". 7c. ouc.tanri 7c. refranoncrri. 
nuc.rJnri 76 fenfar f. ^i3ii oc gaurdi. 3 f< g p 

latacdcfima in quadcrno oira cofi 
3|)cart oe palcrmo.oie oarcadi talcp coda eontari a f (uan oantonio oe mtfina. per panni 
numcro fanri prfano netri. $ .ran re per ouc ranri ef een to. monrano netn in rutro a cam 1 '. 
£faraicredirrid(aealtioi quel tamo 7C. % \ c, f> 

£ fempx farai lofnrio oda m.crcdtrox dd ooppio cbe m retcnefh" aluedirox. doe p la 
fua e p4atua ptc. 7C.£ fepx fubito notat la robba f mediate i v nalf.prira forto farai crcdi 
roxoirtootTiao per oirtooicaro cde l>arai oiforto.£ wbim'ri oirra robba. £*r ercmplo ou 
na pagara a contanri.0: pxndinc rna pre a cotanrie pane a tpo p'.imemorialc cofi oirai. 

& contantt c tcmpo.a di tanri 7c. 
5o coinpjato a di orrto.Da f euan oantonio.oamdina. encari oe palcrmo pani n*. tanri. 
pdano netri. s.rante.per ouc.tanri d c°.momano ouc.ranri.abarro per fua pane oe m.a rafo 
oe tanriper c".ouc.tanri 7c.oc qualial nocontariouc . ran' p pane e od refto mi 
fatpofinruttoagofto^f dxuicn7c.fenfarfcuanoecwi3rdiv.i(. one. g p 
£ fappi dx oe qllc cofe dx fe fen'ae mcrcaro per lofcnfaro.a loffirio non bifogna far fcrit 
to oe man perclx e( mcrcaro pure a eautda ale uolte U fa 7c 

5n giomale la medema otra cofi. prima quel ral oe rurtocrcdirox.£ poi ocbirox oeql 
la pane oe r). dx luibauc. 

yfts. 1 49?a oiranriod ral mde 7e. 
t&er iucan palenninf: & (< cjian oantonio oe mefina per pani numcro ranri pcfano nerri in 
turto S.rantca ouctanri el c? montano ouc.tanri 7c.abatto per la fua ptc oe mcfTctaria a ra 
fon oe tanri per c°.oue.tanri 7c.rcfra netto ouc.tanri 7c.oe quali alpxfcnte li nedebo contar 
ranri 7c. £ od rdto. mi fa rermine fin turto agofto pjorimo dx vicn. fenfaro fcr euan oe 
gaiardival. % f g p 

^annc creditox fubito lofficio oda tfi.oda fua rata. 
•£>cr It oim':a loffirio ocla m.pcr lamontar foura ofrro.cioc oe one.rari 7e a rafo oe rati p c*. 
P lamia pane cqllaod ocbitox iturlomonraouc^raurival. % f g p 

la pane oe contanti. oebito? luf.£ creditox la carta, cofi. 
j&cr f euan oatonio.oe mifina: B carta cotatialui p pre pdi foura oitri (ucan fo la fo:ma ol 
mercato.ouc.tiri7C.apeodreceuerefcrirtooefuamanoral. ' % $ g p 

£amedema in quadernootra cofi. 
3ucari oe palermo.oien dare a oi ral oinouembx . per f euan oantonio oamefina. pa* pani 
n'.taripdano netri S tame 7C.pductanridc , .m6tanonetrioeffi.R. 4. % t g p 
0uando uoleffc fame parrira nuoua.flfba uolendo fequirarela pxpofta balbua oirc a oi. 
tanri7C4XrP<uanoant!oamcfinappamn?tarirxfano Srare7c.mdta.R.4.S I gp 

jLamedcma in I >a ucrc 01'ra cofi. 
&a <uan daronio oemcfma die bauere a (M ranride nouembxper eucan de pafermo. pa- 
ni n°.tanri pefan netri S.tante per duc.tanridc'.montano.nctri de quali al 
p?efenre ti ne oebio dar conranriductanri 7cddauan(o.mi fa tpo per rurto agoffo .prio fit 
1uro.fa1farfvuandcgagliardi.vjl R.4. % f g p 

5n dare lamedcm a.^er la pane deliconranridira cofi. 
fi^er oianalinconrro.diedarea di.tale7c.p carta .cotatialufpptedec.ucari.Ixbi dalui fo c.i*. 5 f G p 

lamedema.flla m c andx per (a prcccdenre i quadcrno cofi. 

ff6.dda m.die l>auer.a di ral p ^ucaride palermo cop:aioa f <uan danro? de mefina pla 

montaredcduc^ari.ataripc'.fenfarf^uandegaiardimont3. K.ti £ f g P 

£ommo fc dcWa oxlinare d pagamentoclx baueuc a fare per dura e banco f> hrixi ne 

hroalibri principal: £^P ? , '9. 

£of4p ral eopx.qfta ri bafta a guidarce.o fia a rum' c^ranrio a pre cdranri.£ p 

Xfpo. corari e dirta mtri m banco.o cotaiiri e bancoo corari.£ robbe.o rob 

ba.cdirta.omrta dura robbe.c tpo. robba t banco.o banco c tpo.o baeo cdft 

1 3.0 banco-cotanri. ditta.c robbe.7c.podx i turn' qfti modi.fc cofhima cop:are. 

leqli ru pertcoJ fcfodclapcedcrcmeneraleimcmonaIe.£drKaraleigio:nalc.cquademo. 


The tame should be entered in the Journal in the following manner : 

Per Palermo sugar // A caah. Cash paid to Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina for so many boxes and so 
many loaves, of the net weight — that is, without the boxes, wrappers, ropes and straw — so many pounds ; 
at so many ducats per hundred, it amounts to so many ducats ; I deduct what is due to the Messetaria at so 
much per cent., so many ducats, etc. ; net residue, so many ducats, etc. The broker was Mr. Zuan de Gai- 
ardi. L , S , G , P 

In the Ledger you shall make the entries as follows: 

Palermo sugar debit (dee dare or shall give) cash. Cash paid to Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina for so 
many boxes and so many loaves, weighing, net, so many pounds, at so many ducats per hundred, which 
amounts to — Page 1 : L , S , G. , P 

And you shall credit cash with the same amount, and shall always credit the Messetaria with twice the 
amount which you withhold from the price paid to the seller — that is, for the commission due by the seller 
and by you. 

Immediately after, you shall make another entry crediting the said office with the said sugar and charging 
the said merchandise. This will do for a purchase by cash. Now we shall consider one made partly in cash 
and partly on time. 

First, in the memorandum book you shall say as follows : By cash and on time on such and such day, 
I have bought on the said date of Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina so many loaves of Palermo sugar, weighing 
net so many pounds, at so many ducats per hundred, making a total of so many ducats. This is in part 
payment ; for the rest I shall have time to pay until the whole month of August next, etc. The broker 
was Mr. Zuan Gaiardi. D , G. , P 

You must understand that you do not need to have a written paper containing the terms of the trans- 
action, for the broker shall record that in the said Office. This record is enough for you, but as a precau- 
tion, sometimes people require a contract. 

You will make the entry in the Journal as follows : First you shall credit Mr. So-and-So for the total 
amount, and then charge him for the money that he has received. 

JESUS 1493 

On such and such a day of such and such month, etc., per Palermo sugar // A Mr. Zuan Antonio, of 
Messina, for so many loaves, weighing net so many pounds at so many ducats per hundred, making a total 
of so many ducats ; deducting for his share of the brokerage at so much per cent., so many ducats, leaving 
a net balance of so many ducats, of which now I have to pay so many, and as to the rest I have time until 
the end of next August. The broker was Mr. Zuan de Gaiardi ; value L , S , G. , P 

Immediately after, credit the office of the Messetaria with the commission due to it : Per ditto // A 
Office of the Messetaria. For the amount above mentioned — that is, so many ducats at the rate of so much 
per cent, for my share and for the share of the debtor (seller), in all amounting to so many ducats, grossi, 
picioli: value: L , S , G , P 

For the cash payment, you shall charge him and credit cash in the following manner : 

Per Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina // A cash. By cash paid him for part payment of said sugar accord- 
ing to the terms of the transaction, so many ducats, as it appears from his receipt written in his own hand- 
writing. Value : L , S , G. , P 

In the Ledger you shall write down as follows : 

Palermo sugar debit (dec dare — shall give) on such and such a day of November, per Zuan Antonio of 
Messina, for so many loaves, weighing net so many pounds, etc., at so many ducats per hundred, making a 
total, net of the brokerage ; Page 4 : L , S , G , P 

These items shall be entered in the credit column as follows: 

Mr. Zuan Antonio of Messina, credit (dee havere — shall have), per Palermo sugar so many loaves, weigh- 
ing net so many pounds, at so many ducats per hundred, amounting, net of the brokerage, so many ducats, 
of which I must now pay so many ducats, and for the rest I have time until the end of next August. Brok- 
er, Mr. Zuan de Gaiardi ; Page 4 ; value : L , S , G , P 

For the cash payment you shall put in the debit column : 

Mr. Zuan, debit (dee dare — shall give), on such and such a day, etc., per cash to him paid for part 
payment on sugar — I received from him according to our agreement — so many ducats, as it is shown by 
his own handwriting in his book; page 1: L. , S , G. , P 

The account of the Messetaria in the Ledger shall be as follows : 

Office of the Messetaria, credit (dee havere — shall have), on such and such day, per Palermo sugar 
bought from Mr. Zuan Antonio, of Messina, for the amount of so many ducats, at so many ducats per 
hundred. Broker, Mr. Zuan de Gaiardi ; Page, etc. : L , S , G , P 



And as to the purchases, this should be sufficient to guide you, whether the payment of the purchase 
should be made all in cash or part in cash and part on time ; or part in cash or part by bill of exchange or 
draft (ditto) ; or all through the bank; or part in cash and part through the bank; or part through the 
bank and part on time ; or part through the bank and part by bill of exchange ; or part through the bank, 
part in cash, part by bill of exchange and part by merchandise, etc. 

For in all these ways it is customary to make purchases, and in each case you shall make entries, first 
in the Day Book, then in the Journal, then in the Ledger, taking as a guide the foregoing example. 


&i fo'nctf o nona.rradatoe.jri*.Bc feripturf*. 

flfcd cf4o baftfar pagamcto a pre Wco cditra.f a cb' p'eofcgni (a cktta.f poip if/crbf f 
banco.p piu ftgurra.vndc aneo?a qfta cautclla fufa p molrie benccrdo ben pagaffcro a con far per rtfto in bandx*. £ p copito pagam&o 7C.£ pagandolo ptcbanco ptc. rob 
ba .parte dirt ac parre rutte qfrc faralo ocbitoK. £ qllc tal cofc farale enditnd 
ognuna al fuo luoro 7C.£ fir pa aim' modi re acadene eop?arc.per fimfli te goucrna. 7c 

£ bauedo irtfno elucrfo t\ coprarc p ranri uerfi p?cderai clrcdere ruo adalrri. raeedoK 

ocbitoric crcditnrilcruc robbe. fE debimd lacafTa.fe rid3 conranric r3bitrtct le dir rr.fc re tc 

cofegna in pagamcto.£ crcdito?c.d baneo.fe tel da. £cofidinirtopoidnie coc difop?a e 

ditto oH eop?arc.£ luidc rutto qllo ri dain pagamcro ftralo crcdiroxTc.cqfto ribafti « q 

fta materia a rua inftruetioe 7C. Dele price famofe e priculari nd maneggio traft'eire coc 

fono bararti eopagntc 7C.c6c le fe babbino a ferrare c o:dinare ndi Irtvf mcrcatcfcbi. e p'. 6 

libararn fcplici copoftic coltpo co aprierepli d turn i mcmo:iale.c.o:nale e qder". £a.*o. 

f fo-jH ] f ^ra.oouer oar modo. coc fc l>abino aferror aline prirc famofe priculari. c 13 nc 

Kg^R limanecgij rrah'cJti fifogliano dpiuodi vokcfolciii<Jre.£ merrcrle oapfcario 

K«>| ot qllc oifttnttc ofllalrre.frne pofla cogiiofccrccl p c rono dx oiqllc fcqflc.edc 

^^Wi fono f i bararrie lecopag* .vuggi rccomadari. viazgi i fua ifltocbami>iocfcritta.o wrooina.£ibircali.oimc6fo ocbotcga 7c. oclcqli q* fequerc 

fucriramctc a ma baftanca.te oaro noriria.coc le ocbt giiioarc.c reggere ndi nioi Iib:i o:di 

naramcte.ario no te abagli in rue taccdc.£ p'.mofharcmo coc fe ocbia afcrtarc i °. banu to. 

^6rtolibarafric6munameteoe.;.fo:tecocoifop:a inlcrarriofoottto. bifrictio.oMt. *°. 

carri.i 6i .fin in. 1 67-apieno ffcbc li rccom' a itcnckrli. bico adoea clx in rurti incrfi fix tc 

acadefle fcn'Uf re i lib? el barattoicpx puramere.p'.in lo mcmojialc oebi narrarlo ad Ifam. 

ccr°. oafa pti'ta co rutri fuo modie condirioi dxl fira I rato farto.c codufo.o comcca ni. o fra 

voifoli.£q'd0ifaraicofi narrato.£rupoialafincriduralo i fulicoranri.£Podx qllc tal 

robbe uedcr aiualerc.a eotanti p taro rirarai fo:a laph'.acbe moneta fi voglia imemoriale. 

cbenon fa cafo.podx poid qdernicri (a redura tutta a i J .fo?ta alfluterico.noe ipdo lamer 

tara al giomale. £ al qderno grade tc. £ qdo fi fa pebe eauado ru fo?i le ralure ode robbe 

■ qldx ri ftanno aba? potrcfh'ncl.i ruoicori.c ffripturccogiiofccrc fc^a gradifTTma 

oiffi'culra.ruo vtfle.o veropdirra fequita.icqlifep?c couicd redure a eotanti. p rolerlc ben 

tognofcere.TC. £ fe oi tali mcrcaric bauure p baratti: w>k fl? oapte pricirfar mere rencmc 

coro.p podcr veder il fuo retratto.feparamete oa lalt'.robbe dx oiral fojra baucflrc.p'.in ca 

Ux> dxoapoi copraffe.p cognofcerequal fia Irata megliox iccpta.lo poi fare. £ aeo?a aeu 

wulare rurre mercatie infiemi.coefc Iwueflc.p'.tf n(cri ^a tc£ bOM qfli reccueffi od barat 

to liquali volermerter con lialtn*.nel «jo:nal oiraicofi.cfcx. 

^erc|cc/n'bcllidi imote.o vero in colli: B encarioelaralfonaTc.pcoflitanripefaiio. S ta 

tc baui oal ral abararro oc mean fatto i qfla fozma-doe clx mili mifi el c*.oe ^ucari one. 

14.7U0 qfro clx mi oerTe e I \.vc contanri ?c.£ metrefc d c? oi ftcri ouctanri. p liquali 

$enc^".lic6rfs , ucari.panf.n'xanti.pefan 8; tanredxacontantide* £plioitri 

Cen(artnebbeStante?c.panin°.ranri7c.vaglianodafaino. s fi a p 

lE pebcale roltc no fap?ai.a poto lo n'.odi pani.dx p oim cc\eri inrraflfe no fa cafo. po cB 

poi ncla ptit a fuplefd ql dx (imaneaffce q( clx li foiTc piu i qlla oda caffr.maci ' 

ra n5 oimeno.alincotro oec.ueari fepxbarai'd oouere aponro.pdx tutrc oua.vauo a cu ■ 

an" i modo dx foprita oec,urari n pn pdc el n? oe oil pcfo.pdx no c fcp?e pofftbi 

(c tK)gni frafdxrra.oa pfc tener coto.7c.©:a oi qlla pte oe eotanti clx vi fono cotfi.fara • 

ne oeWtririlacafra. £ pure el fimilc.credirori pirri<ucan.oicendo cofi.cioe. 

t^er caffat H lioitd 7t ifocr contanri bebincl oitto baratto.oal Ditto 7c.pcr pani n°. ran* 

ri7c.pefano8;.fanrcval. % fi g p 

£ fimili pn'te fubito qlli mettano iinediate ud gio:nalc a pffo qlla od bararto. nd ql banc 

fit liconti dx a qfro modo oirt arefti.non volendonc tcucr feparato conto. fl^a fe (c 

pararolouoircnernel gio.malc oiraicofi.doc . 

"^cr censed bellidi. per conto oiba:arrofebbero oal talc7c: 3 mean* 7c.n«rrando rutto. 
poi a pontoeommo oifop:a.£ in lo quadcrno.poibarano fo?o parrita. oi'ftinaa 7c. £ 
quefto uogliocberil^fti.perrutrilialtribarirriclxfopertefenffa piu mi lleiida .fifipa 

bclaltra parrita famofa oirra £ompagnie:commcie oebino o?dinarc.e oitt are in tutti 
rimcxti'occurenriiuciafcunolib?o. Cap* u« 


But when you make a payment part through the bank and part by bill of exchange, deliver first the 
bill of exchange and then settle through the bank, which is safer. Many observe this precaution on good 
grounds, whenever they have to make payments part in cash to settle this balance through the bank, etc. 
If you make payments part through the bank, part by trading something or part by a bill of exchange and 
part in cash, you shall charge the seller for all these things and you shall credit each of the said things, each 
thing in its own place. 

Now that you know how to go ahead whenever you make purchases, you will also know what you have 
to do when you sell. In this case, you shall charge the different buyers and shall credit the different goods 
that you sell and shall charge cash if you get money for the same, and you shall charge bills of exchange 
if you get a bill of exchange in payment, and credit the latter when the bank pays the exchange. 

Therefore, referring again to the purchase, you shall credit the purchaser with all that he gives you 
in payment, etc. 

This will be enough for your instruction on this subject. 



Now we shall speak of how certain well-known and peculiar entries should be made which are of the 
highest importance in commerce, and which usually are kept separate from the others so that they can show 
their respective profits and losses (pro e danno). They cover tradings, partnerships, suggested business 
trips, trips on your own ventures, commissions from others, drafts (ditta) or bills of exchange (bancha 
descritta), actual trades, store accounts, etc. I will tell you briefly about these accounts, how you should 
make the entries in your books so that you don't get mixed up in your affairs. 

First, we shall show how to enter a trade (barato). Trades are usually of three kinds, as we said in 
Section 9 of Treatise III, Pages 161 to 167, where it is stated fully and you can refer to it. 

I say, therefore, that no matter how you make a record of the trade in your books, you shall first enter 
it in the memorandum book, stating in detail all about it, its terms and conditions and whether it was made 
through a broker. After you have so described it, you then at the end shall put a money value on it ; and 
you shall put down such price in accordance with the current value which the things that you have traded 
have ; reckoning in any kind of money in the memorandum book. Afterwards the bookkeeper, when he 
transfers the entry to the Journal and Ledger, will reduce that money to the standard money that you have 

This is done because, without entering the value of the things that you have traded, you could not, 
from your books and accounts, learn, except with great difficulty, what your profit or loss is. The mer- 
chandise must always be reduced to actual money value in order to take care of it (in the books). 

You may keep a separate account of the goods received in trade, if you wish to do that, in order to 
know how much you make out of them separate from those of the same kind that you might already have 
at home, or separate from those that you might get after that, in order to know which was the best transac- 
tion. You also may keep only one account of all the goods — for instance, if you have already some ginger, 
and you get some more ginger through a trade. In this case you shall make the entries in the Journal as 
follows : 

Per Ginger in bulk or in packages // A sugar, such and such kind, so many packages, weighing so 
many pounds. Received from a trade for sugar in this manner : I valued the sugar 24 ducats per hundred, 
of which I should receive one-third in cash, and I valued the ginger at so many ducats per hundred. The 
said sugar is in so many loaves weighing so many pounds, worth 20 ducats per hundred, and for the said 
ginger I received so many pounds of sugar and so many loaves, and their value is : 

L._ , S , G , P 

And if you do not know exactly how many loaves of sugar you have received for the said ginger, it 
does not matter, because you may correct the mistake in the following entry, whether the mistake was 
made plus or minus, or correct it through the cash entry. On the contrary, you know exactly the weight 
and money value, and you lose nothing in either by not knowing the number of loaves. It is not always 
possible to keep an account of all small details. 

Now you will debit cash for whatever cash you received, and you shall credit sugar in the following 
manner : 

Per Cash // A ditto. In the said trade I received cash from so and so for so many loaves of sugar 
weighing so many pounds ; value : L , S , G , P 

You shall record in the Journal direct all these different items soon after the trade is made, and should 
take the name of the merchandise if you do not want to keep a separate account ; but if you want to keep 
them in a separate account, you will write this way in the Journal : 

Per ginger bellidi received by trade from so and so, etc. // A sugar, etc., stating everything as shown 
above. In the Ledger then they will have separate accounts. 

This will be sufficient for you for all kinds of trades. 




0i Jhnctio nona Z\ jctaf us-i :t*. Dc fcrtpturifl jo* 

Situ pamu famofjclj cop'.c6cd aleuofaedTcpragttediqliidx cola ft u 
«lTc o di panniodcfctco ikfpmarKO dcgorroi cdcfctoaa odccibi 7c.Guc 
faralifimtTifepx uofiliiofaapritaf^atairumli.^lilwidcin fid place ino 
mo;ialc polio dxta baraid dt di fop: a narrarala fcplirimctc turn con modi c 
civil mi eft l.i u ac fatra alay 11 ffcripro oner alrro iffto c 13 fra uoi folic c notando d rpocpto 
|aftntcdc:c di dx faeulra fi fa di fanonegarcpniclx faucflc a tciwrc 7te qudlo cbc mcrre 
ctafiG pcrfc dc robba dc t.ico debttori creditori c di tutto a mo a mo faranc crcdi 
ten li cop'.ogniidi ql taiuo cbc metre da rife c debi tri'ci la <ifb r» (a dca cop'.fc da pcrfc la 
tiii c6mcg?fc reggt d nafico temMola fcpata oala cafla rua priculaf qp ?ru foffc ql cfo talco*. 
guidafle p (a ql re cduc fare lib'.oapfc co qllojdic mo c vi'.i cl j 01 fop c oco:D rutro d ruo ma 
rteggio p me b:iga:no oimeo porrein' turra tcncrla nclli medct roilib'. oericjido nouc prite 
como al piltc oiccmo c5 1 cbtamao famofc p cer fepate oa rune lalt*.d Ic cjli q* re 00 elm5 
fueritocdmolabt'adirtarctroomcorialccoirx*i^ vi lei 

lirv.fcpari no ti 00 altfoocumto feno eft liguidi I como d rutto d mo rrah'co c oco. Oirolla 
cofi imc f . 5" qfto ©i biamo fco copVo li rali e tali alarre 6 la lana tcco pacri e coditio 
nifc-como ape p fcripto iftfo 7c.p ani tin ?c.ondc d ral ocr/e corari tari 7C.£alt? balk 
rare lana frar-pefa ncrra Sf.tirc ?c.mdTaccko ouctarid mfrcelalt? afcg?tari vai ocbiro 
rictoc el tal ce ouc.tati.d ral oc ranri 7c.c cofi io fbojfai r) pfcte ouc.rari 7c.e To \ lumajwr/ 
to d co.\ ouc.r a ri 7c .-j^oi in ruo 510:11 a !c oirai i qfto m ado afertado tunc cofe a fuo luogo 
imagina t> a .cafla t$compagnia.cmcaucdal oi co'.t eofia turre Ic prite d5 ru met rcrai ofrai 
fcpx p coto $ pp*.ario labfacognofecre tolt'.toi prite priculari lix. p'.pmo fcfti da la caf 
faeomcXaraiepoifdccclTwamenrcafcrtarailalrre. t&er cafla oe compagma-al tale oera/ 

balletanrepcfanonetteinitto S-tanrcfocotadaco'do con tutriducaritantielm?fecondo 
la for'.ddcotranooucr fcripto fra noi7cmotaimttornjc.7C. wl$- $• g- p. £ cofi an 
darai ponedo runc.pli debito:i cofegnari oiraicofi. -^cr lo tale de ragid de cop 1 . 31 tale 

31 fec6donfi pacri cicofegnop wro debitor dcdiictanrival %. f. a? p. Ozmti 
x alcf to fd irrodutto n$ mi curcHredcrme pin fi como in lo pneifdi qlro trartato fed d?e 
rroppofcria auolerreognlcofadinuouoreplicarc.£podelmododemetterie al qderuo 
grandc no ne dico perdx lo tc fia fadk ojgnofcedo gia tu in lo giomale ql ua debitoze eql 
credttoTe.ficbe afenarale ru i dare e bauerc in quel modo cbc di fop:a t qucfro te ifegnai a 
caTi ??e depenarale i giomaleedmo difli di fop?a al ca?i 2?poncdo fitpx denanc/ i margine 
li nucri del dcbito?c ecreditoxra d;te carti libaraipofti al l«bro.e cofi como tu li metti al u> 
too gran dc: cofi li afena i alfabeto como dt fop?a pin ftade baaemo moflro 7c. 

£>e !o:dinc de le prite de ciafaiua fpc r a:como decafa jdinaric: lrrao:dinaric:c di mcr- 
canrir.falarij dc gar^oni c factoa como fabtno a fcriuerete dirtare nelli lib2L ca?i2. 

- Oltra rurtc Ic cofe dirtc te ouicne taucre i tutri toi libri qftc ptitcdoe Ipefi mcr 
atia fpdide cafa o?diarie fpdc ftraordiarie vna de trrata e vfdta e ma de p?o t 
dano uoi direauan^i c difauatf o urile e ditto guadagno e pdt'ta cbc ri to vi 
Ic leqli prire fono (umamcte neceflaric i ogni co:po tncrcatefco p potcrc femp?c 



cognofccrc fuo capitale.e ala fine nd faldo como gerta el trafico 7c.le qli cj Tcqntc abalran/ 
ea d>iariremo como fc debino gufdare nclli libri. Undc qlla de fpefe mercatefdx fi rene 
p rifpcao dx no fepx ognipelu^o (?po mettcre fubito i la ptita dc la robba dx tu uendi o 
cop?icomo acade clx da poi piu di p qll3 ri couerra pagare faclx'ni c pefado?i c ligadori t 
barca.cbalragi.c fimtlia cbi »n>i.2.? Ic qlt'voledonc fare pttcular prica fereb 
be logo c no mcrirano la fpcfa podx de minimis no curat pto: 7C.£ aco:a 3cadc dx tu a' 
dop?arai qlli medefimi ballagi.facbini.b3rca.c legatori t vn poto p piu diucrfc cofe como 
irtruene.c5 i u poto fcarcado'ocarcado diuerfe fo?tc mcrciric li afatrigarci e ni li pagbi p 
tune a vn trano dx no porrcfti a ogni mcrcatia caranare lafua fpcfa.£ po mfci qflapti/ 
ra cbtamara fpcfc de mcrcaria la ql fepx fta accfa I dare como tunc lalrre fpcfi fano 5» ala 
rii anco:a de facto:i c garc.ont de botcga fi menano i qflc e alcuni ne fa prita afo polb p fa 
pere i dim cbc Ipcd ano lano 7c.c poi i qfla la faldanoiclx p niu mo no poflbno cflere ere* 
dimcix $do cofi Ic rrouaflifcria erroze nd lib:a£ pero i mcmo?talc d dirai cofi. 

3n qi;dtp di babfan pagato abaftaft barcaroli ligadort'.rxfadori 7c.cb carcaro e fcarca 
ro ilk tali c rali cofe ?cduc.nnri ?c. 

p iit'q 


The other well-known entry is the buying of anything in partnership (compra or compagnie — may 
also mean joint venture but not corporation) with other people, such as silks, spices, cotton, dyes, or 
money exchanges, etc. These accounts must all be entered in all three books separately from your own. 
In the first, that is, the memorandum book, after writing down the date at the top, you shall state in a 
simple way all the purchases with terms and conditions, referring to papers or other instruments that 
you might have made, stating for how long it was made and what were its objects, mentioning the em- 
ployes and apprentices that you should keep, etc., and the share, and how much each of you puts in 
the business, whether in goods or cash, etc., who are the debtors and who are the creditors. You should 
credit the partners (compratori) for the amount which each of them contributes, and you shall debit cash with 
the same if you keep the account with your own. But it is better for the business if you keep this cash 
account separate from your private one when you are the one at the head of the business, in which case 
you should have a separate set of books in the same order and way we have shown previously. This will 
facilitate things for you. However, you might keep all these accounts in your own personal books open- 
ing new accounts which, as we have said, are referred to as well-known accounts because they are kept sep-^ 
arate from all the others, and I will show here how to enter them in your Day Book and then in the Jour- 
nal and Ledger — but if you keep separate books, I will not give you any further instruction, because 
what I have said so far will be sufficient for you — you shall do as follows : On this day we have made a 
contract with so and so, and so and so, jointly, to buy (facto compra) wool, etc., under terms and condi- 
tions, etc., as appears from such and such paper or such and such instrument, for so many years, etc. So 
and so put in as his share, so much in cash ; the other put so many bales of French wool, weighing net so 
many pounds, etc., estimated at so many ducats per, etc. The third, so and so, put in so many credits, 
namely, one for so many ducats, etc. 

Then, in the Journal, putting everything in its own place, you shall imagine that you have a partner- 
ship's cash (cassa de compagnia) and a partnership's capital (cavedale de compagnia) ; so that in each en- 
try you make, you shall always name the accounts of the partnership so that you can distinguish them from 
your own entries. First, you make the cash entry, and then follow it systematically by the other entries: 

Per Partnership cash // A such and such partner's account — so that if you have other accounts, you 
will not get confused — so and so put in on this day as his share according to our agreement as appears from 
the contract, etc. ; value : L , S , G_ , P..._ 

Then you shall mention the other things that they have contributed: 

Per French wool // A partner's account, for so many bales weighing in total, net, so many pounds, as 
examined by all of us, at so many ducats per bushel, according to the terms of the contract we have made, 
etc., worth in total so many ducats ; value : L , S , G. , P 

And so on for the other different items, and as to the due bills which have been put in the Company, 
you shall state this way : 

Per Mr. So and So, Partnership's account // A so and so, according to our agreement, which so and so 
transferred to the Partnership as a good due bill of so many ducats : L , S , G. , P 

Now that I have given you a kind of introduction to these new entries, I won't go any further, as it 
would be a very tiresome thing to repeat all I have said. 

And I will not say anything as to the way in which to make these entries in the Ledger, as I know it will 
be easy for you to know what should be entered as debit and what as credit from the Journal. You shall 
enter them accordingly as I have told you at Chapter 15, and shall cancel these entries in the Journal as 
I told you at Chapter 12, always writing in the margin just opposite them the number of the debit and 
credit pages of the Ledger, and as you enter them in the Ledger you shall also enter them in the index, as 
I have told you repeatedly before. 



Besides the entries so far mentioned, you shall open these accounts in your books : that is, mercantile 
expenses, ordinary household expenses, extraordinary expenses, and account for what is cashed in (en- 
train) and what is paid out (uscita) ; one for profits and loss (pro e danno — favor and damages) or (avan- 
zi r. desavanzi — increase and deficit), or (utile e danno — profit and damage) or (guadagno e perdita — gain 
and loss), which accounts are very necessary at any time so that the merchant can always know what is 
his capital and at the end when he figures up the closing (soldo), how his business is going. 

I will show here clearly enough how these accounts should be kept in the books. The account named 
"small business expenses" is kept because we can not enter every little thing in the account of the mer- 
chandise that you sell or buy. For instance, it may happen that after a few days, for these goods that you 
sell or buy, you will have to pay the porter, the weigher, the packer, the shipper and the driver, and oth- 
ers, paying to this one one penny, to the other one two pennies, etc. ; if you want to keep a separate ac- 
count for each of these different transactions, it would be too long and too expensive. As the proverb says: 

De minimis non curat Praetor (Officials do not bother with details). And It may be that you will have to em- 
ploy those same people — drivers, porters, shippers and packers — for different things, as, for Instance, you may need 
them for loading the several merchandises In a seaport, and you will employ them and will have to pay them for all 
these services at one time, and you could not charge the several kinds of merchandise with Its proportion of these ex- 
penses. Therefore you open this account which Is called "small business expenses," which Is always used In the 
debit as are all the other expenses. You enter In this account the salaries of your store employes, although some keep 
a separate account of the salaries that they pay so that they know how much they pay for salaries every year, etc. 
This should also always appear as a debit. If the account should be In credit, this would show that there is a mistake. 
Therefore you shall say as follows In the memorandum book: 

On this day we have paid to drivers, shippers, packers, weighers, etc., who loaded and unloaded such and such 
goods, so many ducats, etc.; 


Bifflnctfo nona<ratatu0.xi*.&c fcriptutid 

•poi in fo $hmk courrra zv cofi. t&cr fpcfc oe merearic: Bcaffccontari: per bardx e 
baftagicoxicfligaronoclcfaliofcffiinot>uc.rflti , ?c.ralS. f. g! P- sjnloqdcrno 
oiraicofi. ^pcriomfrcariadcwrcadiraripcalTaTC.ralR. S. f. g? p. ducllao 
k fbrfi 01 cAfa oxlinaric no fi po far fcn»;3.£ I rendanfe fpcfi oi cafa o:dinaric:c6mo \o:mi 
ri:n'nCfcgnr:ogli':fa(r.carnc:lcarpc-«,'opdIi faeture oe veftegrupponixalccc fartoji 
ixraccri:bcucfhrc:m3ncc:ouer boncmsni 7cU>arto'm':fo:naro:aquaruojr.lauaturc oc pan 
ni 7c.mafaric Decodna vafibicbicri.e ucnf.tutri fccebi.m jftcIU-botri 7C.lxiuega dx inoi' 
ri oc fi'mili mafaric vfino tener conro feparato per poter pxfto trouar fuo cot o c fano prirj 
nouaxomo ken tu pot fare no dx oi qfte ma oi qualucbe alma ri parrajna io fc amacrtro 
t>i quelle dxl rrafico no po far fenca 7c.c ta! prira oi fpcfi oi cafa Dtttarala fi como e oino 
oequdla oc la mcrciria.e fecodo dx tu vaitaccdo fpcfe groflc adip oi inctri in liubri com 
mo Del foTmenro e vini legne 7c.0c le quali ancoja molri coftumano fare prira daperfc per 
poter pen' alaft'ne oe lanno o a tcpo p rpo fadlmcnte fapere quato oe tali cdfumano 7c. ma 
per le f pdt piccole como fono amemrto c6p*arcarne e ptfd:barbicri e rraglxtti fi uol rewx 

vno oucr ooi ouca vn tratto e temriioa parte in vno fadxtto e oi quclli andar fpededo 
a menuro.i^erdx no feria pofTibili a ma a vna oi tali tener iontoJ£ cofi oicano per I: con 
tanri in gio:rta!e. 1&cr rpcfi vi cafa. Bcafla qu traflt per fpenderc amenuro in vno fadxx 
toouc.tanri7c.vaLs. fc g? p. £ poi fetipareancoja con quelle fpefioe cafa meter 
ui le fpcfi frrao?dinaric dx non fa c.ifo. como quado fpendefle per andarcafolac^oieu rra 
cere aiarco o baleftro e alrrigiocbio perdite dx ti cafcaflcro cpdefle robbe o oenariodi tc 
foflero rolrc o perdefle in mare o per ruocbi 7c.dx rum' fimili finrendano fpcfc lrrao;dina » 
ric. le ouaf i ancoia fc le voli tenere'03 parte ffmilmeme lo poi fare c molri lufano per fa 
per HCtto alarm odanno qiianto bano fpdo oc ftraoxlfnario per le quali anco fintende oo 
nie pxfemidxtu faccfle adalcunopcr afcuna cagione -red Ic quali fpde non mi euro piu 
oi vn ftendcrme peroebe fo ccrto dx tu per re meglio o?mai baoendo amenr e Ic cofe dene 
oinatK'cafcrraraidxprimanonbarcftifjaoficlxiiiicflcljraandoDU'cmood modo oa 
fcttare le parritc ce vna botega fi nd tuo'quadernoe lib:i ccdinan?: como ic tu la volciTe tc 
ncr m oa re como larefh a tencre dx fia bdla cofa a fapere ficbcootalc 

£>e lojdinc e mo a fap tener vn coto oe borcg3i tua ma*o o adaltri recomadata e como 
fc debino ndli lib:i autentiddd patrone tanctx in quclli oe boregafeparatamertte fmncrc" 
cdirtare. eapi.25. 

i^oadoneaquadoNueffcvnabotegalaqltcnellefbjriitaalagiomata fo; dc 
I eaft tua e fox del tno cojpo oi eafa.alo?a p bono o?dinc rirrai qfto mo: cioc de 
rune le robbe dx tu ui mcttcrai adip di farala debirriciali toi libri e crcdctrici 
qllc rat robbe crivimeni.a vnip. vna cfe.tua t'magiatidccb qfta bote\ua vna p. 
fona.tua debirnddt ql tiro dx li dai c p Irifpedi imti U modi.£ cofTp lauerfo de tuno q( 
!o eftnecaui creccuifarala credftrid como fc fofle vn obitox cBn pagallc apte apte.£ poi 
ogni uolta dx tu voli eon lei eotare tu po??ai vederccomo clla tc butra.o bene o male ?c.£ 
cofi poi iapjai cjllo arai afarc e 1 1 ft mo larat a goueruarc icjE molri fono cb ah foi lib:i fa 
no debicox d pneipale dxli atcde a dina botega bcclx qftd no fipoffa debitamenre fcc.a 
voluta di ql tale.pocft mai fideuc menere ne aco:a de ragi'o fi puo pom vn debitox alU>° 
feca f ua faputa ne acB crcditox co cod itioi alcue feca fua uoluta le ql cofe faccdolc tu fere 
fti maco dx da bencjC li toi libn' fericno reput3n falfi.e cofi 6 le mafaric cfo i qlla mctelle c 
ojdegni ncccuarii al a dina borega fecodo fua c*cur£c;a:c6mo fc fofle fpedaria trconucrra 
fomirla i> uafi.caldicri.ramini.da lauo:are 7c.di qtf turn farala debitrid oxolui dx li attc' 
de como dino.e p bello Cuctario li leafegna fenpro 6 fua mao odalni 6 fua uoluta 7c. ado 
de tuno fia be cbiaro.eqfto vogub fia baflrate cpdo la botega baueflc confegnata a vnaltro 
tft p tela facefTeo fofle tuo comeflb 7ceBa fc la dca botegavo?Mi tener a moi maiqitoo? 
die ftiarai c flara benete meriamo S copn'c n-aficbimno p (a dina botega e no baui air? 
maneggio alo?a fo:maraf li lib:i commo c dirro.£ dido dx vendi ccompn farai crcdircv 
ri cbi tc da le robbe per ranto rem po fc compri a tempo e crcditriri la eafla fe comp^ a cow 
tanri edebi'm'cila botega.£ quando tu vendefle a menuto cioc dx non ariuaflc a.4C6.du 
cari7caloja rutri ditri denari rcpo?»iin vna caflena.ouer falua denarodode i capo 5.$.o 

1 o.gio:ni line caua wi.e alo:a farae debitrici la cafla c o-e dc t rid' (a bo a .di ql t.uo : c i la pjtita 
dtrai p ptu robbe ucdutc ckie qlt gia baucrai tenuro el coro c mottc au'.cofc in le qli no mi 


then in the Journal you shall say as follows : 

Per small business expenses // A cash. Cash paid for boats, ropes, etc., for such and such goods in 
total, so many ducats; value: L , S G P 

In the Ledger, you shall state as follows : 

Small business expenses {dee dare — shall give) debit per cash on this day, etc., value- page etc 

L- , S , G , P 

We can not do without the account of ordinary household expenses. By these expenses we mean ex- 
penses for grains, wine, wood, oil, salt, meat, shoes, hats, stockings, cloths, tips, expenses for tailors, bar- 
bers, bakers, cleaners, etc., kitchen utensils, vases, glasses, casks, etc. 

Many keep different accounts for all these different things, so that they can see at a glance how each 
account stands, and you may do so and open all these different accounts, and any accounts that you like, 
but I am talking to you about what the merchant can not do without. And you shall keep this account in 
the way I have told you to keep the small business expense account, and make each entry day by day as 
you have such expenses, as for grain, wine, wool, etc. Many open special accounts for these different things 
so that at the end of the year or at any time they may know how much they are paying out ; but for the 
small accounts, as meat, fish, boat fares, etc., you shall set aside in a little bag one or two ducats and make 
small payments out of this amount. It will be impossible to keep an account of all these small things. 

In the Journal you shall state so : 

Per household expenses // A cash. Cash set aside in a little bag for small expenses, so many ducats, 
value: L , S„ , G. , P 

If you wish, you can include in the household expenses the extraordinary expenses, as those that you 
make for amusements or that you lose in some game, or for things or money that you might lose, or that 
might be stolen or lost in a wreck or through fire, etc., for all are classified as extraordinary expenses. If 
you want to keep a separate account for them, you may do so, as many do, in order to know at the end of 
the year how much you have expended for extraordinary expenses, under which title you should include 
also gifts and presents that you might make to any one for any reason. Of these expenses, I will not speak 
any longer, because I am sure that you, keeping in mind what we have said so far, will know how to man- 
age yourself. And leaving this subject, I will tell you of the way to open your store accounts in the Ledger 
and in the other books as if you wanted to conduct a store for your own account. I shall tell you that you 
must pay good attention, for it is a very nice thing for you to know. 



I say then that if you should have a store outside of your house (branch store) and not in the same 
building with your house, but which you have fully equipped, then for the sake of order you should keep the 
accounts in this way : You should charge it in your books with all the different things that you put into it, 
day by day, and should credit all the different merchandise that you put in it also each one by itself, and you 
must imagine that this store is just like a person who should be your debtor for all the things that you 
may give (dai) it or spend for it for any reason. And so on the contrary you shall credit it with all that 
you take out of it and receive from it (cavi e recevi) as if it were a debtor who would pay you gradually. 
Thus at any time that you so desire, you may see how the store is running — that is, at a profit or at a loss — 
so you will know what you will have to do and how you will have to manage it. There are many who in 
their books charge everything to the manager of the store. This, however, can not be done properly with- 
out the consent of that person, because you can never enter in your books as a debtor any person without 
his knowing it, nor put him as a creditor under certain conditions without his consent. If you should do 
these things, it would not be right and yonr books would be considered wrong. 

As to all the fixtures which you might put in said store necessary to the running of it according 
to the circumstances — if you had for instance a drug-store, you would have to furnish it with vases, boiling 
pots, copper utensils, with which to work — you shall charge your store with all this furniture. So all of 
these things you shall charge, and he who is at the head of the store shall make a proper inventory of all 
these things in his own handwriting or in the handwriting of somebody else, at his pleasure, so that every- 
thing should be clear. And this will be sufficient for a store whose management you may have turned over 
to somebody or to some of your employes. But if you want to run the store yourself, you shall do as I 
will tell you and it will be all right. Let us suppose that you buy and do all of your business through the 
said store and do not have to take care of any other business, then you shall keep the books as I have said 
before, whether you buy or sell. You shall credit all those that sell goods to you on time, if you buy on 
time, or credit cash if you buy for cash, and charge the store ; and if you should sell at retail, as when the 
sale should not amount to four or six ducats, and so on, then you shall keep all these moneys in a small 
drawer or box from which you shall take it after eight or ten days, and then you shall charge this amount 
to cash and shall credit the store ; and you shall make this entry as follows : 

Per various merchandise sold — for which you shall have kept an account — and so on. I shall not talk 
at length about this because 


©idinctio nona inctifueii*. ©cfcripturiB to6 

uoglio rroppo oiftcnderc,p ebclbcdmo ocfop?a oifafamcteibabiio Dc6omaitop:ai pent 
itcdcrlc cbciolu (be on noil fono alrro clx vn ocbiro online o; la fa/ica lu cbe fi ra cl mcr - 
caranrepcrri qualunt'icvincfcruaropuenc alauotiria ocrurrcfucfacedcc ccgnofd facib 
mere p qllo ic Ic fuc coif uj no bene o m alc.p dx d p.\> jcrbio oui cbi fa mcrcina c no la CO' 
gnoka li (cm ocnah ootictan mofca 7cc fccckJo Ic occurrence '' ^ rcmcdio.£ pcro piu e mi 
co li fipo fcmprc agiongcre in numcro c i mutruudiiic oc pnre. £ po oc ql to racorcra. 

£61110 fc babi ho alcrrarc nd giomalc c quadcrnokpjrareoe libacbi oc fcrirra:cqli fc t" 
rcdmo c douc nc fta:o dc cblox* fiandomcrcat jrc:c ru co aim cpdo folic baciJicri: 
c oc Ic ljuic rj$c dx p li cabi fc fano.c p dx fene facia 001 oc mcdefimo ccnox * 1 ,24 
" Or j pa u bancbi dc fcripra quad fc nc rroua oggi dt utrtncitj i bruggia utucr 
fa c baredda c urn almiuogbi 1 a mow c rrafuflti u conic fag co I020 libit fcorra- 
re co gradiflima oiligcru •'£ pcroc da not ar dx co (obancix) tc poi com una mi 
re impadarc Da re poncdoui ocnart per piu rua l"Kjurc\ca:o uero p modo oc di- 
poi ito a la ^ao;iu t j porcr con quelfi far cuoi pagamenti cbim apiero gioam e marrino per 
dx la oirta od bancbo c com mc publico ilrrumeroocuoraropdx fon pcrlioominijald 
guranondc poncdoui ru o j re.Dfarai oebtrox otrto bandx> nominaudo patroni o ucro 
idpagm od badx> e credirrici (a rua caifa col 1 oiccdo i giomale per b j ncbo oc li pama ' 
ni: & cafTa per coranni It mifi co t al 1.10 o aim dx per me folk tn qucllo 01 oc mio conro fra 
oro e monaj ic.x rurto oucari ic .U a I. & i\g.p.£ far j tc fare oal b a ncbtcri 001 uerfi 1 funo 
fogliop piu autcto.£ cofi giongcdoglinc ru ala giomara farai clfumle:cauandone tn lui 
re fara laiucrc a re d receuereie cofilc cofe fiuengano fempx amatencr cbiare: Ucro c cbe 
alcuolt c ral fcritrc no fi coif uma no p cbe como e dtrto li libn id ba ncbo fem pre lb u pubii 
cbtc aurentkbKinapurebuonola caurela p. dxcdmo 01 'iop:afo cxrto al mcrcanrc le cofe 
mat fo?6.rroppo cbiaredfta fcru uolcffc cai prtta tencria con U pat rou-.o ucro copagni dd 
bancbo ancoja 1 poi fare cbe tanco ualc po dx noiando ru d biclx) a modo viiop2a finre 
dc li patroi e cop'-de qudlo: per li patroni oirelti cofi. -j&cr mifer £hro I im lipamani dal 
bancbo e copagni cfdo fofiero piu. B c alii ur uip: a fcquira rutto. £ icmpx farat ndiruoi li' 
ha moirione oe le cbiarece:pam:c codiriom dx fra uot nafceffero como oe fcripti de ma: c 
del (uogo ooucli rcponi ifflc,a:fcarola:tafcba:o caffa act poili facil mac rctrona rtcrpo cbe 
co bona oiligc\a fimw'fcriprurc fi ocbono fcru arc ad pjxruam rei mcmo:ii:p li pico! 1 oc 
coarano iL £ p dx alcuolte co lo bicl?ieri po:rclb baucrui piu faccde e mancgcji i merca 
11 a p r c o per alt n como comeffo 7C.po fempx cu lui rt couie rener cori diucrfi p non im'ga 
re lance eo ronc\x>ni cbe nafc tcria gra confufftbne :e otre i le cue p t ite p coto de la ral cofa:o 
p coco dd ral p ragio de mercanria op ragion de com ami oepofiran i ruo nome d aim 
como e 6rro:le quali cofe fop ruo igegnoonnai reggcrai?c£rtmamte re reggcrai faith' rc 
ocondaffc da tepdx corofi uolciTc:faralo ocbtro:c altuo libro p ql tal coto:cioc 6 pagamc 
co noiando p pre o p rdrotdx ql rale farai aedirox p (o meddimo coto c lb ra benc.£ qp 
do ru de ded bandx> cauaffc.D.i cbtan p paga meri ox adalrri facefie p pre rcfto ucro 
premerreradakni alrripacfi 7c.alo:a farai el c6rrariodcqlcbrfino:acdc6:cioc fc caul" 
cotanri farai debitnci la rua caiTa-.c creditor d bandx* tier patroi di quel ranro dx ne ca 
uafti.£ fcru li fcnueiVc adalrri farat dcbitoxql rale e creditor derto bandx) patroi di ql 
canto noiando el p el x oiccdo i gi'o:nalc p li coranni cofi. i^cr eaiTa al bancbo uer mi - 
fer gtrolimo 1 1 pama in p conranri i tal dt.o i cj fro di ne rraffi a into bifogno tc .i rurto.ouc 
ran ic.nal. $a\g.p. £ fc ad aim li fcriucifc vtpura ainartio 01 fir 1 colt. Per inarr°dd ra 
le. 31 dfrro ur fup:a per duc.riri 7cJifcriffi p pre p refto abo coro o.p ip?efto 7c. i qfto 
oi.ual . s i.g.p.£ cofi leuado oine ptirre Di guvnfllc (cpre a fuo (uogo i qderno a fara rale : c 
i alfabcto eomodi duopai dan edepenandole como to moll ro tn memo:ia!c c giornale.p.e 
mancbo per re llcno giogncdoli parotic, po dx non e poifibilc q* de rrurroa pieuo narrare 
U dx con mc dal ruo ca to fta uigtlare 7c. £1 meddimo mo re couerra obferuare p remcrre 
rc li cabi alrrouccomc ton J :brugia:ro J :lib 7cc per nrrar daltrb 7C.nominando lie rermi' 
ni 7C.o ala uilla o aladara al fuo piaccrdcomo fc colluma faccdo mcrfoe oe v'.i'xa*. ni. 
acto non nafca crrrore fra re el ruo rdpondenre c oc le moncre clx ru rraie n'menf e Ic lor 
ualurc e .purftdi c fpcfr oam e itcrcfli clx co If px>tcfn podercbono nafecre clx di turro 
fi uol far mcride d p dx c come.£ come meno dx ru babi afarc con badx»:eofi uerfa uicc 
predi fe folk ru d bancbicn murarie murandio dx quando pagbi fa debit ore quel tale c la 
cua caffa ci editnd c fcl tuo creditor fcn^acauarc.dadalm' li Icnucik dirai nd ruo gto:ni 

I have given you sufficient explanation previously and you know how to go ahead by this time. For ac- 
counts are nothing else than the expression in writing of the arrangement of his affairs, which the mer- 
chant keeps in his mind, and if he follow this system always he will know all about his business and will 
know exactly whether his business goes well or not. Therefore the proverb : If you are in business and do 
not know all about it, your money will go like flies — That is, you will lose it. And according to the cir- 
cumstances you can remedy what is to be remedied ; for instance, if necessary, you might open other ac- 
counts. And this will be sufficient for you. 



In respect to banks, which you can find nowadays in Venice, in Bruges, in Antwerp, Barcelona, and 
other places well known to the commercial world, you must keep your accounts with them with the great- 
est diligence. 

You can generally establish connections with a bank. For instance, you may leave your money with 
the bank as a place of greater safety, or you may keep your money in the bank as a deposit in order to 
make therefrom your daily payments to Peter, John and Martin, for a bank draft is like a public notarial 
instrument, because they are controlled by the state. 

If you put money in the bank, then you shall charge the bank or the owner or partners of the bank and 
shall credit your cash and make the entries in the Journal as follows: 

For Bank of Lipamani // A cash. Cash deposited with so and so by me, or others, for my account, on 
this day counting gold and other money, etc., in all so many ducats ; value : 

L , S , G , P 

And you will have the banker give you some kind of a written record for your surety ; if you make 
other deposits you shall do the same. In case you should withdraw money, the banker shall have you write 
a receipt; in this way, things will be kept always clear. 

It is true that at times this kind of receipt is not given, because, as we said, the books of the bank are 
always public and authentic ; but it is better to require this writing, because, as I have told you, things 
can 't be too clear for the merchant. 

If you want to keep this account in the name of the owners or partners of the bank, you may do so, 
as it is the same thing, because, if you open the account under the name of the bank, by the bank you 
mean the owners or the partners. If you keep it under the name of the owners, you shall say this way: 

Per Mr. Girolimo Lipamani, banker, and associates — if there are many — // A cash — and here you 
write as above. In your books you shall always mention all agreements, terms, conditions that there might 
be ; also instruments of writing and places where you keep them, whether file box, pouch or trunk, so that 
you may easily find them, as these papers should be diligently kept for an everlasting memorial of the trans- 
action (ad perpetuam memoriam) on account of dangers. 

As you may have several different business relations with the bankers for yourself, or for others, you 
must keep various accounts with them so that you won 't mix one thing with another, and avoid confusion, 
and in your entries you shall say : On account of such and such thing, or on account of so and so, or on 
account of goods, or on account of cash deposited in your name or in the name of others, as we have said. 
You will know yourself how to make these entries. In the same way you will proceed in case others should 
turn money over to you for some account; you shall charge that account in your book — that is, you shall 
charge the bank, stating whether it was in part payment or in full, etc., and you shall credit the person 
that gave you the money. This will be all right. 

When you should withdraw money from a bank either to pay somebody else as part payment or pay- 
ment in full, or to make a remittance to parties in other countries, you shall do in this case just the oppo- 
site of what we just said — that is, if you withdraw money you shall charge your cash and credit the bank 
or owners of the bank for the amount withdrawn ; and if you should give an order on the bank for some- 
body else, you shall charge this party and credit the bank or owners of the bank for that much, stating the 
reasons. You shall enter the cash item in your Journal as follows : 

Per cash // A bank, or Mr. Girolimo Lipamani, for cash which on this day or on such and such 
day I withdrew for my need, in all so many ducats, value : L , S , G. , P 

And if you should issue an order in favor of Mr. Martino, for instance, you shall say thus : 

Per Martino on such and such a day // A ditto for ditto for cash, etc., for so many ducats, for which 
1 gave an order, in part payment or in full payment, or for a loan, etc., on this day ; value : 

L , S , G_ , P 

Every time you transfer these entries from the Journal Into the Ledger, you shall also record them in the Index 
and cancel them, as I have shown you, adding more or less words according to the facts in the case. 

You must do the same in case you want to send drafts elsewhere, as to London, Bruges, Rome, Lyons, etc. You 
shall mention in the letter the terms, conditions, etc., whether these drafts are at sight or at a certain date or at 
pleasure of the payor, as it is customary, mentioning also whether It is a first, second, third draft, etc., so that no mis- 
understanding can occur between you and your correspondent, mentioning also the kind of money in which you draw 
or transmit, their value, the commission, the costs and interest that might follow a protest— in a word, everything must 
be mentioned, why and how. 

I have told you how you have to proceed in dealing with a bank. If on the contrary you are the banker you have 
to do in the opposite way {mutatis mutandis) ; when you pay you charge the man to whom you pay and credit cash. 
If one of your creditors, without withdrawing money, should issue a draft to somebody else, you shall say in the Journal 


BiRinctio nona tradattW.xi'.Bc fcriptorte 

U per qud talc tuo ercditox a quel rale acW lui If acoeia c cofi rieni a for comu tarioncdatno 
ercditox a unaltro c tu rimanipurc debitox c uicni in qfto artoeflcre pcrfona mc^cana c co/ 
munaxomo tcftimonfo c factox dc le parti a tuo ind?ioltro cana firro f ariga c tempo fi dx 
di qua ficaua la boncfta .puifioc ncl cambio enerc fcpx liara cf do mai no in coaiflc pico- 
lode uiaggio alntremdTeinmanoocter<epfonc7c.c6monelIicambireaIi in qfto a fuo 
luoabo citato api'cno detto ?c.flf>a fiandobacbicri rico:dare ncll ifaldieo roi creditor far 
re te:nare fogli pujicc o alrri fcripti dx di tua mano baucuc delcqliquando nc hi fepx f3ii 
ne ncl mo libjo memioc ado re recoxli'a fartclc rojnare e ftra^arlitado no ucnifle a tcpo co 
Mi al«Ti a doinandartcefarrc fare fJpx bone quictanvecfimocoftuniano farcd?t arr^dc al 
cabi^'po dx Infancy e dx fc tu vieni.vcrbi gfada gincucra con vna dicabio q* in vi\a mtf 
oibuanifrdco baldi da fio J .cV6p3 a .cb* alauifta o datato a tuo piacere tc doueltc pagarc meria 
mo due. i oo.p altre tanri dx dita baucflc nclc man dc foi M fcriue co (cgnati:alo:a d dirro 
mif , gwuanic cdp'.acceptado la lfa:e iborfdadorc fara fcriuerc 6 ma mano doicjc 
tanc/ de rn medefimo tenox:e fe ru no fapefle fcriuerc le far vn ter^o pre o #o notaro: 
no fa cS tentara duna p dx luna couic dx rimandi a ql band?icri a gincucraidxli feriuc 
<bc a te p fuo coto pagbi li oitri ouc. i oo.i farli fede como coxefemfte a fatro ql ranto dx 
li fcriflc i cuifedc in una fujji mada laquictaca oi tua mano:c laltra tene i f ilea ap:eflb oi fe: 
acio q^do cot afle co lui non potefle ncgarlilotc di la anco:a tu to?na"do no potcflc.lamcrarte 
w lui ne oc m»f giouani po dx fc tu lo fcfle d te moftraria octta quictan^a oi tua mano c re 
marcfh eonfuf o: fi dx tune qfte cofc tbnno cautele dx fi conuengano oe neceffira fare p la 
poca fede fi troua ojgi oi bel quale atto ne nafcano ooi pritc i lo qderno loro.vna in ql oi 
mcf giouani Parcdo obitox ql dx li fcriue p rigox oc (a oicabtorc laltra t qllo ocl refpode/ 
tc a gmcuera facedo credito?e mtf giouani oi quelli ouc .1 oo.per virtu oc oitra tua quictac,a 
rcceuuta * que flo c el oebico inodo e o?dine oc cambiatori p tutto d modo: ado fc lo? cofc 
vadino cd cburcuc: fi clx dal tuo lato alquato affatigandote po:rai ogni cofa con fumma 
diligcnca afcttarcrd. 

C* unaltra parrita dx ale uoltc fc coftum a ncl qderno tenere octta tnrrata e ufdta e ale 

u oltc fen cfa libro partieularete per dx. ca.2f. 

jM^j g] Onnoalcuni clx nc !o: lib:i ufono tenerc vna prira ocrra cntnra c vfdta i la ql 

K^^ PObJici cofc ftraordin mc alrrc como ab. fanrafij pare. 3lrri nc rirra una 5 

K^>« fpcfc (rraordinaric c i fimiTi mctrano como f qlla oinrrjra ift'ta pfcri dx li foffcr 

" fatti.^.gf a.e cofi fcrfo dx riccuano e oano e tcgano coto i dare e bauere e poi a 

la fine co lalrrc le faldano i ,p e dano e caucdale como ttendcrai ncl bilando tc.Oht \ uero 
qlla oetta oi fop: j fpcfc di cafa p mtte e badate fe no d)i uotelTe per fua cunofita tcner con" 
to da p fe fin a vn potalc de frrcga dx lo po:na fare ma acb finc'.epo fi *j a le cofc co bx 
uita afenane.Bltn luogbi coftuma oe litrata eufcita tener vn litvo a fua polfa:c poi quello 
faldano a tcpo od bilado nd vlrimo aurcrico ificmi co le altre faccdcilaql cofa non eoabiaf 
mare auega fia de ptu fatiga. 

Como fe babiuo afetta re nclt lib:i le price ot li uuggi i fua mano: c quelle oc Ifviagdi re 
comandari-.c com mo di nccefltra oc tali uafcono dot' quaderni ca.26. 

^ uiaggi fi coltumano fare i ooi modi^ioc i fua mano e recomandaro.'vndc na- 
fcano diuerfi modi i tcner lo: cori po cbe lepx ft px»fup6gano libn ooppno (it 
i tua mano fia recomandato t-f&crcbc 1 qderno rclra i cafa e laltro ti coue fare 

■ 8 ru \ uiaggio.vndc fel ditto viagio fia t tua mano p bo o:die dcdoclx tu po7ri fomia 
tuo iuctanb qdernerto:gio:naletto ic.wtto como di fop?a fe oato:cufdcdo cop:ado bav 
ratado 7c.tx tunrofa debitori e crcditori pfonc:robbe: coflb:cauedal:oe uiaggio:e ,p e oan 
no de uiaggio rex qfto c lo plu fd)icrro e oiea cB fi uoglia aim'. 3uega cb* po":rclti tcner co 
to co la cafa dalaql 1 11 rogli la faculta dx al ditto uiaggio po?ri faccdola nel libxtto od tno 
uiaggio creditrid:c le robbe ocbimcia una p v a :e cofi fo:marefti ma eajTatruo caucdale ?c. 
oxlcnaramete como ncl mo famofo. £ tornado a'faluamcto rcdarefti alacafa altre robbe alt 
contro.o In faldarclh* coto e lurileooano feq* to afcrtarefti a fuo luogbo nd qua 
derno grSde.fidx aqllo modo anco?a le me faccdc-ucrcbono cbiarc.iCK>a fel viaggio reco' 
madaffe adaltri:alo:a farelti dc tutto nd mo libro debitore ql talc ad?i larecomadi oieeclo 
per uiaggio recomadato al talc iiz co lui rerrelri com come fe foflc vn tuo auetore oe mt 
te robbe:e d.a prita per parrita ?££ lui dal cato fuo fo:mdra fuo qdcrncttore iqllo tc con/ 
uerra fare credirore de tntto.j£ retornado faldara conteco.£ fel tuo comeno foffc i le hade. 


as follows: Per that special creditor of yours // A the man to whom the money was assigned. In 
this way you just make the transfer from one creditor to another and you still remain as debtor and 
act as a go-between, as witness or agent of the two parties. For ink, paper, rent, trouble and time you 
get a commission, which is always lawful, even though through a draft there is no risk of travel, or 
the risk when money should be transferred to third parties, etc., as in actual exchanges, of which we 
have spoken in its place. If you are a banker, whenever you close an account with your creditors 
always remember to get back all the papers, documents or other writings in your own handwriting that 
they might have. When you issue any such paper always mention it in your books so that when the 
time comes you will remember to ask for them and to destroy them so that nobody else should appear 
with these papers and ask money for the second time. You must always require good receipts as those 
do who are accustomed to this kind of business. For the custom is this: If you, for instance, come 
from Geneva to Venice with a draft on Messrs. Giovanni Frescobaldi & Co., of Florence, which draft might 
be at sight or on a certain date or at your pleasure, and the amount, were for a hundred ducats, that is, for 
as many ducats as you have paid to the drawer of the draft, then the said Messrs. Giovanni & Co., when they 
honor the draft and give you the cash will require you to give two receipts written in your own hand- 
writing, and if you should not know how to write, a third party or a notary public will make them out. 
He will not be satisfied with one because he has to send one to the banker at Geneva, who wrote him to 
pay the hundred ducats to you for his account just to show that he honored his request, and for this 
purpose he will send to the other banker a letter enclosing your receipt written in your handwriting. 
The other receipt he will keep for himself on file so that in balancing with the other banker, the banker 
could not deny the transaction, and if you should go to Geneva you could not complain of him or of 
Mr. Giovanni for if you should complain he would show you your receipt written by yourself and you 
would not play a beautiful part in it. All these precautions ought to be taken by necessity on account 
of the bad faith of the present times. Out of these transactions two entries ought to be made in the 
Ledger, one entry in the account with Mr. Giovanni, in which you shall charge the drawer of the draft, 
(letter de cambio) the other entry in the account of your correspondent at Geneva, crediting Mr. Giovanni 
with that hundred ducats paid through a draft. This is the method that the bankers of all the world keep so 
that their transaction may appear clear ; therefore you will have to take some trouble on your part and 
try to enter everything in its own place with great care. 



There are some who, in their books, are accustomed to keep an account called Income and Ex- 
penses (Entrata e uscita), in which they enter extraordinary things, or any other thing that they deem 
proper ; others keep an account called extraordinary expenses and in it they record gifts, which they 
receive or give. They keep it as a credit and debit account, and then at the end of the year they ascertain 
the remainder (resto) which is either a profit or a loss and transfer it to capital as you will understand when 
we talk about the balance. But really the account we have called "household expenses" is sufficient for 
all this unless someone should like to keep a separate account for his own curiosity, but it would be of 
no great value because things should be arranged as briefly as possible. In other places it is customary 
to keep the income and expense account in a separate book which is balanced when they balance the 
authenticated books and all other affairs. This custom is not to be criticized but it requires more work. 



Trips are made usually in two ways, either personally or through somebody else ; therefore two are 
the ways to keep their accounts and the book always ought to be in duplicate whether the trip is made 
by you personally or it is in charge of somebody else. One ledger is kept at home and the other one is 
taken along and kept on the trip. If you conduct the trip yourself, for the sake of order and system, 
you must take a new inventory also a small Ledger and small Journal among the things you take with 
you and follow the instruction above given. If you sell or buy or exchange, you must charge and credit 
according to the facts, persons, goods, cash, traveling capital, traveling profit and loss, etc. This is the 
best way, no matter what other people may say. You might keep an account with the mercantile 
house which furnishes you with the goods which you take on the trip. In this case you shall credit the 
said house in your little Ledger and charge the different goods one by one. In this way you would 
open your mercantile house accounts, capital account, etc., as in your main books, and coming back safe 
and sound you would return to the mercantile house either other goods in exchange for those that you 
took or money, and you would close the accounts with the entering in your big Ledger the respective 
profit or loss item. In this way your business will be clear. If, however, you entrust the trip to some 
other party, then you should charge this party with all the goods that you entrust with him, saying : 
Per trip entrusted to so and so, etc., and you should keep an account with him, as if he were one of 
your customers, for all goods and moneys, keeping separate accounts, etc., and he on his part will set 
up a little Ledger in which he makes you creditor for everything. When he comes back he will balance 
with you ; and if your traveling salesman were in fetters (sentence remains unfinished in the original) 


BifHndo nons. Tractitu9.n'.&c(aiptwi9 207 

be 1 \prita famofa o*fa ft e oano o wro auand e odauancuoc lafabfe a tenor Pd qVicr' 
neve pdxcltondfi mora ndc^omalccoinmelcalrrc pore £ap°. 17 

£cjta ooppo ognialr* pri 1 . 1 '.d.^amata oe .p c oano ovoi oirc wife c oanofcdjro 
o wo auancfc orfauadfoalcuopadc ilaqlc tutte lalr'.ocltuo qdcr?fep feba 
no a faldarc coe nd btlido fe dira£ qfta no bifogna fimcrta i gio.ntalc. ma-ba 
ft a folo nd qdcr° peb lanafd t qllo r3lccofe auac,arc o wo macarc i dare e Ixre 

P laqlc ©irai ,p c oanno oic oart. £ ,p c oano oie berc-doc cjpdo oalcua robba baucflc pdu 
to.lacni pfl'.piu nd tMoqdcrno rcftaffc i oare cb i fxrc.alou auirarai' d fuo Ixrc p pegiar 
la al core ado fc faldi.oc ql ranro dx 1 1 mancarfc.oiccdo. e oie bcrc p ,p e oano ql q* mcrro 
p faldo oe qfta.p oanno fcq* to ?c.e fcgnarai lecarri 61 ,p e danno nd traz fuo:a lapri*. £ al 
jp e oano andartu I oare.oicc"do ,p e oano oie oare a 01 7C.p lata! robba. p oanno fed, to ran 
to ?c. potto i qlla a Idie Ixrc p fuo faldo ape acarrf 1 c. £ fe la fofle pin i Ixrc oirra robba cb 
i dare.alo?a farcftf plo aducnb..£ eofi andarai faecdo a 1 J .p 1 *.oc turte robbe finite. ma 
le bit if> fieno andatc ado fcp:e.druo qdemo feritroui paro oe pn r .doecB tante fenc tro 
ui i oare cyrc i Ixrc pel? eofl fedeue ritrouarc a ftar bn foe (c ofra nd bflando. £ eofi fuerin 
ta mere vedaraifc guadagmo ,vopdicq"'ro.£qfla prtra.poiancojalciu'couerra faldare 
i qlla od c aucdalc.1 aqlc c viria oe tumliqderni.e pcofeqhtcrecepttculo 6 tutte lealr . coe 
itiderai 7c. £omnie fe ocbtno repoztare innantf Ic pn're ol quaderno.qri foiTero pic 
tie c 111 cbc luoco fabia po:tare cl refto.a do no ftapTamaliriandquadcrno. £ap°. 28. 
1R co:a e oanorare cpdo 1 '.prita e ptena.o i oare f bere dx no uiftnipo mcrter 
piu b ifogna porrarla innate [mediate a turte lalt'no lafdado fpado nd q'derno 
fra el oi«o rcpoao-c lalt'.pti'.cb' fe reputaria fraude nd lib? £ deuefc repo:t arc 
i qfto modo.coc oifop'.oiccmo d faldarlc i ,p e oano.cofi ncli rcpozn.tlo: medc 
time couiefc obPuax t oare e i Ixrc fe^a mette?lc in (oznale peft li rcpozri no bifogna poner 
li i <o?nale bed? ft* potrebbe acbl poleflc c verria a rdpodcre anco: no fa Wfog ? .per> 
fe Ixn'a qlla fanca.pui feca frutto.ricbc bifogna aim ar la minor q> J .rioe fde.piu in dare cb i 
bere oitra ptf.oi* ql tantoaiuta el fuo be:e ?c.£ p er°.d?i«ro tencmcttaro cj 1 '. c mcttiamo 
dx t7>arr ino l>abia fa no co tcco coto logo oe piu pri c .i raodo.dx lafua porta (Ta . 0.1 rcpo: • 
tarccfia nd hio qder°.a carti.;o.c lultf.ptir'.oc wtto d qder".fta a carri.6o.i ciina.c ala mc 
defima fac^ta fia 1 11050 oapoteruianeo?a loearc qlla oe Q£*n".£ fiate obiro d oftro S . 8c 
f 1 j.g.i f^».24.oeliqlt in nitto te nabia oato4 7i.f 9-gvp.i 7.©fco dx batta el fuo bcrc if 
fuo oarcxioe. 72.9-V 7-rcfta. s 8 f6 $.<> p 7.£ oe tantolo oeui po?tar ocbirorc ananri. £ 
oe qllo mcddTmooeut' aiutare lapdta in berce ofrai eofi.aoi.?e.p Im medcoql po:ro auan 
riin qn^o alofa oare p rcfto ql pogo o\ p faldo. S^ 8 f 6 c. S p 7. Ml a cani.6o. % f g.p £ 6|xnc 
rai lapti a . in oare c in Ixrc co 1 Minea oi'ametralitcr.£ fatto qfto andarai a eam'^ oaf 
£po:rai oiao refto poncdo fcpx oifop".p J .feno d foftc el 0f>" coe oinan^e fo oitto.£wV 
rai eofi. flr>arrino 01c oare a ot ?cp M medemo p rcllo r?atto oa o?icto in cjfto polto aldic 
bcrc p faldo 6 qlla. wl acarri. ; c . s 8 $ 6 g f p y.£ qfto medefi? modo obfuarai in tunc pfi* 
dx iTfluefle a rcrxvtarc auanri inca ten a 11 dole al modo oit to e feca interuallo alcuo.po cb ic 
px Ic ptit'.fi rogliano poncre coe nafcano $ luogo.fuuoi.c mtlefi? ado mfu te polti calu 
n iarc.TC . bel modo a faperc mutarc el mtkfimo nd quadcrno fra Ic partite cbe ala c,o: 
nata acafcano.quandoogniannbndnfifaldafi(tlib;i. £apitolo. 29- 

©rria df aleuoltc cbc nde tue pntc inquaderno. ru I?aucn1 a mutar mu"cfi? £ 
no.baucflc faldato^lo?a oitto mtfefi'.oeui poncre m marginc aripctto oitra pti 
ta cb cod c nata.eoe fo oetto fop?a incap.i V £ tutte lalrrc dx la fee) reranno fe 
intedcranno al oitto mile? df>a fcpx c buono ocfaldare ognanno.mairimc cbi 
t in cop'-pdx el .puerbio oid ragion fpcfft amifta loga.£ eofi farai a tutte fimfli. 

£omme fc oebta leuarc vn conro al oebftox dxlo oomflndaflc^ anco?a al fuo parroc 
fiandofato?eccommcffooctuttalaaminiftratibncoclcrobbf £apiroIo. 50.* 

5fogna oitra li oari oocumeti.rapc leuarc vncoto al tuo dcbito?c eP te lodomi 
daffc. £Iqle no fl po dc ragion ncgare.pTu'm qpdo co tcco baucfle tenuto eonto 
logo, dc piu anni c mcfi 7c.alo2a faratc da pzin? cb inficrm baudlc afare.o da al 
tro rerminc cb lui d volefTe o;oo fra yoi foftero ftari aim faldi da ql rpo cb \ovo 
lepcrvna volts volcnticnii lclcua.£detutto farai vna partita in rnfoglio dx uieapa. 
£ q;do in.i '. fada 11011 catuflefaldaroimtto qudlo dx li baucrui pofta e poxcrai d rcfto 
oalalrro lato del foglro in dare.orcro bauerc commo nd capirolo.z 8°. fo dctto.£ ra con- 
timiando.£alultimo.rcduflo inrdlo nctto ouna fola parrita in dare, obaucr feconde* 
cbc lanafccra. £ qucftt tali conti fi uogliano leuarc con grandifflma dfligciuti. 



After the other accounts, there must follow one which Is named variously, according to different localities. Favor 
and Damage (Pro a Danno), or Profit and Damage (Utile a Danno), or Increase and Deficit (Avanzi e Desavanzi) . 
Into this other accounts in the Ledger have their remainders, as we will show when we speak of the trial balance. 
You should not put these entries in the Journal, but only in the Ledger, as they originate from overs or shorts In the 
debits and credits, and not from actual transactions. You shall open the account this way: 

Profit and Loss debit (dee dare — shall give), and Profit and Loss credit (dee havere — shall have). 

That is, if you had sustained a loss in a special line of merchandise and in this account in your Ledger would 
show less in the credit than the debit, then you will add the difference (soldo) to the credit so as to make it balance, 
and you shall enter as follows: 

Credit (dee havere — shall have), per Profit and Loss, so much, which I enter here in order to balance on account 
of loss sustained — and so on, and you will mark the page of the Profit and Loss account where you write down the 
entry. Then you go to the Profit and Loss account and in the debit column you shall enter as follows: 

Profit and Loss debit (dee dare — shall give), on this day, to such and such loss sustained, so much — which has 
been entered in the credit of said merchandise account in order to balance it at page so and so. If the account of this 
special merchandise would show a profit instead of loss — that is, more in the credit than in the debit — then you will 
proceed in the opposite way. The same you shall do one by one for all accounts with merchandise or different things, 
whether they show good or bad results, so that your Ledger always shows the accounts in balance — that is, as much 
in the debit as in the credit. This is the condition the Ledger will be In if it is correct, as I will explain to you when 
I am talking of the balance. In this way you will see at a glance whether you are gaining or losing, and how much. 
And this account must then be transferred for its closing (soldo) into the capital account, which Is always the last 
in all the ledgers and is consequently the receptacle of all other accounts, as you will understand. 



You should know that when an account has been filled out, either in the debit or in the credit, and you cannot 
make any more entries in the space reserved for such an account, you must at once carry this account forward to a 
page after all your other accounts, so that there is no space left in the Ledger between this transferred account and 
the last of the other accounts. Otherwise it would be considered a fraud. It must be carried forward in the manner 
which we have given above when writing about the balancing of profit and loss. In making the transfers, you should 
make entries on the debit and credit sides only, without making any entry in the Journal. Transfers are not made in 
the Journal; still, if you so desired, you might do that and it would be all right; but it is not necessary, because it 
would be that much more trouble without any necessity. All that need be done is to increase the smaller quantity — 
that is, if the account shows more in the debit than in the credit, you ought to add the difference to the credit. I will 
give you, now, an example of one of these transfers: 

Let us suppose that Martino has had a long account with you of several transactions, so that his account should 
be transferred from ledger page 30. Suppose further that the last account of your book is at page 60, and is at the 
top of said page, so that on the same page there is space enough to transfer the Martino account. Suppose that there 
is on debit side, L 80, S 15, G 15, P 24; and the credit shows that he has given you, L 72, S 9, G 3, P 17. Deducting 
the credit from the debit, there is a remainder (resta) of: L 8, S 6, G 5, P 7. This is the amount that you should 
bring forward to the debit side of the new page, and on the old page you must add the same amount in the credit 
column to make it balance, saying as follows: 

On such and such day, etc., per himself, I bring forward (porta avanti) this amount to the debit side as a re- 
mainder (resta), and the same amount I enter here per closing (saldo), that is: L 8, S 6, G 5, P 7. see at page 60: 

L , S , G , P 

And you shall cancel the account both on the debit and credit side with a diagonal line. After that, you will 
go to page 60 and shall enter in the debit column the said remainder, always writing down at the top of the page the 
year, if none already has been mentioned, as has been said above. You shall enter there as follows: 

Martino debit on such and such day per himself, as per remainder (resta) taken from the page of his old ac- 
count and therein entered per closing (saldo), see page 30: L 8, S 6, G5, P 7. 

This is the way for you to proceed with all occounts that you should transfer: Place them, as I have told you, 
without leaving any space in between. The accounts should be opened in the order in which they originate in such 
place and at such time, so that nobody can speak evil of you. 



It might be that you must change the year in your ledger accounts before you balance it. In this case, you 
should write the year in the margin before the first entry of the new year, as has been previously said at Chapter 
15; all the following entries should be understood as having occurred during that year. 

But it is always good to close the books each year, especially if you are in partnership with others. The proverb 
says: Frequent accounting makes for long friendship. Thus you will do in similar cases. 



In addition, you must know how to make an abstract or a statement of an account if your debtor requests it. 
This is a favor that cannot be refused, especially if your debtor has had an account with you for years or months, 
etc. In this case you should go away back to the time when you began to have transactions with him, or back to the 
time from which he desires to have his statement, in case you have had previous settlements. And you should do 
this willingly. You should copy all his account on a sheet of paper large enough to contain it all. If it should not 
be large enough, you will draw a balance at the end of the page and shall carry the latter, in debit or credit, forward 
to the other side of the sheet, as I told you at Chapter 28. And so on, until the end of the account, and at the end 
you must reduce the whole account to the net remainder in a single entry in debit or credit, according to the facts. 
These statements must be made out very carefully. 


Biftincrtonona. rracfahieri*. ©e fcriptun'0 • 

£ qfto modo obf-uarai nd i faro' ruoi <ppr u.c ruof aucr ori dfca ft ru ami ftraflc p air/, p ufi 
oc acomadco of cdm!fic*ialoja (imflmcrc cofilo Icuar.u al parroc coc poroll:»arai nolto 
fll Ubxj.faccoorc crcdirox oe rpo i rpo ode ruoi .pmfidi fo vf i pam.£ poi : t fine p. rcfto net 
to.od rrrartoi arate fuo ocbitoxo wo cxdirox <j>do oel tao lil>aucuc mefTo.c lui poi lore 
ucdara.potad do. eo lifuoi. £ rrouadolo ftar voxa mcglio.£ piu re fidara.p dxbi 
fogna cbe oc rurto qllo re a oaroo mandarodx ori rrccucrc a Ire ot rua mano li neafegni 
amimfrrarioni o?di'n atamitc.£ Do nora bene. £ p. laucrfo farai tu leuarto a ruoi farron. o 
rero comefiifimifircr. Obi p\cFx fo«i fe oteno It conn fi uogliano ben ponrarc co tutrc lo 
ro prirc i qdcrno I gioxialc e memo?iaIc.£ con rutri luogbi clx lancflc fcritre acio no nafeef 
fe crrox fra Ic pet. bdmodo e oxlinc a Tape rerrarrarc.o vero ifto?nare i a . o piu pore 
dx p crroxbaucfle poftc I ah? luogo cb ooucflero adare coe auene p fmeoragtc. tfap? : . . 
9nco?a ncccflario al bon quademieri (apcrc rcrrartare . o voi oirc (to?na - 
re ala fiorenrina vm parnta dx per crrox bauclTc pofra in alrro luogo clx d 
I j cxnirflo andare . com me fe laaeffc mcfTa in oare. £ oouiala ponerc in bauere 
£rcconrra.£quandooouia po:la aconro ottffrarrino£luilamiffcaconto 
©cflianicr eeotra.^cro ctxale rolrc non ft po ranro eflere arenro dx non fi falltcomme el 
pxwerbio fona. £ioe cbi non fa non falla. £ dri non f all j non itnpara. £ pero inrerrar / 
rarla.rt'rrai qfto modoXioe qpdo baudfc ntdTa laprira.poniamo1.i oarc e oouta andare in 
bauere p rcrrala poxaine i '.aIr*.aliconrro oeffa ibauere ocql ranro oe porno. £ oiraiin q 
fto inodo a oi.7C.p alrreranro pofro otneonrro al ofe oarc. £ oouta mcrrcria q* i baucreval 
i earn' ?c.£ rra fo?a qlle mdefime.S i.g.pdx pondh'p erro.£ ocnan<;e a ditra prita forai 
i '.crori.o alrro fcgno. ado leuando ru elcoto lauegbi alaffare.£ fubt'ro pofra qlra p rerrar 
ro.c5 eqxo fcnulla baud* fcrirtoocl oeuerc.£ ru poil3 rcponii oitro bauere coe oouia an 
darceTrara bri. £omme fe debbia faredbilando oel lib:o c od inodo a repoxarc m 
libx> in laltx>.ctoc elqderno vecbio nd quaderno nuouo e od inodo a pomario eon lo fuo 
gta jHfc c mc morale e alrri fconrri oerro e oifuoie od oirro qnaderno. dp". «. 
~ "Clefre cofe fino:a be noratt bifogna lx)?a oar modo al repono oe vn lib:o in lal 
tro.cpdo uolelle mutar lrb:o.p cagione dx fofTc picno o rero p oxline a nnuale 
oe miltfimo coe el put ft cofhjma"fare p luocbif ainoft cbe ognianno. marimc 
amfleO'oii-nuoui It gran mereatanri fepx lo obfiuno.C qfto arro iufiemi con It 

^ ^^j | 

fec)nti.£ oerro dbilando oel libro.laql cofa roler feq* re.btfogna granditTima oiliaeria.e p 
ordincrirraiqfro modoxioe 1fc*.farai oc bauere vn copagncdx mal pojrefh p tc folo fjar 
lo. £ aim oarai in mano el gto:nale p piu rua eaurella- £ ru rirrai el qdenio grande e oira i 
aluigomccando oalap'.ptiraodgioznaledxcbiamile earn oel ruo qdcrno. ooue qria 
fta pofta.p'.ioarc cpoii l>aucre.£eof< ru lubbidirai.£ troticraifepx ooue re mauda. £ ql 
K dira h prira oe & o oc d>i la fira£ cpro fta dfuo rrarro fox. £ cofimrcdarai i ql ral luo 
go ooue re manda.fe bauera t q'l cf>.o ql cbi. £ ql ranro apoato rrarrro fox.£ rrouodadola 
Rare aponro coe I gio?nale lancarala^ioc pontajala. overo farali qlcbe fcgno alibtto i fu Ic 
%x> alrrouc cbe non re abagliaflc.£ ql ral fcgno o vero lanc,ara clx cofi in alrri luocbi (i co 
ftuma otr.otrai dx facja.dcopagno nd gio?nale.ala meddnna pri a . £ guarda clx mai ru fc 
5a luincluifcnc.a re potaflc.ovcro lac^fte prira aletia pdx po?rebc nafcercgradierron.po 
dx la prira porata dx fia vol oirc ftzr biixol ocbiro modo.£ qfto anco:a (e obfua i leuar 
0* conria ocbicoii nan^edxlitc oagWin manobauerfo ftorraro c ponraro eo liluorbi 61 
qdcrno c oel gio:nal« oalrri luocbi dx auerTe norarc? otrte'prirc cue fop:a fo tt 
to.£ farro qfto p oxline a rurro d qdcrno egio?na!e.£ trouando ru aponro coc lui i dare e 
bauere le pure firan gi'ufte e ben poftc./^ora eBlui nd giojnale pbona memoria fara ooi 
lan^arco wro pott a 1 J .fola prira.£ ru ncl qdcrno ufei folo afarnc 1 Vp pri*. fi coc mm pri' 
oc giornalein qdcrno fene fa ooi cofi (i fa ooiponxt.£ po ncl ponrarc oel bt'Uncio i gibna' 
k acB c buono far ooi port luo forro lair" .ale ft .0 uero ooi lacarc 1 a . forto lalr'cb' otnora oir 
ta pn'.ftar bff i oarc e Ixrc al qder? fllcuind gtomalc p lodarc porano oau art' al.p.£ plo 
bauercohero ale L coc fe fia luo e lalr°. fta bn. Plo oimeno It.pexia far aco?a co 1 ■'.potam 
ra fola t gio?nalc.doc folo p lo oarc.pcbe ru poi per tcfteub tx>?reHi ponrarc (bauere a qual 
partira cbe bai in oarc ncl quaderno fempx re mauda per dx fubiio ru l>ai quiui cl numero 
ode earn ooue fta Ibauere quando beneqnel od gio.-n.ilc non re mandafle fidx fconrran * 
dorc ru con lui folo indare per re fteflb poxdh' feqiurc lo l>aucre ma piu commc-do re fta co 
locompagno a modootno.£K>a fcfo?ntrod gxonalc oc ^tarc a re auancafe in quaderno 
prira alcua dx non uenilTc porara in oarc in bauere oenorana ncl quaderno dicr crrof . 
ct'oedx qlla ferane porta fupfUta in ql oarc verobaucrc.dqual crrox ru fubiro rcrrarra' 

The following is the way you have to proceed in adjusting your own business with the business of 
your employer. But if you should act for others as an agent or commissioner, then you will make out 
a statement for your employer just as it appears in the ledger, crediting yourself from time to time 
with your commissions according to your agreements. Then at the end you shall charge yourself with 
the net remainder, or you shall credit yourself if you had to put in any money of your own. Your 
employer will then go through this statement, compare it with his own book, and if he finds it correct, he will 
like you better and trust you more. For this reason, of all the things that he gave or sent you, you should 
with your own handwriting keep an orderly account when you receive them. Observe this carefully. 

On the contrary, if you are the employer, you may have your managers or commissioners make out 
these statements for you. But before these statements are delivered they ought to be compared care- 
fully with each entry in the Ledger, Journal and Memorandum Book, or with any other paper relative 
thereto, so that no mistake could be made between the parties. 



The good bookkeeper should also know how to take out — or as they call it in Florence "stornare" — 
an entry which by mistake you might have written down in the wrong place as, for instance, if you had 
entered it as a debit instead of a credit entry ; or when you have to enter it in the account of Mr. Mar- 
tino and you put it in the account of Mr. Giovanni. 

For at times you cannot be so diligent that you are unable to make mistakes. The proverb says : 
He who does nothing, makes no mistakes : he who makes no mistakes, learns nothing. 

And you shall correct this entry as follows: If you had placed this entry in the debit column 
while you should have put it in the credit column, in order to correct this, you shall make another 
entry opposite this one in the credit for the same amount. And you shall say thus : On such and such 
day for the amount which has been entered opposite here under the debit and should have been put in 

the credit, see page, etc., and you shall write down in the column of figures: L. S G P 

which you wrote down by mistake in the other column. In front of these two entries you shall mark 
a cross or any other mark so that when you make out an abstract or statement of the account you 
should leave these entries out. After you have made this correction it is just as if you had written 
nothing in the debit column. You then make the entry in the credit column as it should have been 
and everything will be as it should have been. 



After all we have said you must know now how to carry forward the accounts from one Ledger 
to another if you want to have a new Ledger for the reason that the old one is all filled up or because 
another year begins, as is customary in the best known places, especially at Milan where the big mer- 
chants renew every year their Ledgers. 

This operation, together with the operations of which we will speak, is called the balancing (bilan- 
cio) of the Ledger, and if you want to do this well you shall do it with great diligence and order. That 
is, first you shall get a helper as you could hardly do it alone. You give him the Journal for greater 
precaution and you shall keep the Ledger. Then you tell him, beginning with the first entry in the 
Journal, to call the numbers of the pages of your Ledger where that entry has been made, first in debit 
and then in credit. Accordingly in turn you shall obey him and shall always find the page in the Ledger 
that he calls and you shall ask him what kind of an entry it is, that is, for what and for whom, and you 
shall look at the pages to which he refers to see if you find that item and that account. If the amount is 
the same, call it out. If you find it there the same as in the journal, check it (lanzarala — mark it with 
a lance A or V) or dot it (pontarala), or any proper mark over the lire mark, or in some other place, 
so that you can readily see it. You ask your helper to make a similar mark or check — as we are used to 
call it in some places — in the Journal at the same entry. Care must be taken that no entry will be dotted 
(pontata) either by you without him, or by him without you, as great mistakes might be made otherwise, 
for once the entry is dotted it means that it is correct. The same is done in making out statements of 
accounts for your debtors before you deliver them. They should have been compared with the Ledger 
and Journal, or with any other writing in which the entries of the transaction have been recorded, as 
we have said at Chapter 30. 

After you have proceeded In this way through all the accounts of the Ledger and Journal and found that the two 
books correspond In debit and credit. It will mean that all the accounts are correct and the entries entered correctly. 
Take care that your helper shall mark each entry In the Journal with two dots or little lances; In the ledger you 
mark down only one for each entry because you know that for each entry In the journal there are two made In the 
Ledger, therefore, the two dots or lances. 

In making this balance It is good If you mark In the Journal two dots or lances under the lire, one under the 
other. This will mean that the entry is correct in debit and credit in the Ledger. Some use these marks in the 
Journal: They put a mark before the per for the debit and after the lire for the credit. Any way both customs are 
good, however, one single mark in the Journal might be enough, that is, only the debit mark, because you can then 
mark yourself the credit side on the page of the Ledger where that entry Is as this page is mentioned in the debit en- 
try in your ledger. It will then not be necessary for your helper to call to you this credit page. So that by compar- 
ing only the debit side with him you could yourself check the credit side. But it would be more convenient for you 
If you proceed with your helper in the manner above said. 

After you have finished checking off the Journal, if you find in the Ledger some account or entry which has 
not been checked off In debit or credit, this would indicate that there has been some mistake in the Ledger, that Is, 
that that entry is superfluous whether In the debit or credit, and you shall correct this error 


BflWnrto noni.Sracfatu0. jrf» Be ftrfpfurifc 20s 

rai ©actio famcdcftma cy \alincontro.doc fe b fira oc piu fn oajr- £ tu altrc unto rwrai in 
baucrc. £t ccdtra. laqlcofa coe fabia adu rare oifop?a tc fo or tto al cap^.pccdfte. £ cofi ba 
raf medicare tutto.£l mcddimo feria qdo lui baiicfle in giornalc prita fupflua. dxa tc ncl 
quadcrno mJcafle in oarc in baucrc dx pur fallo nd quadcrno ocnotarcbbc. £1 quale it 
wuc rcparc al mode coturario ocl fupfluo.£ioc (be ru alo; a oirta prita fubito lapongbi t 
oarc c in baucrc in quadcrno.faccndo nicrionc oda van'cta ocl corno.pdx lanafccra mol' 
to ptu tarda in quadcrno dx no oouia. bclc quali uaricrt.fepx clbo quadcrm'cro rcuc far 
nc mcrione pdx lcnafd>ino p leuar ilfufpmo Od lib'.amodo d bon notaro nclifuoi inltru 
meri.nequau' non pe nc giongncrc nc fmmuirc fenca priculare mcrionc oc tal augumcto. 
vcro oecremento.con fepx tal refpetto eoutf dx (la net bon quadcrnicri. ado la rialita mcr 
cantefca ecbiramcHc fc renga ama»tcn!rc.fl&a fc la oitta prita.folo mancafle oal oax oa 
Ibaucrc.aloja bafta la pongbt 1 'Mi rolra .oa ql tal lato oouc lam ancaflc.con oittc men no 
m. £we coc P «nrox lai fatto ?c.£ coW barairutte {uftatc tue prite.lcouali trouaudoic a foi 
feontri coc c otfcojfo txnora dnio quadcrno ccr gfufto c ben ndc nota cbc ncl dfr 
to quadcrno firano a Icuoltc moltc pritc non pom ate con lo feontro oel giomale p dxnon 
fi bano arirrouarc ineflb.£ qftc flranno li rdh'pofri al ofc darc.o in baucrc p faldiDdc p / 
rite nd portartebauanri coc oiccmo in lo cap .: s.alo:a oa k fteflb oi qlli tali refh troucrai 
I. w'tt qdcrno fuoi feontrtdoc in o«re.£ in baucrercc&fotc p fo n*. oc le card eft ila out a 
prita notatc firano.£ tronado feontro a fuoi toogbiflidica fimilmcfcclqdcrno ftar Ml ?c. 
£ qllo dx fi'no?a fedctto dd feotro od quadcrno con lo fiuiilc inrcdip a .douerfl 
Tare del memorialc d uro fcmartafoglio co loguttnale a di p di. q?do rfaffitcner meino:ia 
lc a modo dx in prinripiodi cjfto traewto dc luitc din.c cofieS tutri altri libri rencfle.£E>a 
lulrimo conucn cflerc pcnulrimo dgfo?naIe.3dco ?c. 

bd modo c ojdine afcriucrc Icftccndcdx^ccurcflero ncl tempo dx fi fa elbtTanci'oxj'oe 
dx fifaldano lilibri.e comtnc ndi Iib?t ucd?i npn fioebta fcriucrc ncinnouarc cofa alcuita 
in oitto tempo clacagibncpcrdx. £ap°. ;?. 

tJttc qftccofc o«Iinatamcntc fattecobfcruatcmiardanoninnouaffcput pri* 
in alcfi lib» anriano al quaderncctoe immemojiaIc£ crio:nalc.pcrdx el faldo 
tutto oc turn' li Kb?i fcpx fi oeuc intenderc farto in 1 '.medcumo (omo iQfba fc fa 
cendc tc acaoeffe in ql me«o dx faid tuo faldo vcrobilando. pontic in hbn 
mioui nequaliintcdi fare rcponoxioe in lomcmorif leo no in quadcrno 
pfintantodxnonubaiponarilirdhocl p ? quadcrno.£fcanco2a non baucfleoxliriarf 
ubri nuoui pontile faeede eon fc fuoiico:m oaptc ini ".f foglio p An firan fatri oftti libzi, £ 
qIom li lepojraiiignaridx firan tutri ocnuouo fcgho.£ioc fc dllidx faldifira fcgnari.cro 
riqftifcgnadc.a.'rc. " £6mcfcocbianofald9rctuttcleprircoel qdcrnovccbio.ef d?i 
cpcbcrc DC la ffima fomaru ocl oarc coclaucrci^rio feontro oclbilado. £ap? 54« 

Btto eft barai qfto cS ortegcrta. tS. w oatc faldarai mtto dtuo qdcrno apttta p 
pri'i qfto modo.cr5p*.comc<araioalacafra ocbito:i.robbccaucnto»'.£qudle 
po^araiin hb:o. &. cioc in quadcrno nuouo dxnon btTogna coe fo octto oi'fo 
P?a lirefh poncre ingiomalc. fummarai tutrc To? pritc in dare e baucrc aiutado 
fcpx lamcnox coc tc Htt fop?a od po?tarc auari.cbc qfto atto oe 1 ? quadcrno in laltro.£ 
oc poto ftmilc aqllo c fra lo:o non c altra oiifcrenria fenon dx in qllo drefto (i pojta a nan 
ti nd meddtmo quadcrno.£ in qfto oc 1 ? f ib?o in laltro.£ oouc ut qllo cbiamaoi lc card d 
ql libzo .pprio in qfto fcWama lecam' ocl lib:o fequerc in modo dx nd repotto oc vn hb:o 
in laltro.folo 1 '.uolta p eiafefio quademofe nicttc laprita.£ qfta progariua a lulrima prita 
fempx odi quaderni efx nullaltra mai po baucrc edc nd .pccflb oa to bai notato.£ oeucfte 
ral ripoxo cofi oitaredoc metriamo dx tu babia.iO^rtino ocbirox p rcfto ndfo tuo qua 
dcrno.crod.a earri^o.oc.S i2.f i5".g 1 o.p 2<.£ babilo a portarc in quadcrno. B. a earn, g: 
in dare tc conucn nd litwocrod aJurarc Ibauerc.oouediraieofi ddotto a mere lalrrcivrtire 
£ a di ?c.pon^do fempx d medefimo di.dx fai elbilando. p lui medemo poxo in quadcr 
no. 3. oldie dare per refto qual 4 pogo per faldo dc quefta val 3carrf.8.S 12 i 5 » f g t°-P l6 
£ depennarai la dttta partita in dare c baucre dumctralitcr eoe ncl rcpojto te infeguai po< 
ncdo laffima dc ttitta lapcira fotto ncl capo de ditta prita in dare c in lxrc*rioe tatoda liio 
lato cpto da lalf^dopa a locbio fubito ftar bnciqfc edc k bo faldo. poncdo n« 
rrarfo? numeroddecarridd quadcrno. S.douctal rcfloporri. £poi in loquaderno. 
3. in dare dirai cofi p:ima ponendo fopza indma dc la carta.c( flio mildimo.£l gionio ne 
la partita palacafonc data fopja 19 lo cap.i S'ttoe flfrartfno deltaic 7c.diedare a di.7og 


by making an entry for the same amount in the opposite side — that is, if the superfluous entry was in the 
debit, you make an entry on the credit side, or vice versa. And how you should proceed to correct the error 
I have told you in the preceding chapter. The same would be done in case your helper finds some entry 
which your ledger did not show whether in the debit or credit column, which also would indicate an error 
in the ledger and should be corrected in a different way. That is, you should make that entry or open 
that account in the debit or credit, mentioning the different dates, as the entry would be made later than 
it should have been. A good bookkeeper should always mention why such differences arise, so that the 
books are above suspicion ; thus the notary public in his instruments need not mention what has been added 
or omitted. Thus the good bookkeeper must act so that the mercantile reputation be kept up. 

But if the said entry should have been entered on only one side, debit or credit, then it would be suffi- 
cient for you to put it where it is missing, mentioning how it happened through mistake, etc. So you will 
go on through all your accounts and, if they agree, you know that your Ledger is right and well kept. 

You must know that there may be found in the Ledger some entries which are not in the Journal and 
cannot be found in the Journal. These are the difference between the debit and credit placed there to 
close {per saldi) the different accounts when they are carried forward, as we have said in Chapter 28. Of 
these balances or remainders, you will find their correlative entries in the Ledger, whether in debit or credit, 
on the page indicated in these accounts. When you find each correlative entry in its proper place, you 
may conclude that your Ledger is in proper order. 

What we have said so far about comparing the Ledger with the Journal, should be observed also in 
comparing the memorandum book or scrap book with the Journal, day by day, if you use the memorandum 
book, in the manner I spoke about at the beginning of this treatise. If you have other books, you should 
do the same. The last book to be compared should be the Ledger, the next to the last the Journal. 



After you have regularly done and observed all these things, see that no new entry is made in any 
book which comes before the Ledger — that is, in the memorandum book and Journal — because the equal- 
izing or closing (el saldo) of all the books should be understood to take place on the same day. But if, while 
you are balancing you books, some transactions should occur, you shall enter them in the new books to which 
you intend to carry forward the old ones — that is, in the memorandum book or Journal, but not in the Led- 
ger, until you have carried forward all the different accounts of the old Ledger. If you have not yet a new 
set of books, then you will record these transactions and their respective explanations on a separate sheet of 
paper until the books are ready. When the new books are ready, you enter them in these books which shall 
bear new marks — that is, if the old ones that you are balancing now were marked with a cross, then you 
should mark these new ones with the capital letter A. 



After you have done this carefully, you shall close your Ledger accounts in this way: You should 
commence first with cash account, then the different debtors, then the merchandise, and then your custom- 
ers. Transfer the remainders in Ledger A, that is, in the new Ledger. You should not, as I have said 
above, transfer the remainders in the new Journal. 

You shall add all the different entries in debit and in credit, always adding to the smaller side the 
difference, as I have told you above when explaining the carrying forward of the remainder. These two 
accounts are practically the same thing ; the only difference is that in the first case the remainder was car- 
ried forward to another page of the same Ledger, while in this instance it is carried forward from one 
Ledger to another. While in the first instance you would mark down the new page of the same Ledger, in 
this case you mark down the page of the new Ledger; making the transfer from one ledger to another, 
any account should appear only once in each ledger. This is a peculiarity of the last entry of the accounts 
of the Ledgers. 

In making the transfer, you should proceed as follows : Let us suppose that the account of Mr. Mar- 
tino has a debit remainder (resto) in your "Cross" Ledger at page 60 of L 12, S. 15, G 10. P. 26, 

and you want to transfer it to Ledger A at page 8 in debit; in the "Cross" Ledger you have to add to 
the credit column and you shall put the following at the end of all the other entries : On such and such 
day — putting down always the same day in which you do the balancing (bUancio) — per himself as posted 
to Ledger A to the debit, per remainder (resto), which amount I add here in order to close (saldo) — 
value ; see page 8 : L 12, S 15, G 10, P 26. 

And then you shall cancel the account in the debit and credit diagonally, as I have told you in talk- 
ing about the bringing forward of the accounts. Then put down the total of all the entries, in the debit 
as well as in the credit, so that the eye can see at a glance that it is all even. You shall also write 
down at the new page in Ledger A, in the debit column, as follows : First you put down at the top of 
the page the year, and you put the day in front of the place where you make the entry for the reason 
mentioned in Chapter 15, then you say, Mr. Martino so and so, debit (dee dare — shall give) on such and 
such day 


©iftfndfo nona.rracfatHe.ri'JBcfcripturta 

iai mcdewo p. refto trarto od Itbtt-croapofto al ot'c IxitJcrc per raldo oc cjUfl- val a car. to. 
$ i j .f i *.<;* i o.p 26^6 cofi andaraf faldido tunc If prirc ncl lib'-crocicb ru intcdi portarc 
I qdcmo.H. oc caffa.coucdal.robbc mobili. c ftabtl.ocbirotf.crcdiro^offaii.fcnfaric. peft' 
do?toccomun7c.con liqnalifcvfaalcuoltcaridarcaoonro longo 7c Gb* quelle partite 
cbc non noleflc ponarc in onto quadcrno. B . dx pozricno cere qllc dx folo a re faptcga r 
no. £ no fc obligato a fegnarne coro ad alcu? c6c (on fpefi oc mercirja.fpdi dc cafa inrrara 
ifita.e ruttc fpcfc*ftrao?dmaric.nm.pdri6i.feiKli. o liudli TC.qftc fimiliconucgonfe faldarc 
in lo medefimo lib:o.crod.nda prua oel p c oanno o vcro araacj e oefauancio voidire vti' 
Ic c oSno.i qfto modo dx lox> oare po.taraf i oare cb raro ft poffano Ixmcrc 1 crediro qllc 
oc k fpefi oiccdo.nd faldo aiutando coe piu volree oitfo fempx lamcnox quatttita in oa?c 
o i boucrc p p c oano i qfto a earn rStc -7c. £ cofi rune le bam rai faldare t qfta oel ,p c oan 
no ooue fubtro poi fumando fuo oare c baucre po?rai cogndcere tuo guadag/.c pdita p eft 
fira t rai bilando fatto la parita.doeeb' le eofe c5 fc oouia oiffaleare firan oiffalcate qllc cbc 
fe oouiano agiongncrc fira .ppojrionatamerc a fuoi luocbi agiotc.£ fe oe qfta ptit a.fira p 
d o.irc cB lauere m bauera pdurto ql ranto i ruo rrafieo oadx lo gomc\*afti.£ fe fib pin lo 
baucre alo?a oirai dx ql tanro babia t oitro rpo guadagnaro7C.£ veduro eft barai p qfta 
futilcc oanno tuo rcc)to.alo:a qfta faldarai i laprita od eaucdale.oouc nd p:idpio od tuo 
tnancgio ponefti loiuetariooc turta (a ma faeulra.£ faldarala i qfto modo clxfcl oano fc 
ejto fira piu cbc oto ne guardt ciafcuno dx rcalmctc fo buon rpiano fe adopa aloia aiuta ■ 
rat lobauere a modo vfato oieedoe a oi ?c.p eauedal i qftop oanno fee) to a earn ?e.val 7c. 
£ oepencrai lapn'ta oiametraliter t oare e bauere.rt fu'.poncdo pure la fuma ne! capo ida 
re e baucre dx oeuebatterc para j£ poi ala prita od eauedale i oare oirai.caueda(e ofc oar 
a ot 7c.p <p e oanno. p. oanno fed,to pofto in qudla al oie f>auere p. faldo fuo val a carri,7c. 
%.f .g? p.7C.£ eofi fenc fofle feejto vtile.cb ferebbe cp do qlla oel <p e oanno fe retrouaffe piu 
i baucre dx i oare alo:a fugiogwrdh' al oare p faldo ql ranto el?iamado eleaucdale ale car 
ri fuoi 7c.e aluila po2rcfhi baucre ifiemi eo lalrre robbe inObilt e ftabilu oi nuouo i qfto ca 
tiedal qlc couic cere fepx'ra 6 turd liqderm.po?rai fep:e eognofeere tutta tua faeul 
ta cnognedolioebirie ercdiridxin lib'. 3. pojrafti7c.£ qfta oel eauedal oclqdcrno. cro 
d faldarai ancon.£ poTtarala tot lalrre nd qdemo. B. in refto e fSma o voi a prira p pti 
ta cbc \o poi andx (i coftuma farla in fuma pebe i J . volta tutro mo tuetarto ape. £ 
recozdate ebiamaf fue eam.7c.£ affetarai poi mtre Icprire 6l qderno. lalfabeto dgnu 
na al fuo luogo coe oifop?a te oifff.cap! s °. 3do fcpx pcfli* co facilica trouare le tuc facede 
fecondo lo?o occurence c eofi fia faldo moo el pjimo quadcrno eon fuo giomale e memon* 
ale. £ ado fia piu d?iaro oe Ditto faldo.farai que it o altro fcoruro . £ioc fum m 3 rai in vn fo - 
glio mrto doarc oel quaderno.erod.£ ponlo a man nniltra.£ fnmmarai rutto fuo f>auere 
£p6lo aman ocnra.£poi queftcvlrime fumme rdummarai.£far3neoc mtte quelle 
od oarrna fumadx ficbiamarafuina fnmarfi.£cdft farai vna fuma 6 mtte qlle oalauef 
dx fidxamara ancoja Id vna fumafi!mar0,infi>9 lap 9 .fira fuma fummarg.od oare e la fa 
ft drfama fummaffimaru oc lo bauere.C)? fe qfte ooiffime fummaru fira pare.cfoe dx tan 
to fia luna q»to laltra.V5 qlla od oare.e qlla odo.l?aucre.argufrai el mo qderno cert be gut 
dato fenuro e faldato 6 la eagioe eft oi fopza ncl cap? 1 4-fo octto.flfM fe luna 6 vim fum 
me fummara au3ncallc lalrra oenotarebbecrrond moquaderncel qual poicon oiligctui 
ri coucrra trouarlo co la induftria olo trelletto cbc oto tcba oato.c co lartefitio ode r agio 
nt dx Iwrai bene inparato.laqual pte cot nd p:idpio od pnte oicemoc fummamcte need* 
faru albon mercatante altramenre non fiandobon ragi'oncrt ndt foifarri andara a taftoi 
coe cteclx). £ porallinc fcq* re molto oano.adonca eo ognt ftudio e cura ffo^arari fopw nit 
toccrebuon ragioneridxl modoa ma comodita in qfta fubltma opa a pieno a tua baftan 
{a.rc lo oato eon mtte fue regole a mm' fuo luogbi oebitamente coe turto facilmetc 
per la tauola ne I pnncipto oi qfta opera pofta poa-af trouare.£ anco?a p le cok oertc q* fc 
quenre come oifopja nei cap . 1 2° tc .pmifi a pfu mo rcco?do faro i °.epubgo^toe fumaria 
rccolra cenrialc oe mtto el pritc trattato.dx molto fenva oubio te fia vrile. £ p me reco:da t 
rati falriflimo pgare dx a fue laudce glo:ia.$o pof& dc bene i meglio op5do apcedcrc it. 
£>cl mooo e o:dine afap tener le fcripture menute coe fduo fcrim oe mano lettcre fami' 
lian police ^ccfff fnic c altri iftrumeri e od regtftro oc le lfe.ipo?tan. £a? 3 f 
£quita d modo e o:diuc oc faper tener le fcripture c cbfarccxc. menMte commc 
fonno fcrirri oc mano oc pagamenti facti qutctatice oc cambi.oe robbe oatc.let 
cere familiaiiqualieofe fonno fra mereanri oe gradtnliua fhina.e moUa impoi 


per himself as per remainder (resto) carried from "Cross" Ledger, which has been added in the credit col- 
umn in order to close {saldo), see page 60, value: L 12, S 15, G 10, P 26. 

Thus you will proceed with all the accounts of the Cross Ledger which you want to transfer to Ledger 
A: cash account, capital account, merchandise, personal property, real property, debtors, creditors, 
public officers, brokers, public weighmen, etc., with whom we have sometimes very long accounts. But as 
to those accounts which you should not care to transfer to Ledger A, as, for instance, your own personal 
accounts of which you are not obliged to give an account to another, as, for instance, small mercantile ex- 
penses, household expenses, income and expenses and all extraordinary expenses — rentals, pescioni, feudi or 
livelli, etc. All these accounts should be closed (saldore) in the Cross Ledger into the favor and damage ac- 
count, or increase and deficit, or profit and damage account, as it is sometimes called. You shall enter them 
in the debit column, as it is rare that these expense accounts should show anything in the credit side. As 
I often have told you, add the difference to the column, either debit or credit, which shows a smaller total, 
saying: Per profit and loss in this account, see page, etc. By doing so, you shall have closed {saldore) all 
these different accounts in the profit and loss account through which then, by adding all the debit and all 
the credit entries, you will be able to know what is your gain or loss, for with this balance all entries are 
equalized ; the things that had to be deducted were deducted, and the things that had to be added were 
added proportionately in their respective places. If this account shows more in the debit than in the credit, 
that means that you have lost that much in your business since you began. If the credit is more than the 
debit, that means that in the same period of time you have gained. 

After you know by the closing {saldorai) of this account what your profit or loss is, then you shall close 
this account into the capital account in which, at the beginning of your management of your business, you 
entered the inventory of all your worldly goods. You shall close the account in this way: If the losses 
are in excess — from which state of affairs may God keep every one who really lives as a good Christian — 
then you have to add to the credit in the usual manner, saying : On such and such day, Per capital on 
account of losses in this account, see page so and so, value, etc. Then you shall cancel the account with a 
diagonal line in debit and credit, and put in the total amount of all the debit entries, as well as of the credit 
entries, which should be equal. And then in the capital account, you shall write in the debit column: 
Capital debit {dee dare — shall give) on such and such day, per profit and loss account on account of losses 
as marked down in the credit column of said account in order to close {per soldo), value, etc.: 

L , S , G_ , P 

If instead there should be a profit, which will happen when the profit and loss account would show 
more in the credit than in the debit, then you should add the difference to the debit side to make the equali- 
zation, referring to the capital account and respective page. You should credit the same amount to the capi- 
tal account, making the entry on the credit side where all the other goods of yours have been entered, per- 
sonal or real. Therefore, from the capital account, which always must be the last account in the entire 
Ledger, you may always learn what your fortune is, by adding together all the debits and all the credits, 
which you have transferred in Ledger A. 

Then this capital account should be closed and carried forward with the other accounts to Ledger 
A, either in total or entry by entry. You can do either way, but it is customary to transfer only the total 
amount, so that the entire value of your inventory {inventario) is shown at a glance. Don't forget to num- 
ber the pages, after which you will enter all the different accounts in the alphabet of Ledger A, each at 
its own place, as I have said at Chapter 5, so that you may find very easily the account you want. In 
this way the entire first Ledger, and with it the Journal and memorandum book, are closed and closed up. 

In order that it may be clearer that the books were correct before the said closing, you shall sum- 
marize on a sheet of paper all the debit totals that appear in the Cross Ledger and place them at the left, 
then you shall write down all the credit totals at the right. Of all these debit totals you make one sum 
total which is called grand total {summa summarum), and likewise you shall make a sum total of all the 
credit totals, which is also called grand total (summa summarum). The first is the grand total of the debits, 
and the second is the grand total of the credits. Now, if these two grand totals are equal — that is, if one 
is just as much as the other — that is, if those of the debit and those of the credit are alike — then you shall 
conclude that your Ledger was very well kept and closed, for the reason that I gave you in Chapter 14. 
But if one of the grand totals is bigger than the other, that would indicate a mistake in your Ledger, 
which mistake you will have to look for diligently with the industry and the intelligence God gave you and 
with the help of what you have learned. This part of the work, as we said at the beginning, is highly neces- 
sary to the good merchant, for, if you are not a good bookkeeper in your business, you will go on grop- 
ing like a blind man and may meet great losses. 

Therefore, take good care and make all efforts to be a good bookkeeper, such as I have shown you fully 
in this sublime work how to become one. I have given you all the rules and indicated the places where 
everything can be found, in the table of contents which I have placed at the beginning of this work. 

Of all the things thus far treated, as I promised you in Chapter 12, I will now give you a summary 
of the most essential things for your own recollection, which no doubt will be very useful to you. 

And remember to pray God for me so that to His praise and glory I may always go on doing good. 



Here follow the manner and rules for keeping documents and manuscripts, such as papers relative to 
payments made, receipts for drafts, or gifts of merchandise, confidential letters, which things are very im- 
portant for merchants 


D frtincf o nona . Zrict a f uc. n". D r fcripfurifl 209 

tan<a.cWgronpcru;olo tnpcrdcrlce fm3mric.£p;una.oclctmr<famrliflriqua<ifpcilb 
fra re r 1 1' roi autto.npoflbnofltfderc. quelle fcp;cfrcndicfcrt>a in vnbandxtroala ftnod 
mdf .£. ftmrodmcfc legale in vn tnas\o.c rtpollc oaprc (cgnando ognuua ocfoxdoidx la 
rrccui cl oi dx li refpondi .£ cofi fi fa amefc p mefc^i: poll I a fin oe lanno oc rum qi h mac, 
a farjt rn maco grade e luoga e fcgna fuo &>' £ cfdo vol alcuna Ira a ql ncom. Daucrai 
i ruo fhidio ovcro fcritoid vrva r affca .ncla ql rcpo.vai Ire cb Itainid re vtikroxb ru co Icruof 
mandaflc alo:a icdut clx lamandi a ronu. uiccula in ral'ca n :oma.c Ic a fircnc^j in qlla oefi 
rrnea ?c.£ poi ncl fpadarc ocl fanrcpiglialc CMI le ruoi al ruo refpodenre in quel tai luogo 
knuncw petxelfenju-efernpxcbuonoeandxfufaoarfuoLKuaagiopereer fcruiro 7C. 
aromo clio fli'i* I'opnta coc fi fa f pui rafdxrrcdoc in rantc q>re fonno le tare e luogbiin 
lequalifaifcroC freeze ed*owamo.*otna.jfi^ 

j&.njva ?c,£ fop:a oirrc rafeberte p o?dinc firiucrai tlluo nomc.cioe a (una oihu "Roma-alal 
tra.f ireca i<- i" If *i ua " P° l rtpo;rai le Ire clxp qlliluogbi ic folfcro mandarc oa qiwlcr? 
aico"rlx lamaudauc.£ fatra cbc li l>arairefporac nundara.purc in Dicta l:a oc fo;a. cde fc> 
fti ocl fuo recoicee p ebt£ofi fim Jrrer po.Tai mennone oe la rdpc Ira. £ pebi to mandaita* 
con lo fuo gio:no.£l qual oi mai in alcu\rua fjcendi fa clx macbi. ixccola gride cb (a 
fia inarime in ft »' k <i" BlP* •• ocuepo:.*c tlmildiino d uoinc ruo clqual no 
me fieortuma mcrtarlo oa pedcamandcrrra oc la Ira in vn caroiic.el Lir>".co lo oicluogo 
fra mcrcaranrife ufa ponac oifop?a ncl prindrno odalfa.t£>ap a .a inodo bon rpiajio ba 
roi fcpx amctc oc poncrc el gloriofo noinc oc nr a falurcdoc cl ood nome oc ybu.opcro in 
fuo fcibio la figura oc la fea iToci.rtcl cuincme fcp rurrc Ic nix opauoni ocbaiio ecr p:ind' 
piatc £ farai cdflerod. 1 494.0 oi.i 7.ap?ilc i vincgia.£ pot fcqra ruo oire. aoc can'lfimo 
7C.ina lifludiaric alrrcgcnn coc fonno religiofi7c.dx non rrafieano. vfano ncl luogo ofr 
i:e lalerrcra c fatra poncr oi lorro con lo oi c €$>.£ limcrcati coftumano oilopza a modo 
ditro air 3 mente non vi poncndocl 01 faebe confulionc. £ di re (cm ranobcrfe pdx fcoid 
la I :a dx non bt cl oi nciaro clx Ic farta oc notrc.£ qlla clx non a noura d luogo fc oid 
dx fc farra i lalf.modo c non in qllo^ oltra (c bcrfc clx pcgio c nc feque fccwdaloTr vifi 
£rpcdira dx Ixirai fua rcfpolla iiofcia al depuraro luogo la poni coc bai ircfo»£ qUo dx 
oirro l>abtamo oc fc'.fola irc'dilo p mere, dndc c ancoja oanotarc dxq>do It Ire dx ru ma 
di foflcro oc tpoxanc.fl.qllc rale fc rogliano p J rcgtllrarlc in m lib?o oa pre folo a qfio opu 
raro.ncl ql regifrro ft ocuc poncrc la Ira oc rcrbo ad nrtrfi fella fia-6 grandc fpo:rai{a coc 
fonno Ire oc cambto.o oc robe mandate o 6. 7c.ovcro rcgiftrarcfololafubltan$a,c6cmc/ 
morale oiccdoi qfto ot icbabiamo Icrirrto alralc ?c.coeplo rale *rc.limandamo U ralco 
fc icSx> p rf.naa oc of ranri tco. c omife c nebkk qual poncmo in rafca ic. £ oj iuo:e 
figtbra cbebaraila rua fix madi c farto la fopja fcritra fufa. p tnolrt poocrui elfuo fegno 
vi fuox.ado ficognofca cbc fia dc mercjntt.a iqu3li tnolro fc ocucbaucrc riguardo.r>ebe 
fon qllt eoc 1" pneipt'o ot qfto rrarraro ofcemo dx manrcgano le rcpub.£ a qtro fine dctcuC 
ucrcnn'a cl fimile li"K m, .-£ardinali.pongano odbx cllo:o otftiro nome-aciorttfu ft pofttfai 
fare oc non fapc oc cbtla folt-. £ tnolro piu apramctc cl fando padre fa Ic fuc parctcmcre 
flprc coc fono bollc bxutlcgi re. ilucga dx alcunc cofe piu irrifcclx.poga forrocl figillo tH 
pcicarox tc.leqlilfc poi a mefe p mac rcro anno p anno rcco:rat i ma^gi. overo fil(c c 
03 ptc Ic poni ojdinaramcrc i vno armaro.o fularcrro.iccuro.£ coc nafcano afa jojnara co 
n laferra.fldo pofli piu pfto a pc occure'ee rcrrouarlc tf laqlcofajio euro piu oire peb to aba 
franca maiinrcfo ?c ficruri oc mano no pagari oc ruoi ocbiron'coinerc acenai oifopM 
nd cap . 1 7.fcruaraf in vn alrro luogo piu fecrero coc fon cafli c fearole priliarc ?c.£ Iccjcri 
ex firmTirer.ferua in luogo lecuro p ogni rcfixrro.Of>a q-do ru pagalletu ad aim clriccucrt 
faralo fenuerc i 1 ? libxrro oc pagamcricoc in pzidpio re oiri.acio no fi poflto coft faetlineic 
fmarirc c pderr .£rofi obfentaraioc Ic poUic,c cbc iponano. coc fono norolc oc fenfaria 6 
mercari.o oc pcfadori boldrc 6 robbc ntdfe rrarrc oc ooganc oamarc o oa rcrra c fctefc 
ocarmu'nc oc cofoli aim officii aim flmuncri oc norari i pgamena qlt fc ocbano rcpo?- 
re t vn Inogo oa pre. £ coft copi'c fenmrre c .pecfli odirc oe 4Xuraro.n.£ auocari. £ fimtlinc 
tc cbuonol?auac vn lib , .fcparoplirtco7dt.dxficbiamircco:dac.c ndql alac.o?nara farai 
Irtuc memojic oclccofcclx oubiraffi: no recoxiarrcclxrc pozicrojnar oano-nclql ogni 
al maneo la fcra nan<c vadi adoamtre oarai ocbio.fc cofa folic oafpecure dafarc dx non 
fuflc crpedira 7C.alaql fpacara oarai ocpcna.£ tofi c} farai memona oc cofc clx al mdnoc 
amico p vno ooi 01' pftoflc coc fonno vafa oe boregga caldarc c aim o.-dtgm *c.£ quc/> 


and, if they are lost, may cause great danger. 

First, we shall talk of confidential letters which you may write to or receive from your customers. 
You should always keep these in a little desk until the end of the month. At the end of the month tie 
them together in a bunch and put them away and write on the outside of each the date of receipt and the 
date of reply, and do this month by month, then, at the end of the year, of all these papers make one big 
bundle and write on it the year, and put it away. Any time you need a letter, go to these bundles. 

Keep in your desk pouches in which to place the letters that your friends may give you to be sent 
away with your own letters. If the letter should be sent to Rome, put it in the Rome pouch, and if to 
Florence, put it in the Florence pouch, etc. And then when you send your messenger, put these letters 
with yours and send them to your correspondent in that particular town. To be of service is always a 
good thing, and it is customary also to give a gratuity for that good service. 

You should have several little compartments, or little bags, as many as there are places or cities in 
which you do business, as, for instance, Rome, Florence, Naples, Milan, Genoa, Lyon, London, Bruges, and 
on each little bag you shall write its proper name — that is, you will write on one "Rome," on another 
' ' Florence, ' ' etc., and in these bags you shall put the letters that somebody might send you to be forwarded 
to those places. 

When you have answered a letter and sent the answer away, you shall mention on the outside of the 
said letter the answer, by whom you sent it and the day, just as you did when you received the letter. 

As to the day, you shall never forget to mark it in any of your transactions, whether small or large, 
and especially in writing letters in which these things must be mentioned, namely : the year, the day, the 
place, and your name. It is customary to put the name at the end of the right side in a corner. It is cus- 
tomary among merchants to write the year and the day and the place at the top at the beginning of the 
letter. But first, like a good Christian, you shall always remember to write down the glorious name of our 
Savior — that is, the name of Jesus, or in its place the sign of the Holy Cross, in whose name our trans- 
actions must always be made, and you shall do as follows: Cross 1494. On this 17th day of April in 

And then go on with what you want to say — that is, "My very dear," etc. But the students and 
other people, lie the monks or priests, etc., who are not in business, are used to writing the day and year 
at the end after writing the letter. The merchants are accustomed to put at the top as we have said. If 
you should do otherwise and not write the day, there will be confusion and you will be made fun of be- 
cause we say the letter which does not bear the day was written during the night, and the letter which 
does not bear the place we say that it was written in the other world, not in this one ; and besides the fun 
made of you, there would be vexations, which is worse, as I have said. 

After you have sent your answer away, you put your letter in its proper place; and what we have 
said of one letter will apply to all the other letters. It must be observed that when the letters you send 
away are of importance, you should first make a record of them in a book which is kept for this special 
purpose. In this book the letter should be copied, word for word, if it is of great importance — as, for in- 
stance, the letters of exchange, or letters of goods sent, etc., otherwise only a record of the substantial part 
should be made similarly as we do in the memorandum book, saying: On this day, etc., we have written 
to so and so, etc., and we send him the following things, etc., as per his letter of such and such date he 
requested or gave commission for, etc., which letter we have placed in such and such pouch. 

After you have sealed the letter on the outside and addressed it, it is the custom of many to mark on 
the outside your special mark, so that they may know that it is correspondence of a merchant, because 
great attention is given to merchants, for they are the ones, as we said at the beginning of this treatise, 
who support our republics. 

For this purpose, the Most Reverend Cardinals do likewise, by writing their name on the outside of 
their correspondence so that nobody could claim as an excuse that he did not know from whom it was. The 
correspondence of the Holy Father remains open so that its contents may be known, like bulls, privileges, 
etc., although for things which are more personal or confidential the seal representing the Fisherman (Pes- 
catore — St. Peter) is used to seal them. 

All these letters, then, month by month, year by year, you shall put together in a bundle and you will 
keep them in an orderly way in a chest, wardrobe or cupboard. As you receive them during the day, put 
them aside in the same order, so that if necessary you might find them more easily ; and I won 't talk any 
longer about this, as I know that you have understood it. 

You shall keep in a more secret place, as private boxes and chests, all manuscripts of your debtors 
who have not paid you, as I said in Chapter 17. Likewise keep the receipts in a safe place for any emerg- 
ency. But when you should pay others, have the other party write the receipt in a receipt book, as I told 
you at the beginning, so that a receipt cannot be easily lost or go astray. 

You shall do the same as to important writing, as, for instance, memoranda of the brokers, or of mer- 
chants, or of weighmen, or relative to goods placed in or taken out of the custom house, either land or sea 
custom houses, and judgments or decrees of the consuls or of other public officials, or all kinds of notarial 
instruments written on parchments which ought to be kept in a place apart. The same should be said of 
the copies of instruments and papers of attorneys or counselors at law relative to lawsuits. 

It is also wise to have a separate book for memoranda, which we call memoranda book, in which day by 
day you shall keep a record of the things that you might be afraid of forgetting and, if you forget them, 
may prove to be dangerous to you. Every day, the last thing in the evening, just before going to bed, you 
shall glance over this book to see whether everything which should have been done has been done, etc., 
and you shall cancel with your pen the things that have been done, and in this book you shall make a rec- 
ord of the things that you have lent to your neighbor or friend for one or two days, as, for instance, store 
vases, caldrons, or any other thing. 


©iftuictionotu.Zrjctatuori'Scfcript uria 

Itntat documcti con c&ialtri vritifliim fop?j dan repo?rai 7c\pui c maco c.on<ando dimfnu 
oido to luoobi c rpi a te per tuo ingcgno parcra-pcro eft non e pofTtbOe apicno dc rutto a 
ponto per ponto i mcr<a*ua dart nonna.c noriria pocft come altrcuoltc fc dittovol pui pod 
■fart i° mcreatatcdxun dotto?cdclcggi.3dco7c .£ofccbnuo?3f6nodetrc.fcbii lapjedo 
r ji fon ccrto i ruttc rue facede bri tc rcggiaraimcdiate c! tuo pcregriuo ingcgno ?c*. 
£* urn n ino oc regolc £ modi bpU il tcrtcre vno lib?o oi mcrcanri. £ap B . ;6. 

Zurn li exditori ft ocbono mcttcre al lib?o oala iua mano ocftra.£ \i dcWton oala tua 
mano fimfrra. £urrc le price cbe fc mettcno allib? Ixiuo a cere ooppie-doe fc tu fai vno ere 
ditox al fi fare i VoebuoxXiafcua prira cofi t oare coe i Ixre Dbbe cdtcnere ife. ',xo(c cioc 
MNM od pagomctola foma oel pagamcro.£ la eagioc oel pagamcto. lulrimo 
nottic oela prita od oebiro ocbbcccrc il p?to oclla prira od credite. $» qHo medefimo 
cio:uo cbe c fcrirta la wira oel oebiro. i qllo medefimo giojno ocbbcccrc qlla oel crediro. 
to btlaneio od lib? ffnrcde i ! foglio picgaro p loldgo ful qle oala mano oeftra ficopiao 
ii creditor oel libVc oala finiftra li ocbirori.£ vedefe fc laffi ma od oare c q>ro qlla oc laue 
rc£ al!o?a il lib'.fta bene. £l bilaudo oel lib?o oebbe cere pari-rioc dx canto oebbe ccY 
la fGma non oico oe ocbtrori.ttR>a oicola fuma od crcdito cpto la fuma oel oe 
btro.£ no eendo foria errox ncl IiIho. £1 conro oi cafFa conuiene cbe fepx na oebirrice. 
overamete pari. £ fe alm'mcre ruflc faria errox ncll ib:o. /Son fi oebbe e non fipuo rare 
r , .ocbito«al libro fenca liccca c uolura oi qllo tale d?a acere ocbitox e fe pure fifaceffe ql- 
la fcrirrura fcria falfa lHc fimrtmctc non fi puo po:re neppati ne condition! a. i ! crediro fe 
(a licica e rolonra oel creditor. £ fe purtfiTaecffcqllafoirrura faria falfa. £llib*.conuie 
necbe fia rutto tratro fuori a I'.mcdefima moera.Of>a ocrro poibii noiarc qllocb a cadd 
fe o ouc.0 S .0 fioani.o fcudf oox>.o qllo dx fuffi Qha ncl rrarre fuori conuiene dx fia tut 
to a i '.meddima moncta coe pjicipiafti illib".cofi couuicncfeguire. la prira od oebiro. 
o od crcdito dx fi fa i conto oe cafD ft puo abxuiare cbi ruolccioc fens a oil? lacagidne (o 
lamcre oire oa tale of tale.O a tale of tale.pdx la cagionc fi uienc a ofebiarar n ell a ptita op 
pofita. tt?aucdo a fare i °.coro nuouo fi oebbe rcriuere i'carta noua fenc j to;narc adictro an 
cow d? a oricrro vi trouafTi fpado oa metterla.^on ff oi'e fenuere idrietro.dOa fcp:e auf 
tf per ozdine cocvanno It gio:ni ockpo dx tmi non nriwnano indneto £ fe pure ft faceffe 
far /a oa rcputare qllo lib:o falfo. © e i '.partita fofle alib:o tncfla per crrorc dx non do 
ucfff ecrccoeadufenc ale volte per tfmemo?aginc etulauofeffiiftojnare faraicoff feugna 
qlla tale partita in margtneouna crod o ouna. fe. £ dipot Tcrtut' r '.prira alincontro.dbe a 
looppofito oi qlla ncl medefimo conto.cioc fcla partita errata fuffccredimccpomamo 01 
$Sof io66.£mla f3wiocWnTce.£dirai , .cdedare.& So.f lodt/onnopcrla parrira di' 
prro fegnata crod dx (i Horn a perdxera errata e non ban cua a ecre.£ cjflra partfra fegna 
la. crod coe t laltra e t fatta. CJuando lofpario duno coro fuffe modo eft no uf 
potertc mettcre piu pnre.£ tuvolcffi rirare qllo conro innand-5 fl cofiguarda qllo eft c ft re 
fto del ditto conto.doe fcli refra baucre oa dare £>:a poniamo dx qllo (onto refti Ixiuert 
5i8f ; 4dz.bicc»dxtu debbi fare i ". verfo folerto oala parte pppofita fen^a merrcre gio: ' 
noa: diraicoft.£ de dare. $28040:. per rcfto oi qfro conto pofto bauere in qfto a cara: d 
farto.£ lo dctto verfo fi debe fegnare in marginc dauanri eofidoe lr\°. dx figntfica rcfto 
doe dxl dmo uerfo non ne debtnice ancor dx fia dala banda del debitox.ORa uiaie a d' 
fere trafpo^ato qllo acdito per la via del debito.02a ti couiene uolgcre carra e andarc ra' 
to auann dx rruoui i '.carta nuoua.£ ejuifarccredirox il dcrro conto.£ nominarlo e fa" 
regtitanuouafcCji metteruiilgtwnoXdiraicofi tale di talc 6 tali debere. S 18^4-62^6 
noper refto duno fuo conto fcuato in qfto a ca. £ qfta parrira IT debbt fcgnaic in marginc 
cofi. doe "IV. dxfignifica refto£ e fatra.£ cofi comme 10 ro moftro quando ileonro rcfta 
a bauere cofi ancorabaiafare quando reftafrradare.doequcllocai meflb dala banda dd 
acdito mcrter dak> banda del debiro. 

tlandofl lib° fuffe rurro pieno o ued?io e tu uole fB ridullo a 1 ' alr° li". nuouo 
fa cofi p .ti couiene vedcre dx fe d tuo lib", vecbio c fegnato i fu lacoucrta poni 
omo p cafo. ^ . bt'fogna eft i ful lib? nuouo ooue lo voi ridurre fia fegnato in fu 
41 la couerta. "£}. pdx li lib'.oc mercanri vano p o:dtc luno ooppo lalf.f o le Ire 
Odo.a be 7C.£ oipoilcuare ilbtlando od lib? vecbio dx fia giufto ep-^n coe oebba eflere 
e oa qllo brJancio copiare turri (1 credirori e oebit on i ful lib'.nuouo turn p o?dine cot elli 
ftsno i ful bilado.£ fare tucti U ocbitoric credfrori dafcilo oa pfe^lafaa adafe? ta*to (pario 


These rules, and the other very useful rules of which I have spoken before, you shall follow and, ac- 
cording to the localities and times, you shall be more or less particular, adding or omitting as it seems best 
to you, because it is impossible to give rules for every little thing in the mercantile business, as we have 
already said. The proverb says that we need more bridges to make a merchant than a doctor of laws can 

If you understand well all the things that I have spoken of so far, I am sure you with your intelli- 
gence will carry on your business well. 


All the creditors must appear in the Ledger at the right hand side, and all the debtors at the left. 

All entries made in the ledger have to be double entries — that is, if you make one creditor, you must 
make some one debtor. 

Each debit (shall give — dee dare) and credit (shall have — dee havere) entry must contain three things, 
namely : the day, the amount and the reason for the entry. 

The last name in the entry of the debit (in the Ledger) must be the first name in the entry of the 
credit. On the same day that you make the debit entry, you should make the credit entry. 

By a trial balance (bUancio) of the Ledger we mean a sheet of paper folded lengthwise in the middle, 
on which we write down all the creditors of the Ledger at the right side and the debtors at the left side. 
We see whether the total of the debits is equal to that of the credits, and if so, the Ledger is in order. 

The trial balance of the Ledger should be equal — that is, the total of the credits — I do not say creditors 
— should be equal to the total of the debits — I do not say debtors. If they were not equal there would be a 
mistake in the Ledger. 

The cash account should always be a debtor or equal. If it were different, there would be a mistake 
in the ledger. 

You must not and cannot make any one debtor in your book without permission or consent of the per- 
son that has to appear as debtor ; if you should, that account would be considered false. Likewise you can- 
not add terms or conditions to a credit without permission and consent of the creditor. If you should, 
that statement would be untrue. 

The values in the Ledger must be reckoned in one kind of money. In the explanation of the entries, 
you may name all sorts of money, either ducats, or lire, or Florence, or gold scudi, or anything 
else ; but in writing the amount in the column, you should always use the same kind of money through- 
out — that is, the money that you reckon by at the beginning should be the same all through the Ledger. 

The debit or credit entries of the cash account may be shortened, if you desire, by not giving the rea- 
son for the entry ; you may simply say from so and so, for so and so, because the reason for the entry is 
stated in the opposite entry. 

If a new account should be opened, you must use a new page and must not go back even if there was 
room enough to place the new account. You should not write backward, but always forward — that is, go 
forward as the days go, which never come back. If you do otherwise, the book would be untrue. 

If you should make an entry in the Ledger by mistake which should not have been made, as it happens 
at times through absentmindedness, and if you wanted to correct it, you shall do as follows: Mark with 
a cross or with an "H" that special entry, and then make an entry on the opposite side under the same 
account. That is, if the erroneous entry was on the credit side — say, for instance, for L 50, S 10, D 6 — 
you make an entry in the debit side, saying: Debit (dee dare) L 50, S 10, D 6, for the opposite entry 
cross marked which is hereby corrected, because it was put in through a mistake and should not have 
been made. Then mark with a cross this new entry. This is all. 

When the spaces given to any particular account are all filled so that no more entries can be made 
and you want to carry forward that account, do in this way: Figure out the remainder of the said ac- 
count — that is, whether it is debit or credit remainder. Now let us say that there is a credit remainder 
of L 20, S 4, D 2. You should write on the opposite side, without mentioning any date, as follows : Debit 
L 28, S 4, D 2, per remainder (per resto) of this account carried forward in the credit at page so and so. 
And it is done. The said entry is to be marked in the margin so, namely: Ro, which means "resto" (re- 
mainder), but this does not mean that it is a true debit entry although it is on the debit side. It is rather 
the credit which is transferred through the debit side. Now you must turn the pages and keep on turn- 
ing them until you find a new page where you shall credit that account by naming the account and mak- 
ing a new entry without putting down any day. And you shall say in the following manner : So and so 
is credit (dee havere) L 28, S 4, D 2, per remainder (per resto) of account transferred from page so and so, 
and you should mark this entry in the margin by Ro, which means "resto" remainder, and that is done. 

In the same way, as I have shown you, you shall proceed if the account has a debit remainder — that is, 
what you enter on the credit side you should transfer to the debit side. 

When the ledger is all filled up, or old, and you want to transfer it into a new one, you proceed in the 
following manner : First you must see whether your old book bears a mark on its cover — for instance, an 
A. In this case you must mark the new Ledger in which you want to transfer the old one by B, because 
the books of the merchants go by order, one after the other, according to the letters of the alphabet. Then 
you have to take the trial balance of the old book and see that it is equal. From the trial balance sheet 
you must copy in the new Ledger all the creditors and debtors all in order just as they appear in the trial 
balance sheet, but make a separate account for each amount ; 


cfto m arbtrn bcYc 3 rrauaglurt co frco £ i ciafcut pma od orbirox bai a oire p rati rcfla 
idarc al lib"*- ucd>io Iccnaro. d.acarxuukfuporaodaolaoxbaiacnrc ptaim rata 
a hjucrc al lib* rcd:>io fcgnato. B. a car . £ cof. c nduao al libju nuouo.£>?a gcancdlar 
il lib?o ucdMO ri couicnc a ci afcuo coco •cede ifpcgn* rlo to lo Wancio fop?a ovto .ace fir 
mo core od libx* ucdxo fara creditor dx loiidrai p. Io bilanpo faralo ocbirox c oirai p 
rann rclra baucrr a qfro coro porto oebbi baucu al lib*, nouo fcgnaro. jO.£ colt l>a 
rai tfpero rurto il lib". ucd.>to.e acccfo al lib° nuouo.£ coficomo 10 ro inolrro ouno credtro 
rt cofi bai afarc ouiio ocbirox. J^aluo dx oouc al credirox fifa ocbirox poUo ocbo* ba 
ucrc £ ro bai a fare credirox pofto rxbbt oare ? c facto . 

£ofi dx agucne amerrcrc al libx» oc mcrcanri . 
1wt ti o.cocanridx n» n rrouarti dx fulTmo tuoi .ppni.cKxdx baucrti guadagnaai 
oiucrfirpi pel pailaro dx ti fuflino ftati tartan oa tuoi parcri moxi.o 00 nan oa qldx pri 
ope farai credirox re mcdcmo.£ oebiiore carta. Zunc k gioic e mercantic dx fuifuio 
roc .pprie cbc ro Iwucfli guadagnarco d> » fuflino ftarc Ijifjrc p. rcftamcro.o dx tt fuflino 
Ifarc oonarc.£ qlrc rale cole fi rogliono ftimare oa p fc (una oa lalt'.qllo dx vagliano a 6. 
coranri. £ ranrc crt e cofc ellc fono ranre pnx fare at lib°.c fare ctafcuna ocbtrrtce c otrc p. 1 J 
re mi rrouo ftimax qfro 01 unu d.7C.£olto mcdefimo credirox i qlio a tar.£ farai credf 
tox il ruo cotorioc re medeftmo 01 ciafcua puta . tJ/>a nora dx ql k pnrc fintedc cb 116 fie 
no inacooi w'eci out . luna po cbc le cofc minute 01 poco valo:c uon nmctrano al iibx»~ 

Zurrc le cofc ifabtlccbe ni rj rrouarti dx fuflino t uc ,pp:ic coe fono cafe polTcflioi botcc 

glx bai afarc ocbtt ox oerra cafa e fhmare qllo dx I a uaie a tua oinrcrioc a o.corann. £ ii 

ne credirox re medemo al tuo fopja oettocoro.£ oipot fare ocbirox la poflcfltoe ca pfc c 

ftimarla coe c oirro t fane credicox te medemo al ruo fopjadetro eoto. e coe ikIIc rcgoic to 

oirro turrc le grire vogliono bcre i lo:o rre cofenoe il giorno clacf J . ocla pecuia e lacagidc. 

£6predx ro faccflioi mcrcintieo oidx cofafifulk p li 6 cotarioebbi fare Dbitore qlla 

rale macanrta qlla rale cofa e creditorc la caffa . £ fc ru oiccifi. 10 lacoprai a 6. idtid coe i 

oifto.flf>a rno banco glipago p me.o reramctc vno mio amico gli pago p. me. IK ifpodoti 

cbc a ogni modo bai afare wbuorc qlla raic mcrcanria coe oifopra.o oitto.iQ^a ooue 10 r 1 

riflifaraicrediroJ la carta w bai afare crcdirofql banco.o qllo ruo aico cb p re glia pagati. 

£oprc dx tu faccflT di mcrcanrie.0 didx cofa fifia a rerminc dalcuno rpo debi tare de * 

birore qlla rale mercancia e creditorc colui da cut ru (ai idpara pqllo rpo Xopre cberu 

faceffi di mercanria.o didxeofa ti fia a pre O.c pre rpo defj&i fare debitore qlla rale mercao 

na £ creditorc colui da cui ru lai copata p qllo tpo to qlf 1 patti cbe It babbt bauere dictamo 

fl ter^o di 6.coriri £ lorcfto fra fei inefl ^rimi fururi:£ doppoqfto fare unalrra pnta.cioc 

debitore colui da cm ru laicopara ^i qlla qp J .di 6.c6tanndx mora qlla rcr^a para dx fu d< 

parro dtcorami £ crcdirore la caifa o qllo baiubo dx gltbagaffc pre. iTurre le ucclire ct 

ru faceffidi mcrcanric dalrrc iok l>ai a fare tutro come dilopra laluo rl?ai a mcrrere plo op 

pofirodoe cbe douc difopra n difli cbc fcpre faccfli debitore lamcrcanna:c) neUe vedix bai 

a fare frpre creditorc la mcrcanria £ debitore caffa fc c uedura a o^otanrto debitore ql ban 

co cbc x It baueffe .pm ciTi £ ; c t rcduia a tcrminc.bai a fare debitore colui acui ru ll>ai uedu 

ra p qllo rerminc e fc fufle uedura a pt c ?e pre rpo bai a fare coe oifop.'a ti moJb-at ndk co- 

p?e qllc ouc prire.. Sc rurcdelfi tuia uicnatta abaraxo c*damo. \}o boreduro libbx mil 

IcoilanaoingblixrraabaranooipAtac cioc-alibrcouimlia ot pcucre oomandocommc 

fa a coitarc qlla fairrura al lib' fa.cofi ilrtma qllo dx V3lc ilpipe a rua oifcrcrioe a r.coti' 

ttO? poniamo dx rulo ftimi ouc.oodici ilccto adoq? le oumilia libbx vagliono buc.140 

cdranc po farai crrdttore l3lana 6 ouc. 2 40.^ q-ro (at venduca £ qflo modo obfua fepx i 

lepnrc rutte olibaraxi w qli fene l>auro S-ouamilta w'peucrc frtmaro. : 40.^1^.^110 oa 

ropnicn oebbi rare iqftoacar.£ fane ocbirox ilpeuerc. Oanaricoranti dx rupltafli 

a qlcbctuo amuo bai a fare rxbiiox lamicoacbi ro git Ixnpff an e credirox carta. &c nx 

necuefft i>.cot3nri fn pflanta oa qldx amico bai afire ocbirox carta e credirox lamieo. 

£c tu l>aucfli pfo orto.o oicn.o ven otic .p afficurare nauc galce alrra cofa oebbi fa.' 
re credirox ficurra ot nautili c cbianre clx c coe e cf do c oouc c d;ro p ccro .£ debifox coro 
n caffa. tOfxrcamu 4 lx 1 1 fufTino mandate rh altri co comiffionc oiucderle bararrarlc 
rMeqnali ru baucffi uaucf la rua .puifioe.^icodx ru oebbi fare ocbirox allibjo qlla rale mcr 
cantia arrcnerc al talc ot tale J> Io po:to^ pgabclla.o p nolo p merrcrei magacjno £ crc* 
dirox coto 01 cafla. Z urtc le fpcfc 01 mcrcanric 01 #.edrann cbc ru farai.o p. nolo.o p ga 
belle.o tenure fenfencopo.'rarure facreduorc la caffa.£ ocbirox quclla talc incrcanrra 
per laqlc t u gli bat rfpc* 


and leave to each account all the space that you think you may need. And in each debit account you shall 
say: Per so much as per debit remainder (rest a a dare) in the old book marked A, at page so and so. And 
in each credit account you shall say: Per so much as per credit remainder (resta a havere) in the old book 
marked A, at page so and so. In this way you transfer the old Ledger into the new one. Now, in order to 
cancel the old book, you must cancel each account by making it balance, of which we have spoken — that is, 
if an account of the old Ledger shows a credit remainder as the trial balance would show you, you shall 
debit this account for the same amount, saying, so much remains in the credit of this account, carried for- 
ward in the credit in the new Ledger marked B, at page so and so. In this way you shall have closed the 
old Ledger and opened the new one for, as I have shown you how to do for a creditor, the same you shall 
do for a debtor, with this difference, that while you debit an account, which may show a credit remain- 
der, you shall credit the account which may show a debit remainder. This is all. 


Of all the cash that you might have, if it is your own — that is, that you might have earned at differ- 
ent times in the past, or which might have been bequeathed to you by your dead relatives or given you 
as a gift from some Prince, you shall make yourself creditor (creditore te medesima) , and make cash deb- 
itor. As to all jewelry or goods which might be your own — that is, that you may have got through busi- 
ness or that might have been left you through a will or given to you as a present, you must value them in 
cash and make as many accounts as there are things and make each debitor by saying : For so many, etc., 
of which I find myself possessed on this day, so many denari, posted credit entry at such and such page ; 
and then you make creditor your account (tuo conto), that is yourself (medesimo), with the amount of each 
of these entries. But remember these entries should not be for less than ten ducats each, as small things of 
little value are not entered in the Ledger. 

Of all the real property that you might own, as houses, lands, stores, you make the cash debitor and 
estimate their value at your discretion in cash, and you make creditor yourself or your personal account 
(tuo sopradette conto). Then you make debitor an account of that special property by giving the value, 
as I have said above, and make yourself creditor because, as I have told you, all entries must have three 
things: The date, the value in cash, and the reason. 

If you should buy merchandise or anything else for cash, you should make a debtor of that special 
merchandise or thing and like creditor cash, and if you should say, I bought that merchandise for cash, 
but a bank will furnish the cash, or a friend of mine will do so, I will answer you that any way, you must 
make a debitor of that special merchandise ; but where I told you to credit cash, you should, instead, credit 
that special bank, or that special friend who furnished the money. 

If you should buy merchandise or anything else, partly for cash and partly on time, you shall make 
that special merchandise debitor, and make a creditor of the party from whom you bought it on time and 
under the conditions that you might have agreed upon ; as, for instance, cne-third in cash and the rest in 
six months. After this you will have to make another entry — that is, make a debitor of the party from 
whom you bought it for the amount of the cash that you have given him for that one-third, and make cred- 
itor cash or the bank which might have paid that much for you. 

If you should sell any merchandise or anything else, you should proceed as above with the exception 
that you should proceed in the opposite way — that is, where I told you that when you bought you should 
make the merchandise debitor, when you sell you will have to make your merchandise a creditor and charge 
the cash account if it is sold for cash, or charge the bank that might have promised the payment. And if 
you make a sale on time, you will have to charge the party to whom you sold it on time, and if you make 
the sale partly for cash and partly on time, you shall proceed as I have shown you in explaining about the 

If you should give merchandise in exchange, for instance, let us say I have sold 1,000 pounds of Eng- 
lish wool in exchange for pepper — that is, for 2,000 pounds of pepper — I ask, how shall we make this entry 
in the Ledger ? You shall do as follows : Estimate what the value of the pepper is, at your discretion, in 
cash. Now let us say that you estimated 12 ducats per hundred; the 2,000 pounds would be worth 240 
ducats. Therefore, you shall make the wool a creditor with 240 ducats, for which amount you have sold 
it. This is the manner that you should follow in all the trade entries. If you have received 2,000 pounds 
of pepper valued at 240 ducats, you shall make the pepper a debitor and say : Said pepper debtor on this 
day, see page, etc., etc. 

If you should loan cash to some of your friends, you shall charge the friend to whom you have given 
it and credit cash. If you should borrow cash from some friend, you will have to debit cash and credit 
your friend. 

If you have received 8 or 10 or 20 ducats in order to insure a ship or a galley, or anything else, you 
should credit the account "ship insurance," and explain all about it — how, when and where, and how much 
per cent. ; and shall charge the cash account. 

If anybody should send you any goods with instructions to sell them or exchange them on commis- 
sion, I say that you have to charge in the Ledger that special merchandise belonging to so and so with the 
freight, or duty, or for storage, and credit the cash account. You shall credit the cash for all cash that 
you have to pay on account of goods : for instance, cash paid for transportation or duty, or brokerage, etc., 
and charge the account of that special goods for that which you have paid in money. 


Biftoicrio non j.Zrjetatoexf -fee fcripturie 

£afi dx acadc mmert ale rccorfaiice od mercante . 
Unc lemanmricoicafa o oibortcga cbew n truoui. Of>a vogliono cflcrc per 
ordinccioc time Ic cofe oi ferro oapcrfe con fpario oa porcrc agiongncre fe t% 
fot;Ti3flc.£cori wfegnarcirimarginccjodlecberulTino perducre ovenduteo 
Donate c* guaffc.flfcj non fiinrende maffcriric minute ofpoco vtlox, £ farerf 
cwdo of mac fc cofe Dortonc oa pcrfc eomme e octro. £ fimilc tune lecofe otftagno . £ fj 
mile nitre lecofe oiIcngno.£ cofi nine le ccfc oframc£ cofi ruttcle cofe oarienro c oom ?c 
S5cmpx con fpario 01 qualcbc carta oa potcre arrogere fc bifognafic.e cofi oadare nonrii 
w qudlo dxmancaffe. Tunc Icmallcuerie o obb:igbi o pjomeffcdx p:ometrcffl per ql< 
<\yt amico. e cbiarire bote dx c cornine. Tunc lemercanne o alne cofe dx ri foflfeno faf< 
fare i guardia o a ferbo o i pfra*c.a oa qMx amico.e cofi tunc lecofe cb' tu pftalfi'a ahri tuoi 
amid. Zuni f imercari conditional* doc cop?c orcdirecomc p ereplovno corrato doccB 
tu mi m3ndicon lcp:ofTIinc galec dx tomeranno oingbtiterra ranri antara oi lane wUmf 
fin a c afo dx Ic fieno buonce reripienri.^o ri oaro tanto od cantaro o oel cento o veramc' 
te ri mandaro af iucontro ranri eanrara of cononi. ituttc Ic cafe o poffeffioni o bottegbe 
o giot'e dx ni affiraffia ranri ouco a t3nte lire (anno.£ quando tu rfjcotaai ilficro aloja 41 
Itoirtari fanno a menertal liteocomme oifop?a ri offTi.T&cftando qualdx gtoia uaf&Ia' 
menri oarienro oox> a qualdx mo amico per ono quMidgiomi oiqucfte rale cofe n6 
fi menono al fene fa rico:do ale rico:dan$e.pcrdx fra pocbi gtomi lai bariauere. 
£ cofi per contra fe a te foffipxftato fimili cofe non u' oebbi mencre al libro.flfca fame me 
mo:ia alericoxJai!# perdxpxfro tat a rendenr. 

/Comrnc fl fcriuono lire e foldi e oanari e picfblic altre abjcutature. 
tire foldi ainarf pidoli libbx once oananxfi grani carart oucari fiorinlarstt. 


P Ifbbre <§ tp a*. r cue. fialaf 

Comc1?8ebbe ocnare lepriteot otbttorf. 

eBcccc? Irrrrfip. 
Zodouieo oipierororcftaf 
ceoarc aoiriiii.nouembre. 
contiri in pftaca-pofto caf 
faauercacar. 2 $ 44 f 1 i>$> 

£ a (Al 8.oeno S"-t8.f.i ud 
6.promcttcmo p (uia marti 
no oipicro forabofebi afuo 
ptacefpoftoberciqfto.ac2.S 18 fn56. 

£6me (idebbe ofnare leprite oiencctoori. 

ledouico oipicro foxllai 
se l?auere a oi.2 2 .noucbre 
Imcclta promiffii a noffro 
piacere fracefebo oatcnio. 
caualcatt pofto wircac.2.s 20^462. 

Caffj i m a no en fimone oa 
Icfto bobeni oe oaf aoi.i 4. 
iwucbre 1 49J«&. 62. 0.15. 
6.2 .oa franceico oanconio 
aualcann in qfto a c.2 & 

Cf5artino of pt'ero fora bo 
febi oc dare a di.2 o.noucm 
bre.j49j.8-i 8i.11 .8.6^>or 
to luimedefimo cont iu'po' 
fbcaffaacar. 2. $ 

jprancefcodantomo eauat 
mine anoftro pizcer p lodo 
uico oi pieroforeftai a c.2. t 

£afla in matio oi fimone 
oaleflb bobeni oe bauere a 
d&i 4.noucbre.i 49;. J.44. 
f .1 . ft .8.alo douko dipiero 
foreflaminqOo.acar.2. % 44 t j dx, 
£a di.22.nouembre.f 49; 
62 pi? D6» j.i8. fi .n.6.6.amartinodi 

pkro forabofcbt.aca.2» £ 18 f 11 8fc 

tOf>artino dt pt'ero fora bo 
fdjidt baiicrc a di. 1 8 .none 
^)mcnemo a fuo ptacere p 
18 f 11 06. iodom'cooipieroforclbni 

poftoobbibereiqitoa£.2.i) tS t^ii 56 

20 04 52. 

^rancefebo datomo caual 
canride l>auerea di. 1 
rcco lui medefimo ptan po 
ftocafradareaxar.2. % 

62 $t$ 85. 



All the house and store goods that you may find yourself possessed of — these should be put down in 
order — that is, all the things made of iron by itself, leaving space enough to make additions if necessary ; 
also leaving room to mark in the margin the things that might be lost or sold or given as presents or 
spoiled. But I don't mean small things of little value. 

Make a record of all the brass things separately, as I have said, and then a record of the tin things, 
and then the wooden things, and copper things, and then the silver things and gold things, always leaving 
enough space between each class so that you may add something if necessary, and to put down a memo- 
randum of any object that might be missing. 

All sureties or obligations or promises of payment that you might make for some friend, explaining 
clearly everything. 

All goods or other things that might be left with you in custody, or that you might borrow from some 
friend, as well as all the things that other friends of yours might borrow from you. 

All conditional transactions — that is, purchases and sales, as, for instance, a contract that you shall 
send me by the next ship coming from England, so many cantara of woll di li mistri, on condition that 
it is good ; and when I receive it I will pay you so much per cantara or by the hundred, or otherwise ; I 
will send you in exchange so many cantara of cotton. 

All houses, lands, stores or jewels that you might rent at so many ducats and so many lire per year. 
And when you collect the rent, then that money should be entered in the Ledger, as I have told you. 

If you should lend some jewels, silver or gold vase to some friend, say, for instance, for eight or fifteen 
days, things like this should not be entered in the Ledger, but should be recorded in this record book, because 
in a few days, you will get them back. In the same way, if somebody should lend you something like the 
things mentioned, you should not make any entry in the Ledger, but put down a little memorandum in 
the record book, because in a short time you will have to give it back. 

How Lire, Soldi, Denari and Picioli, etc., should be written down as abbreviations. 

Lire; Soldi; Denari; Picioli; Libbre; Once; Danarpesi; Orani; Carati; Ducati; Florin larghi. 

(See other side for their abbreviations.) 


MCCCCLXXXXIII. Lodovico, son 
of Piero Forestani, shall give on 
the 14th day of November, 1493, 
L 44, S 1, D 8, for cash loaned, 
posted cash shall have at page 2 : 

And on the 18th ditto, L 18, 
S 11, D 6, which we promised to 
pay for him to Martino, son of 
Piero Foraboschi at his pleasure, 
posted said shall have at page 2 : 


Cash in hands of Simone, son 
of Alessio Bombeni, shall give on 
Nov. 14, 1493, for L 62, S 13, D 
2, for Francesco, son of Antonio 
Cavalcanti, page 2: 

L 44, S 1, D 8 

L 18, S 11, D 6 

L62, S13, D6 

Martino, son of Piero Forabos- 
chi, shall give on Nov. 20, 1493, 
for L 18, S 11, D 6, taken by him 
in cash, posted Cash at page 2 : 

L18, Sll, D6 

Francesco, son of Antonio Ca- 
valcanti, shall give, on Nov. 12, 
1493, L 20, S4, D2, which he 
promised to pay to us at our 
pleasure for Lodovico, son of Pie- 
tro Forestani ; page 2 : L 20, S 4, D 2 


MCCCCLXXXXIII. Lodovico, son 
of Piero Forestani, shall have, 
on Nov. 22, 1493, for L 20, S 4, D 
2, for part payment. And for him 
Francesco, son of Antonio Caval- 
canti, promised to pay it to us at 
our pleasure ; posted shall give at 
page 2: L20, S 4, D 2 

Cash in hands of Simone, son 
of Alessio Bombeni, shall have, 
on Nov. 14, 1493, for L 44, S 1, D 
8, from Lodovico Pietro Fores- 
tani, L 44, S 1, D 8 ; and on Nov. 
22, 1493, L 18, S 11, D 6, to Mar- 
tino, son of Piero Forbaschi, 
page 2: L 18, Sll, D6 

Martino, son of Piero Forabos- 
chi, shall have on Nov. 18, 1493, 
for L18, Sll, D6, which we 
promised to pay him at his pleas- 
ure for Lodovico, son of Pietro 
Forestani; posted shall give en- 
try at p. 8 : L 18, S 11, D 6 

Francesco, son of Antonio Ca- 
valcanti, shall have on Nov. 14, 
1493, for L 62, S 13, D 6, which 
he brought himself in cash; 
posted cash shall give at page 2 : 

L 62, S 13, D 6 


t f 40 All ultimo Fc&ruro. 

2 04 3? Pro CT <klMO // A (foni uirif , per idnnofegUldo . p*fcM»lapMtida deli dom.ponetw 
^\-» 4. V n r u j n no i**> doilrcftodiqudliin pro & danno. 

^* triKoinre/ro.per/d/iodiqufOo^ 1 iitfl£. 9 , 5 j_ «L 


2 9 J T? Pro CT dinno // A Spf/e d"e uiuer il cdfd , pe r piu Di faldar lc fpefe di veftir in ditto pro 

^f f lf>tftfdile,comt in tffc dppdr, per f dido di quelle ty ann °* 

154^20^14 Mdlot M G 9 a 8<fU, 4 

£ 7 C 7 

296 J Fiffi dcfla poffcfiion id Moidn //A VroV ddnno P l / atdar Ij ffirt delIa poflesfion.fn pro 
** ~ , per fitlo di queQd per Vanno prefenlcfinird it L ttto 

i54i,pcr/4/dodequeflj9f 4 j § tul £ 4 j} lo ^ ^p^ 

L -*__, C 7 

297 3? Procr ddnno // A Spefediuerfeperpiufbefefdtte P'^idariefpcfcdiucrfe, in ditto pro 
' * 4. ^ p r » • rr /-n / no & danno, 

^\ j- I dtrno prejentejome in e\jt dppdr y per [dido (uo df 

399 ^izf^ ud\% 33 $ IO § fU 

£ ? L 7 

298 T? Pro & danno// A Sptfeie faldriddiin monte,ptr Dtfaidaricrpcfedefaiariadi.indirte 
^J puftftfdtuVdMoprtftntt.ctmemcffcdppdr, P ro&dan ^ 

per /k Wo dii}Meflc9f 48 ^ i2 < p ««!£ 4J& , 7 9i ft- 

^—7 ■ * 7 

2 o a J? Pro d*c St ccta in monfe /^ A Pro ej idnno % per uti Dl raldar In P'° <*« «ccha, in io ditto 

• *o T i. f. -j n ru V no P r »& danno. 

^ J J- /itd/egurid.comein queUodppdr.ptr fdlio fuo y vf 

tjo§ f*-~ ud£ i;$ § fU 

5 oo f Prort/nno//AC4«^/demiAf M «AV4Hdr^< £*£jS^ei^^ 
^ff" ptruhlitdfcguidd de fdnno 1 540 , trdlloin/tjlo, 

pe/fdldo di quelloftf 900 § 2 2 <p » 7 / 114I £ ^9° $ * $ » o ?*- 17 

Fine dikpre/irnfc Giorndfe.iemifo per mi Ahdft Vd 

Ureffo.ptr conto fogni trdffico,zr mgolio } me oc 

corfo y dd di primo Mdrzo 1 540, fin ddi ultimo FC 

braroitlditto miUepmo, mlqudlord'wdtdmtnttic 

giorno in giorno , ho fcriito di mid mdnojw 

in efjb piu inkndo fcriucre , per hducr 

qucUo condufo cf fdldato in 

1 2 p<trtije , Uqud\ bo 

-teportdtt ntl \i* 





On the opposite page is given an enlarged reproduction of the last page of Domenico Manzoni's jour- 
nal. As stated before, the writer has not an original copy of Manzoni's book at hand, therefore only this 
page can be given which was enlarged from a reproduction appearing on page 121 of Brown's History of 

As we have seen in the historical chapter, Manzoni wrote forty years after Pacioli, but he was the first 
author to give illustrations of the journal and ledger, although in the text he practically copied Pacioli 
verbatim. Therefore, in Manzoni's book we have the first expressions in examples and illustrations of the 
writings of Pacioli. 

The page here reproduced is the last page of the journal and contains the journal entries covering 
the closing of the profit and loss account {Pro et danno.) 

We will note that the date is in the middle at the top of the page; that the name of the debtor ac- 
count is separated from the name of the creditor account by two slanting lines, thus: //; that each entry 
is separated by a line in the explanation column only (not in the money column) ; that immediately to 
the left of each entry we find two figures, separated by a short horizontal line or dash ; these are the pages 
of the ledger to which the debit and credit are posted, the top figure representing the debit and the lower 
one the credit. Immediately before these two figures, we find two slanting lines or dashes; they are the 
checking marks. We will see that Pietra uses a dot in this place and that Pacioli prefers a dot but men- 
tions a check mark or any other mark. They are not the two slanting lines which are drawn through an 
entry when it has been posted. These two we find represented in the two little diagonal dashes at the be- 
ginning and end, as well as on the under and upper side, of the lines separating the journal entries. The 
writer believes from the descriptions he has read and illustrations he has seen, that these dashes are the 
beginning and end of the much described "diagonal lines" and illustrates his idea by the two lines he 
added to the reproduction in the last journal entry. The omission of these lines like that of the standing 
lines in the money column, is probably due to lack of printing facilities. You will recall that Pacioli men- 
tions these lines to be made at the beginning of the entry and at the end of the entry, just before the lire 

The numbers from 294 to 300 in the left-hand margin, are the consecutive numbers of the journal en- 
tries, which Manzoni alone and no other writer herein referred to mentions. 

On the right we find the four signs of the various denominations, lire, soldi, denari, and picioli. A 
dash is provided wherever a cypher should appear in the money column. 

The two lines of printing above the money in the money columns are merely directions which Manzoni 
as textwriter gave to his reader. They are not a part of the journal entry. You will note that he prints 
them in different type. The difference in coin between the uniform one used in bookkeeping and the one 
used locally is also apparent, as the local coin is given as a part of the explanation to the journal entry. 
The "p" to the left of the journal entry and to the right of the figures in the margin stands for "per" 
(our by), and immedately after the slanting dashes "//" in front of the name of the credit account is 
used "A" (our to). 

Elsewhere we have stated that except as to numbering the journal entries Manzoni mentioned noth- 
ing that Pacioli did not describe. While he copies whole chapters word for word, in some of them, how- 
ever, he was clearer, more brief and more systematic than Pacioli. We give one of the chapters as an ex- 




Begole breuissime del giornal & quaderno. 

Nota che la Regola del Oiornale & Quaderno, in se contiene sei cose, cio e. 

Dare, Havere, Qualita, Quantita, Tempo & Ordine. 

Dare, signifies douer dare, cio e il debitore, o uno o piu che siano. 

Havere, uvol dir douer havere, cio e il creditore, o uno o piu che siano. 

Qualita sono quelle cose che tu maneggi, & siano di che sorte si vogliono. 

Quantita, e il uumero, peso over misure, o piccioli, o grandi che si siano. 

Tempo, si e il giorno, ilmese & lanno, sotto il quale tu fai la partida. 

Ordine, e quello, che nella presente opera con facilita insegnamo. 

Le due prime, sono affermative, e principali in ogi cosa. 

La cosa debitrice, sempre va posta avanti a la creditrice. 

Davanti a la cosa debitrice, vi si pone uno per a questo modo P. 

Davanti a la cosa creditrice, vi si pone uno A coei A. 

II P. in tal luogo signifies la cosa debitrice. 

E lo A in tal luogo signifies la cosa creditrice. 

II giornale, si divide il debitore dal creditore, con due liniette a questo modo 

lequali dinotano, che de una partida dalgiornale, sempre se ne convien 
far due nel quaderno. 

II giorno, si nota nel giornal di sopra da la partida. 

Et nel quaderno, si nota, dentro dalla partida. 

II numero de le carte del quaderno, nel giornale, si mette avanti la partida. 

Et nel quaderno, il medesimo si mette dopo la partida. 

Li nomi de le partide vi ve in 1 'alf abeto, vi si poneno a man destra. 

Et quelli de le cose morte, si notano a man sinistra. 

Per le cose vive, qui s intende ogni creaturi animata. 

E per le morte, s intende robbe, over ogni altra cosa. 



Very Short Rules for the Journal and the Ledger. 
(In verse form.) 

You should note that the rules for the Journal and the Ledger contain six things, namely i 
Give, Have, Quality, Quantity, Time and Order. 

Give (Debit), means as much as "shall give", that is, the debtor be it one or more. 
Have (Credit), means as much as "shall have", this is, the creditor be it one or more. 
Quality, by this we understand the things you handle of whichever nature they may be. 
Quantity, by this we understand the number, the weight or the measure, be it big or little. 
Time, means the day, the month and the year in which the transaction is made. 
Order, means that which we can easily learn from the present book. 
The first two are most important and refer particularly to all things. 
The things made debtor should be placed before the creditor. 


In front of that which is made debtor is placed "Per", in this way "P". 

Before the creditor we place an "A" in this way "A". 

The "P" signifies that in this spot the things were made debtor. 

And the "A" signifies that in this spot the things were made creditor. 

In the Journal one must divide the debtor from the creditor by means of two small lines in this way //, 
which denotes that from one entry in the Journal two entries should be made in the Ledger. 

In the Journal, The day should be given above the entries. 

In the Ledger, The same is carried into the body of the entry. 

In the Journal, the number of the Ledger pages is placed in front of the entry. 

And in the Ledger we place the same after the entry. 

The name of the living account is written in the Index to the right. 

And those of the dead things are written to the left. 

With "living things" is understood every creature with a soul (ogni creatura animata). 

And with "dead things" is understood merchandise and everything else. 

In Chapter eleven Manzoni also gives eight rules for journalizing. The four principal things pertain- 
ing to buying, selling, receiving, paying, exchanging, loaning and gifts are 

1. The one who gives. 

2. The one who receives. 

3. The thing which is given. 

4. The thing which is received. 

It should be noted that here are four conditions to each transaction. While Manzoni does not explain 
their use, as we will see later on, Stevin gives us the proper interpretation for this, somewhat as follows : 

One transaction will always need a double-entry. If Peter pays £100 we must consider 

1. The one who gives, i. e., Peter. 

2. The one who receives, i. e., proprietor. 

3. The thing which is given, i. e., cash by Peter. 

4. The thing which is received, t. e., cash from the proprietor. 

Hence proprietor debit to Peter and cash debit to proprietor, which combined by eliminating the 
quantities of similar name and value, or by cancelling (as in algebra a=b; b=c; hence a=c) makes cash 
debit to Peter. 

Manzoni then follows with these eight rules: 

1. Debit merchandise for purchase. 

2. Credit merchandise for sales. 

3. Debit cash for cash sales. 

4. Credit cash for cash purchase. 

5. Debit buyer for sales on credit. 

6. Credit seller for purchase on credit. 

7. Debit persons who promise to pay. 

8. Credit persons to whom we promise to pay. 

In order to give the reader some idea of the scope of Manzoni 's work, we give here a translation of 
the Index to his book. 


1. Those things which the merchant needs and the system of keeping a Ledger and its Journal. 

2. The inventory, what it is and how merchants make it up. 

3. Form and example of inventory. 

4. Last urging and good instruction for the merchant in connection with the inventory. 

5. A certain book, which majority of people use and which is called Memorial, Strazze or Vachetta ; 

what it is ; how we must write it up and for whom. 

6. Some special little books, which it is customary to use ; what they are and how they are written up. 

(Separate day books for petty expenses, household expenses, salaries, repairs, rents, separate 
classes of merchandise.) 

7. The manner in which in some places the books are authenticated by law. 



8. The first book, which is called Journal; what it is and how it is started and kept. (Mentioning the 

five customary standing lines of a journal.) 

9. The two terms which are used in the Journal and the Ledger, the one named "Cash," the other 

"Capital," and what they mean. 

10. Two other terms which are used in the Journal and which are mixed quite often, and what they 

mean. ("Per" and "A" — Debits separated from Credits by //.) 

11. The principles underlying the use and arrangement of the Ledger. (Author claims this is very 

difficult to understand; "Per" and "A" used to separate debit from credit, but does not say how 
to make debits and credits except that he gives in connection with the various methods of buy- 
ing and selling, eight rules for Journal entry.) 

12. The manner and system by which each entry in the Journal must be written under the proper 

terms. (Samples of Journal entries, with application of rules from Chapter 11.) 

13. Short rules for the Journal and Ledger, and the six things each entry must contain. 

14. Explanation of old abbreviations and what is meant by "Lire de grossi." The kind of money used 

by merchants in bookkeeping and which really does not exist. Common people use i Lire=20 
soldi; 1 soldi =12 Picioli. 

(In Ducats.) 

1 ducat = 24 grossi. 

1 grosso = 32 Picioli in gold. 

1 Piciolo in gold = 1-15/16 Picioli in money by common people. 

(In Lire de grossi.) 
1 lira = 10 ducats. 1 soldo = 12 grossi. 

1 lira = 20 soldi. 1 grosso = 32 Picioli. 

1 grosso in gold = 5 grossi common money. 

15. Explanation needed in order to understand the examples of journal and ledger entries. 


1. The second and last principal mercantile book, called Ledger ; what it is ; how it is opened and kept. 

2. The manner in which the old year is written in this book and about the kind of money used in post- 

ing. (Year and usually also the money is written in Roman figures; Arabic too easy to change: 
to 6 or 9. Do not repeat date, but put a line. Leave no open spaces for others to fill in.) 

3. The reason for having two entries in the Ledger for each single entry in the Journal. 

4. The manner in which we use both terms for each entry in the Ledger. ("A" on debit of Ledger, 

"Per" on credit of Ledger; unlike the Journal, where "A" denotes credit and "Per" debit.) 

5. The manner and system to be used in transferring entries from the Journal to the Ledger. (Crosses 

Journal entry off with one diagonal line, at the time he enters the Ledger page, but does not say 
where to put this line.) 

6. The manner of marking entries in the Journal which have been posted to the Ledger. 

7. The two numbers of the Ledger pages which are written in the margin of the Journal, when the en- 

try is posted from the Journal to the Ledger, the one above the other and separated by a line. 

8. Another number, which we write at the beginning of each entry, through which each entry can 

easily be located. again. (Numbers each Journal entry consecutively.) 

9. The manner in which the entries are carried to another place in the Ledger when one page is filled. 

(Cancel blank space on either side to lowest place of writing. Balance not entered in the Jour- 
nal. Carries balance only, with an abbreviation which means "Carried forward.") 

10. The manner and system which should be followed in the checking of the books in order to detect 

errors. ( Gives Ledger to assistant and keeps Journal, thus reversing method of Pacioli. He does 
not use a dot but "another mark than that used first." (See chapter 6 above and two lines be- 
fore each entry in the reproduction.) 

11. The manner in which a correction in the Ledger is made when we have posted an entry to the wrong 

page in the Ledger. (Never cross the wrong entry out or erase it, for you cannot prove what 
was there, and hence it will be construed as deceit. If an entry is posted to debit that should be 
credit, put another on the credit to offset it, for same amount, then proceed correctly. Mark er- 
roneous and corrective entries with an X o r_H._( havere) ; some make correction in one entry by 
using double the amount.) ffSfr- 

12. How to prepare an account for a debtor or a creditor when he asks for a statement of his account. 



As stated in the historical chapter, in 1586, or nearly 100 years after Pacioli wrote, Don Angelo Pietra 
published a work on bookkeeping, which was fully illustrated with numerous examples. Undoubtedly 
Pietra had both Pacioli and Manzoni before him when writing his book, because he describes matters which 
Manzoni omitted but Pacioli gave, and also some which Manzoni mentioned and Pacioli did not. This will 
be explained fully elsewhere. 

Pietra was a monk who endeavored to give a system to be used for monasteries, but which he claimed 
was expedient for those who do not trade, or in other words, for corporations not for profit, and for cap- 
italists. The first page is a reproduction of the title page, in which the reader will find the author's name 
just above, and the date of publication just below, the picture. 

The next page gives a chart of the various methods of buying and of selling, of each of which Pacioli 
says there are nine. Pietra sets them up here in a far more systematic manner, showing fifteen in all. 

We show next the first four lines of the title page to the journal, which are the dedication of the 
journal: " In the Name of the most holy and undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." Also 
note the cross in the sixth line which is the sign used for the first journal and the first ledger when begin- 
ning a new business. Such journal and ledger as we have seen in Pacioli, is called the "cross journal" 
and the ' ' cross ledger. ' ' 

Next we give a page of the journal. From this page, we note : 

(1) That the first page of the journal carries the opening of "In the Name of God." 

(2) That thereafter comes the date in the middle of the page. The date is not again given until it is 
changed and then only the day of the month is given, omitting the year and the name of the month ; "a 
di detto," meaning "on the day of the aforesaid month." 

(3) That each journal entry is divided by a line, not clear across the page, but from page column to 
money column. 

(4) That as in Manzoni 's journal, no standing division lines in money columns are given (probably 
due to lack of printing facilities). 

(5) That the money consideration of each entry is not only mentioned in the money column but also 
in the explanation of the journal entry. 

(6) That the name of the debit account is given first and the credit last; that they are divided by 
two small slanting strokes followed by the preposition "a" like this: //a. 

(7) That the name of the debit account is not preceded by "P" or by "Per" as Pacioli and Man- 
zoni require. 

(8) That the pages of the ledger to which the entries are transferred or posted are divided by a hori- 
zontal line or dash between the figures, the debit being always on top and the credit below. 

(9) That each entry has a brief but full explanation of the transaction represented by the entry. 

(10) That each entry is carefully checked with a dot (not a check mark as we use and Pacioli de- 
scribed or a dash as Manzoni showed) on the left of the ledger pages in the journal. These dots also ap- 
pear in front of each ledger entry. 

(11) That Pietra shows no combination journal entry or entries with more than one debit or credit. 

(12) That he does not show the diagonal cancellation lines in the journal as an evidence of posting to 
the ledger. 

(13) That he does not give any other value sign than the "Lire," omitting the soldi, denari, and 
picioli signs. 

(14) That he very carefully provides a dash in the money column in the place of the cyphers. 

The illustrations of the journal are followed by those of the ledger. The title page contains the name 
of the ledger, in the fifth line "Ltbro maestro" (master book or principal book). The ledger has the same 
dedication as the journal. 

Folio one of Pietra 's ledger is the equivalent of an opening balance account, giving the name of the 
old and new account, the page in the old ledger and the page in the new ledger, it being posted from the 
closing balance account in the old ledger and not from the journal. The assets are on the credit side and 
the liabilities on the debit side of the ledger. The account shows a deficit of L 1706 - 10 - 3. The assets 
are divided in two: first, the accounts receivable and their total, then the merchandise and other specific 

This page corresponds to the English form of a balance sheet. It is the proprietor's half of the open- 
ing inventory journal entry placed direct in the ledger instead of in the journal, and as such this repre- 
sents a proprietor's account upon the theory that the proprietor is credited for furnishing or loaning to 
the personification of the asset accounts and charged with the negative assets or liabilities. As our modern 
capital account represents a net difference between assets and liabilities (leaving surplus out of considera- 
tion ) , it cannot be said that Pietra employed a modern capital account, although the result is the same. 


Page 59 of this ledger also represent* an account with the proprietor or owner, and is really a contin- 
uation of the account on page one. The first entry on the debit is the balance and deficit of L 1706 - 10 - 3, 
properly transferred from page one without the aid of a journal entry. The following five entries are 
entries "corrective of the net capital, because they refer to transactions of previous years and are of little 
importance for our study except that they show that the principle of surplus adjustments then existed. 

The seventh entry on the debit, of L 4 - 17 - 10, refers to the same ledger page as this selfsame account 
bears (namely, 59). We find, therefore, the credit end of the entry on the credit side of this page. This 
entry does not come from the journal, but is merely a "cross" or "wash" entry in the nature of a memo- 
randum for the purpose of recording an omitted transaction. Note how carefully both entries are marked 
with a little circle (o) to set them off from the others, much the same as we use a cross (X) nowadays for 
the same purpose, and as Pacioli and Manzoui also mention. 

The last entry on the debit side (L 3744 - - 3) is made also without the aid of the journal. Its 
counterpart is on page 61 of the ledger. It represesents the net worth or capital invested at the end of 
the year, and balances on page 61 with the difference between assets and liabilities, and is merely a meth- 
odical closing entry in order that all accounts may be closed at the transfer of all open accounts to the 
new ledger. 

On the credit side we find the first five entries to be surplus adjustment entries. The sixth one is the 
cross entry already explained, and the last one, L 5448 - 10 - 5, is the net profit balance transferred from 
ledger page 60 without the use of the journal. Here then we have an account named ' ' Monastery, ' ' the 
proprietor for which these books are kept. It stands charged with a capital deficit, credited with the an- 
nual profits and closed with a debit balance representing present net worth, identical with our present day 
Capital account. The deficit in the opening entry, as would appear from the text, seems to be due to the 
low values given to the fixed assets in order to avoid heavier taxation by the church authorities. The ac- 
count shows no definite ledger heading, although the first word on the left page "Monastcro" (monastery) 
is the name of the proprietor and is not repeated in each entry. The same method Pacioli and Manzoni 
describe and therefore we have not approached closer to the definite ledger heading. 

Page 60 represents what we call today an "Income and Expenses" account, sometimes misnamed but 
being similar to a "Profit or Loss" account. It is not so named here. The debit side is called "Spesa 
Generate" (General Expenses), — the credit side "Entrata Generate" (General Income). 

It should be remembered that these books were not kept for a mercantile establishment, which operates 
with the object of a profit in view, but only for a monastery, an eleemosynary corporation, an institution 
or corporation not for profit, hence it could not use the words profit or loss. 

The balance on the debit of L 5448 - 10 - 5 is the excess of general income over general expenses, and 
is transferred to page 59, which we have explained is the proprietor's account or equivalent to our pres- 
ent capital account. 

Page 61 contains the last page of the ledger of Pietra's book. It is similar to page one, except that 
debits and credits are reversed. Here then we have the closing ' ' Balance account, ' ' called ' ' Esito, ' ' which 
means final or exit. It accurately represents our modern balance sheet, but is placed in the ledger as a 
permanent record and used as a medium to close all accounts in the ledger. It usually was and quite 
often now is the custom to start a new ledger each year, hence all accounts should be closed when the ledger 
is laid away. Pacioli nor Manzoni describe this account. They transfer the open balances of the asset 
and liability accounts direct to the new ledger. 

You will note that the closing entry of L 3744 - - 3 on the credit is taken from page 59, the monas- 
tery or capital account. You will also note that it is on the credit side of the account, and a total of the 
liabilities is drawn before the final balance. This is not done anywhere else in the ledger, showing that 
this account is different and represents two purposes: one, that of a final trial balance (after Profit and 
Loss accounts are closed) and thus becomes a statement of assets and liabilities; and, further, that net 
worth or capital is not considered a liability, but an item distinct from liabilities, for the purpose of closing 
the capital account in the ledger, and transferring it in the new ledger. 

Page 21 of the ledger is given to show how carefully all blank spaces are cancelled by slanting lines ; 
how accounts are kept in two kinds of money with the aid of a double column ; that no reference is made 
to the pages in the journal from which the entries were posted, for the reason stated in the text that the 
date was a close enough reference ; that the journal entries are not numbered, as was done by Manzoni. 
Pages given immediately before the amounts refer to the ledger page on which the other side of the double- 
entry appears; note that on the debit the preposition "a" is used for our "to" and on the credit "per" 
for our "by;" following Manzoni in this respect, but entirely opposed to Pacioli 's teachings, opening and 
closing entries do not carry these prepositions; because they do not constitute true debits and credits as 
those transferred from the journal ; printers then, as now, make errors in figures, as the fourth figure from 
the bottom of the debit side should be 250 instead of 205, as per addition and the opening entry on page 
one; the explanation in the journal is repeated in the ledger and more than one line is used for an entry 
if needed ; a single line is drawn under the figures only and then the total put in; the word "somma" 
(total) is used in front of the figures instead of the double line we now rule under the total; no totals or 
lines are drawn when the account contains only one item; every entry is carefully checked with a dot in 
the left margin ; the name of the account is engrossed at the beginning of the first line on the left and 
thus approaches the definite ledger heading of the present day ; the date belonging to each entry is not set 
out in a definite column, although the text mentions this; "dee dare" (should give or debit) and "dee 
haverc" (should have or credit) is only stated once at the beginning of each account and not in every en- 
try, as we would infer from Pacioli the custom was. 

In order to give the reader a clear understanding of what is contained in Pietra's book and to show 
how much more polished, complete and advanced it is than the book of either Pacioli or Manzoni, and to 
indicate the many new features he introduces, we are giving here a brief description of each chapter in the 
nature of an index. 

1. Day book or scrap book and similar books are necessary in order to get journal and ledger in good form. 

2. Explains debit and credit as to "A" and "Per"— our "To" and "By," and the two little lines // 

which separate debits from credits. 

3. Makes a distinction between bookkeeping for bankers, merchants, and capitalists. 

4. Describes the three ledgers for these three methods. 

5. Says some more about the ledger for capitalist and calls it the ' ' Economic Ledger. ' ' Author uses 

this kind of ledger in his book of samples which he adapts to the business of a monastery. 

6. The first part of the inventory covering immovable assets. 

7. The second part of the inventory covering merchandise or goods for use in the house (not fixtures — 

they belong to movables). 

8. The third part of the inventory of movable assets. 

9. Gives tabulated detailed inventory of the movable assets of a monastery. 

10. About qualifications of bookkeeper, namely, bright and of good character; good handwriting; also 

knowledge, ambition, and loyalty, and gives reasons for each of these. 

11. Necessity for use of but one particular coin in the Ledger as the money used in Italy is of so many 

different varieties. Here is used 

1 Scuto = 4 Lire = 80 Soldi in gold. 

12. Describes the measures and weights used by the author. 

13. Put a value on those things which are harvested and manufactured, but this should be lower than 

current prices so that the proceeds will not fall below this value in case of sale. What has been 
used should be charged to the proper department at the end of the year. 

14. About the figures to be used. The Roman figures are difficult to change, but because fraudulent 

changes are more to be feared by bankers and merchants, he used the easier and more commonly 
used Arabic figures. Changes can be easily prevented by putting the money sign for lire directly 
in front and separating the divisions of the lire by little dashes, thus L 18 - 8 - 2 — very much the 
same as done at present in England. 

15. About the fiscal year. It can begin when one chooses, but must be twelve months long and must keep 

the same figures for the same year, namely, from June 1, 1586, to May 31st, 1586, not 1587. 

16. Day books or memoranda books are necessary because the journal and ledger, due to their legal au- 

thentication, can be used only by the one bookkeeper appointed therefor and whose signature ap- 
pears therein. Furthermore, transactions must be written down at the time and the place where 
they occur, and that may not be where the books are kept. Therefore, there are several memoranda 
books concurrently used, the first one of which is marked with a cross and those which follow with 
a letter in the order of the alphabet. 

17. There should be at least three of these day books or memorials used — one for the cash receipts and 

disbursements and the deposits in the bank; one for the petty cash disbursements and one for all 
other entries from which the journal is written up, the latter to be in greater detail than the others. 
Other day books can be kept with the sales and purchases, rents, taxes, etc. A book is needed for the 
library and information pertaining to contracts, leases, employes, due dates, etc. Receipts for 
money loaned should be kept in bound book form so that they may not be lost or stolen. Each de- 
partment head should keep such a book with its transactions, such as the shoe maker, gardener, 
tailor, etc. 

18. Describes a blotter or tickler which contains a sheet for each month, and a line for each day in which 

the duties of the storekeeper and butler are written, one for each day in the year. 

19. Gives such a book in full detail. 

20. About the journal and how to keep it. Journal is basis of the ledger and therefore it is essential that 

it is kept correctly. 

21. The beginning of the journal, in the name of God. The value of prayer to success and the use of 

the little cross (t) as explained elsewhere. ™_^_ 

22. Entries should be made in the journal from day to day and hour to hour, but some times this is not 

possible, especially in a monastery, where the memoranda or day books of the various departments 
are delivered only once a month. 

23. About the manner and order in which the entries are made in the journal. A list of days on which 

entries are to be made is prepared by days from all the memoranda or day books, the cash entries 
always first. 

24. Gives an example of this list. 

25. Eight things always needed to make a proper journal entry : Debit — Credit — Time — Value — Quality 

— Quantity — Price — Arrangement ; 

The first two being the most important. 

26. The greatest difficulty is to find what to debit and what to credit. All entries can be reduced to 

three principles. 


27. Liat of above three principles : 

1. (Receipt, sales, payment 01* au account due, borrowing. 
( Disbursement, purchase, payment of a debt, loaning. 

2. (Purchasing on credit or for cash. 
(Selling on credit or for cash. 
(Exchanging with money or without. 

3. ( Assignment of a debt to settle with a creditor, or vice versa, called drafts. 

28. About the six other things needed for a proper journal entry. 

29. How the journal is arranged. (See reproduction of journal page and explanatory notes appended; 

omits the consecutive numbering of Journal entry, as so many do, because the date is a sufficient 
guide to locate the eutry in the journal.) 

30. About the ledger and its formation. 

Explains the opening account on page 1 of the ledger, and states it is the reverse of the closing ac- 
count. Here he mentions debit as debito and credit as credito, although he usually states debit as 
•'</< t dure" and credit as "dee havcre." Capital account is the key and the seal of the ledger. 

31. Explains the use of the two ledger accounts — "Opening" and "Monastery." "Opening" is what 

the merchant calls "Capital" and practically he claims the same for "Monastery." 

32. Explains what entries may be made in the capital account. Corrections of errors and profits or losses 

belonging to previous years. What we call surplus adjustments. 

33. ( iives a table of such capital account entries. 

34. About the arrangement of accounts in the ledger, the capital account to be at the end of the book. 

35. List of accounts in the ledger. 

36. The ordinary index. 

37. The special index. 

38. Posting figures in the journal (one above the other). 

39. How the entry is written in the ledger. ("A" on debit side of ledger, "Per" on credit side of 


40. Transfer to a new page is made by drawing the difference between the two sides and transferring 

this to the new page. 

41. How to correct errors in the entries. 

42. Entries which are written direct in the ledger without having been put in the journal. 

43. About the income and expense account and the method of buying and selling. The author here states 

that merchants use this account for their profits or losses. 

44. The vouchering by a signature of the principal disbursements. 

45. About the difference in bookkeeping for land rented and that cultivated for one 's own account. 

46. Three principal reasons why the income should be divided over the same accounts in which the ex- 

penses and salaries are separated, namely to each departmental sub-division. 

47. When the best time is to enter the rentals from lands. In the fall when the harvest is made, as at 

the end of the fiscal year is a busy enough time. 

48. About personal accounts and the carrying of accounts with two different money values. 

49. About the cash account in the ledger, and its peculiar uses. 

50. About the acquisition and alienation of lands, for which separate accounts are provided. 

51. About the accounts with partners or joint ventures. 

52. When and how to check with dots. 

53. A short method of checking with dots. 

54. How to take a trial balance, which also constitutes the balance sheet. Divides the same in four: 1, 

expenses ; 2, income ; 3, assets ; 4, liabilities. 

55. How to find trial balance errors in a checked ledger. 

56. How to refute a wrong opinion about the trial balance. Explains the fact that while debits and 

credits must equal, that such does not mean that the assets equal the liabilities. 

57. How to compute the income and expense account. This he considers the most difficult, as some ac- 

counts will have three closing entries, — one for profit on sales ; one for merchandise used by other 
departments of the business; and one for merchandise remaining on hand. Furthermore, meas- 
ures and weights should also be brought in balance. 

58. The manner in which the closing balance account is made up. Accounts are only ruled at the end of 

the year by a line under the figures or amounts ; then entering the total, which must be the same on 
both sides. If an account is closed during the year, only a line is drawn, but the total is put inside 
the column and not under the line. 

59. About other methods of closing the ledger and their shortcomings. Here the author describes several 

methods used at that time of closing a ledger and prefers his own because it gives finally in one ac- 
count the status of the capital, whereas the other methods do not do so. 

60. How an account is rendered to the chtirch authorities at the end of the fiscal year. 


In the comparative index we have given the items which are discussed by all the four authors there 
mentioned. There are, however, a number of items which some of the authors use and others do not. 
From among these, the following are taken as the most important. 

Pietra discusses the following in his book, but Pacioli and Manzoni do not : 


3 distinction in bookkeeping for bankers, merchants, and capitalists. 

4 describes three ledgers for these three businesses. 

5 describes more in detail the ledger for capitalists — called "Economic Ledger." 
7 inventory of merchandise in stores. 

10 qualifications of bookkeepers. 

12 description of measures and weights used in book. 

13 put value on things harvested and used, and those not sold but used in other departments. 
15 describes fiscal year — use same numerals, although calendar year changes. 

17 separate daybooks for the following subjects : cash — bank — petty cash — library — contracts — 
leases — salaries — due dates — loans — and one for each department. 
18 & 19 daily tickler for bookkeeper and storekeeper's duties. 

22 journal written up once a month in a monastery, because all daybooks are in use. 

23 the order in which transfers from daybook to journal are made — a list of this prepared before- 
hand — cash entries always first. 

25 & 28 eight things always needed in any journal entry. 

26 & 27 rules for journalizing. 

29 arrangement of journal with five standing lines, but omits numbers of journal entries. 

31 divides capital into two accounts — opening capital at beginning of year — closing capital at 
end of year. 

32 interim entries in capital account or surplus adjustments. 

33 table of such capital entries. 

34 capital account always at end of the ledger. 
37 special index. 

39 apparent transposition of "A" and "Per" in ledger from its use in journal. 

42 list of entries which do not go through journal. 

43 vouchering of disbursements. 

45 book for lands rented and cultivated for own account. 

46 income divided in same accounts as expenses. 

47 when to enter rentals — in fall or end of fiscal year. 

48 personal accounts and accounts with two different values of moneys. 
50 acquisition and alienation of lands. 

53 a short method of checking the ledger. 

Pietra mentions the following in his book, as does Manzoni, but Pacioli does not, proving by this 
that Pietra had apparently available both Manzoni and Pacioli: 

more than one memoriale 

five standing or "down" lines in journal 

definite rules for journal entries 

six things always needed in each journal entry 

about transposition of "A" and "Per" in ledger from its use in the journal 

(Pietra does not explain definitely although his examples give it.) 
numbering of journal entries. 

Pietra 's Chapter 33 explains all entries which may appear in the capital account and illustrates 
them with the following tabulation : 

1. During the year 

2. At the end of the year 

During the year. 
A. Profits. 

omitted credits 

a. collected Cash to capital 

b. uncollected Debtor to capital 

judgments obtained 

a. collected Cash to capital 

b. uncollected Debtor to capital 


B. Losses. 

omitted debts 
s. paid 
b. to be paid 

judgments lost 

a. paid 

b. to be paid 

Capital to cash 
Capital to creditor 

Capital to cash 
Capital to creditor 


balances of accounts 

a. what is due 

b. what is owed 

balance sheet adjustment 

a. what is owed 

b. what is due 

2. At the end of the year. 
A. Extraordinary Accounts. 

Capital to creditor. 
Creditor to capital 

several kinds and without 
connection with the books 

B. Ordinary Accounts. 


excess in expenses 
excess in income 

Capital to income 
Expenses to capital 

Pietra's Chapter 42 explains about the many entries which are made in the ledger, without going 
through the journal, and classifies them as follows: 

Refers to entries which we transfer from the old ledger into the new, partly daily, partly at the end 
of the year. 

1. the introduction 

2. the opening of capital account when it is transferred from the closing capital account and not 

from a new inventory. 

3. balances transferred from one account to another. 

4. contra entries to correct errors. 

5. profit or loss due to inventory adjustments. 

6. the balance of the income and expense account 

7. all closing entries at the end of the year. 

8. the closing of the closing capital account. 

I N D R I Z Z O 











INTEMDlMENTO di ciascvno 

Opera nuoua,non meno vrilechcncccflaria,a Religiofi,che viuono dcllc propne 

Rendirc.&adogniPadredi Famiglin.chefi dilctti 

del Libro Doppio 

CompoftadaDosAngelo Pierre Genouefe Monaco, & indcgnoferuodiGiefuChrifco. 

IN MANTOVA,PerFranccfcoOfanna.Coolicenzadc'Supenori. MOLXXXv* 


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S A N T I S S I M A E T 






D I C H R I S T O. 

DELLANNO. i 5 g 6. 

Cominciato adi primo Giugno . Scricto da mc Don Gabriello da Parma , 

Ccllcrarodeldetto Monaftero,diordine del molto Reuerendo 

Padre Don Romano Senefe Abate,della Congregation 

Cafsinefe, deirordinedel noftro Santifsimo 

Padre Benedetto . 


Adi primo di Giugno 1586. 

Pet Cartoleria / a CaflaJire venti 3 to. fpefe in que (to libro doppio, col fuo Giorna 

<* ic & Alfabcto , con altre due vacchctte , c fquarciafogli / — jo -10— — 

.1 4 

Mutationi /• a CaflaJire cinquantacinque.0,cioc/ i j.alP.D.Benedec- 
to da Bologna Decano.mutatoqueltocapitolo a Modona, per fua mutatio. 

— ne di vn anno , e buona mano.e* $3 — 10. date a Don 610. Pietro da Said, 
*' ' mutato aPraglia.per fua mutatione di vn'anno.fpefe fatte,e buona mano, co 

meperloronceuereapparcdiilintamencencl libro di cfsi — t — 5J— 10 

Dette/ aD.MaurodaPiacenra Concellcraro,liredicifette.p i2.c0nteaD.Va- 

— lentiniano da Napoli rautato« -Roma.per fua mutatione e buona mano,di me 

31 finoue,ch'eidimor6inmuefloMonartero,comcpcrfuoriccuerc X — 17— u 

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.5 j" " temipcrmanodiMarcoSolltarioformaggiaro,abu6c6todcl fuo debitojf — 148— la- 

•35 D.Mauro Concelleraro/ a Cafla. lire cento trenta , contegli per fpenderc, 

Tj » come almio libretto arpare diltintamente je — ijo 

•3 8 F.Thomafo di Val camonica fpenditore //a Cafla. lire nonantafette B 1 4. 8. con 

T» tegli perfpendcre a minuto £ —.97—14—8 

.58 Cornelio Landino feruidorc '/a D.Mauro Concelleraro, lire uenti,da Iuiha- 

•3 » uutc a buon conto delfuocredito $. — 20 

J x Cafla "adAleflandro del Sole Affittuale.lirequattrocentoottantafettc^ 10. 

•* * daluihauute a buon conto del fuo debico £ _487_io- 

j_7 P.D.PIacidoMantouanoRettore di Badia/ a CaflaJire cento quaranta,conte- 

•3 * gli dafpendcre , come al mio libretto / —140 

•39 F.Manfueto Rrcfciano cufiodealPriorato //a CaflaJire fettantacinque, con- 

~i 1 teghdafpendere intornoalle poflefsioni 1 — 75. 

.40 P.Vigilantio Comafco Oblato.cuftodea Santi Martiri /a CaflaJire cetouenti, 

•1 » mandategli da fpendere,pcr mano di Fabritio Gallo noftro fattore 1 — 1 20 

•« \ Limofine a D. Maurojire otto, date d'ordine del Rcucrendo P. Abate, ad al- 

.3$ cunihebrei fatti chriftiani — 1 .8 

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. j 9 a buon conto del fuo falario jf — — 7—10- 

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wj« m.SigifmondoTranquillo//aGordianOLampridioafmttualeJiredugentoot- 
.ji tanta.conteglianoftronomeinpagamento 1 — »8o 

±6 Badia //al P. D.Placido Jirc vndeci S 1 8.per dodici raftelIadori,& 24. forche di 

•37 legno,compreper raflcllarc&cuftodire ilfieno, corneal fuo libro 1 — 11— 18- 

Jj S. Martiri //a F.Vigilantio , lirefette $ 1 5. 6. per diece pale compre per lo fru- 
4 o men to , come al fuo 1 ibro apparc X 7—1 $ - 6— 

A * 







DELL'ANNO. i s 8 6. 

Cominciato al primo Giugno . Scritto da mc Don Ccfario da Cremona* 

monaco deldetto Monafterojdiordine del molto Reuerendo 

Padre Don Romano Senefe Abate, E del P, D. Gabriello 

Parmiggiano Decano , e Celleraro del detto 

Monaftero,deIla Congregation Calsi* 

nefe , dellordine del noflro 

San tiffimo Padre 



15 86. 

K T R O I TO del prefente libro + dec dare adi pf imo Giugno, 
pererinrraTcrirtiCredicorideJ Monaftero.qui tiratt dallEfito 
dclllbroJjirannopafraro,feg<ucoZ.circe 486.* aqucllo da 

*GS i con loro come apprcflo.cioc. 
AlieaarionidallibroZ. car.^ip.Tiratoioqueftolibro car. xj X a 75<>- 

Ven..Cong<-ega:ioneno(traCafsinefe— 430 ▲ — 9 6— 4 7 -6-car. 4* J -3»*-io- 

R.D..CIeme<KeAle"ni •— • 4ft car. 4* *~o 57 

in. .Ottauio Fortunato inVmcgia — 436 A iaoo.a 5 per 100. car. 45 X 4 8 °o 

m. .Quiotiliano Poeta io Vinegia 436 A-6oo.a 4 per 100. car. 45 3? 5 4°<* 

m. .Pooipilio Defideraro inVmegia — 43* a 600 .a 4 per roo. car. 4* £ 1400 

m. . Ban hob Saladino in Vinegia 437 a 500.34 per 100. car. 46 / aooo 

w. .ZacheoVeraceinMilano 437 A -600. a4pcr 100, car. 46 £ 2400. 

.Mario Palmerino 438 car. 48 X — S47 -16 ••« 

.Ramondo Pipino 433. , car. 48 / -49} •• 

m. .SabinoPiftoia 438 "c. 48 ,? - 643 - 1 8 — - 

.Qujntilio Purpurato 439 car. 43 X -370-17-6- 

.Sigifmondo Tranquillo 446 fiar. ,48 if -t8o 

m. .Torquaco Rinieri — 446 car. 49 X —315 

.EneaSaiano 448 car. 49/ -195 16—- 

,Illianodalla Scala 449 car « W £ - 48<-io 8- 

m. ..Liberie de'Mauri 449 car. 49 £ -893 - U $.— 

.Horatio Laurcato 450 car, 49 X - 289-16-2 - 

tn. .Seneca Valororoaffittuale 451 car. 5* X 785-18 4 - 

.Agolance dc'Mori ferraro 463 car. J 7 £ —uy- is 

.Agrippa Tibullo marangone 464 car. 57 X—6%- 7-8- 

.Pompeio Belcolore ciroico 473 car. 57 £ — 18 - 10 

.Eugenio da Pilloia barbero 474 car. 57 £ — 11 

.Dante Congiurato barbero 474 car. 57 £ -~io- 6- 

.Gerbino RulHco fornaro 476 car. 57 £ — 37— ia-10 

.Delfino Commodo camparo 477 — , car. 58 £ — 7$ 


.Berengar 10 Serpent ino camparo— 477 car. 58 £ — 18 17 8- 

.AnmbaleGermano feruidore 480 car. 58 £ —130- 

.Cornclio Landino feruidore 480 car. 58 £ — 30-15 

.Agapito Pagani feruidore- 481 car. 58 £ — 12-17-9-- 

.Somma £ 2305 2—1 6 - a— 


■p. f 5 8 6*. f 

.JL) Ec hauere adi primoGiugno, per gl* infrafcrirti Debitor! de! Monaftcro , 
qui tiract dall'Efiro del lib.deirannopaflato(cgnatoZ,car.436.&aquel 
lodai contilorpcome appreflQ.cioe" 

R.D..Lorezode'SimonidallibroZ.carcei4?iTjratoioqueftolibro- car. 45 t --»»— -6 — 

in. .Carlo Bianthino con to di tempo 450 car. 45 X *75° 

ra. .EmanaellcClaudianocotodiccpo-4Si car. 5 J. X i8jo- - — 

.Aftolfo Corrado 455 car. 47 t 657-18 

.Maggiode'Popoli 455 car. 47 7 - 600 

.Coftante Dragone 4? 5 car. 47 X - 1 jo— 

.TibcrioStellaro 45 6 —car. 47 X - *?t 16- io- 

.Oitauiano Giordano 456 car. 47 £ ~**8 ~~ — 

.Aleflandro del Sole aftirtuale 457 car. 51 X 1570— 

.GordunoLatnpridioaffitcuale — 458 car. 51 X 1645 10 — 

.Federico BarbarofTa malghcfe 459 car. 53 if H48 »° — 

.Marino Orlando molinaro 461 car. 54 X -485- i* — 

.Ricardo Salomone molinaro 46a ftatajo.Frumento — -car. $4 X - 37* 

.CafsianoAmirante molinaro 46} ftara70.Mifturc — - — car. 55 X -348 

.Deodato Falcone maffaro 465 car. 5 6 X — 597— IO 

.DemetrioConteftabilc mafTaro— 466 car. $6 $ -6+z- 14 

.Valerio Leoni maffaro 467 car. 56 X _jyg_i8-8- 

.FabritioGallo fattore 476 car. 57 # --25-15 * 

.Celeftino Roffo feruidore 480 car. 5* j? - -16 14 - 7 - 

m. .Zerb)nioQiiaranragiaaffittuale 481 =— — car. 58 ?f - 947-16-—— 

m. .MarcoT.Villanuouagiaaffitruale 4^* car. 58 £ - 3 58- 17— *•— 

.FaufloGiouiaIegianoftromafliro484 . car. 58 X -Sgg- ig 6 - 

.lunoccntioMaioranogiafattore-43? car. 58 £ — 75 -8 

tLcontioManfredigianoilromol. 482 car. 58 .»• — 18— 7-6- 

Reftanti di queflo aunt*. Somma / 16654 - 1 *— 1 - 

.Ordinaria g*j SalePefi 70. car. x X — 70 

,Cafc»aria 314 FOrmaggio Pefi 50. car. j t - a»5 

.Magazmod'Oglio ~ai$ OglioPcfi jo car. 3 / _,ao 

.Forno dr Farina ■ 117 Farina Scar a 4c car. 4 / _. 90 

.Velticna , 332- R a f c ie petxe cinque — car. 6 / _ , p — 

.Calzoleria 333 Cordoani,* f H ole car- 7 / - 80 

.Barbaria 34a SaponePcfi 10. car. 9*—jo 

.Cantinadi uino in Camerone — 364 umo perufo car. *4 X — » f »o 

.Cantina detta 364 car.20.da uenderea? 15 — car. H t - 300 — 

.Cantinadi uinodiuerfa 365, car. 18. per ufo car. 25 X - 9<-> — - — 

.Cantina diuino in Monaftero 366 car.20.per ufo can 25 X —100 

.Granarodifrumentoin Camerone 367 Harai5lpcr ufo car. j6 X —50 

.Granaro detto 567 ft a ra 1 5 5 .da ucodere a / 3 • 1 8 «r- a 6 t -600 

.OranarodiFrumentodiuerfo 363 ftara 4 j . per vfo car- 26 X -'90 

.Granarodi FrumetoinMonaflero 369 llara 20. perufo car- 27 X —4° 

.Oranarodetto ,69 nar ai 85.da uc.derea* 3. i8car. »7 X -goo 

.oranarodifr Umcnrara ??0 Jtara8o per „f car . l? x _ tt0 

.oranarodi Vena.cSpclta 38° llara 6o.pervfo . car. 30 * _6o 

r fSi'm !~ !. no — * 81 Pcfi 3o.dauenderea/ 8.6.8. car. 2t jf _» S o 

'St S* aro 4" Incontant, car. ,2/ 1 1,8-1 o-S 

fu r,° IUC,craro 4'8 Incontanti car. 34 % - 7 5- 1 1 * 

.F.Thomafofpcnduore JJ Incontanti car. 3 " g .,' ,0 6 

Somma #' 21346 ->—4 

— ► — > ~ -*^ 1 706 _ 1 n— j 

.Somma jL'a/oja* i6li 

.Mon^roNOSTRO. , H ^T^jS ' .^ 



M*6. 21 

Ec hauere a.4* a i.Lugb'o pe» Cranaro tfet Monaflero, per lo pretzo 

commune a ».di ftara ipd-OvumenrohauutcgH quelt'anno, come 

allibro de'Granariapparc dmm«v»cnte car. »7 X — jpa 

.EcpiU perGranaro difrumcnrata.hauuragUqoefloanno^agioDa- 

raa£ jorrezzocommune — .. - car. *7/ — ia? — 

.Etadi26.0ctibrc /per Canrinadel Monallero, per carra 18- uino, 

Iwuucogli comefopra .ragionaroa^rf .prezzo commune car. j? X —90 

.Etpiu / perGranarodiMiglio t ftara46.ragionaro2j) 30. car. a8 X — 69 

.Etpiu /pcrGranarodiMelega,llara4g.iaeionaraa £20. car. *p £ — <fg ! 

•Eradi 1 1 .Maggio, per F.Vigilanrio, hauuti da Pio S.di prato affitta 

toa/5.4.aStax>ae Guariucrfa ■ - car. 40 x — »4i— ia 




.Somma X —752-11- 

Ec hauere adi *?.i.uglio / perAQuilaGraditoaffitroaleex parter.per 
lo prezzo commune a X i,di Uara ijoirumcntone decqucfta raccol 
ta,perlofirtodelpriraoaqno car. $a X -500 

.Etpiu /per Aqmla detto, per ftara 40.di Vena, ne dee comefopra, 

raeionataaiao.prezzocommune car. fa X —40 

.Eradi atf.'Ottobre/ per Aqut'ladctro, per carra i8.uino oe dee co 
me fopra,ragionatoalprezzo commune car. J* X — 00 

.Somma / - 630- 


Ee Kruere adi a j.Luglio / per Seuero B iondo maffaro , 8c aifittnaie , 
p«Htara70.ft-un*nconedeeper lofitto di quefto4- anno — car. $a X —140- 

.Et adi itf.Ottobre / per Seuero det'o per car lo.di uino oe dee co- 
me (bpra.ragtonato a/ S.prezzo commune — .————car. 5a X — jo- 

icadi 1 i.Nouembre per Seuero decto^er loficoo ia denandi que- 

do quarto anno iiuko a S^Marcino^a pagarci come alfuocoto car. 5a £-400- 


.Somma X - $90- 

X>Ee hauere adi 37 Luglio / per GranarodiFaua,hauuragliqtitftoanQO 

in noftnrparte,ragionaraa^?d.prezzo commune car. so X "*ft« 

.Etpiu /per Granarodi Legunu^ftaraS.bauun.&ragiooatJutfUcar. a? x — it- 
•Et adi afi.O ttobrc / per Cantina del Mooaftcro,per carra 1 2 .uino ha 

uutogli comefopra^ragionatoaJ prezzo commune di/ J. car. aj X — »6b- 


'.Sooima £—114—10- 

H hauere adi 1 4. A prile / per Cafla.uenduto a G€ 
tile Maffimino,a / lo.ii pefojper mano del P.D. 
PlacidoRetrorein Badia car. 34 pefi 10a. xa. 6 X toa5- 

.Etper (aldodi qijeflo con to.calato per quaato fi e 
ftunato di piu,io le due partice cotrokriice-car. 

at Pefi — a. 12. 6 

.Somma pefi 105 -■■ — z io*j 


p n « e- 

• 1 IETR A SAf.D A d»)a da! Fondico uecchio.Maffariano/rra, dee dare adi 
ultimo Maggto / a Valeric. Leonimaftaro.per car rczzi , & opet c da 
Itii tiauutcqucA'anno.comc alfuo libro faldatod auordodiftmta 

mente appare — — --• — • — — — -» — —car. 

.Er piu/ alfEntrata genciale di quefi anno, ciratogliper faldo di que 
/to conco — — — — ■ ■ i ■ ■ ■■ ■ car. 

60* -731—15. 

.8omma * -763-11- 

.JLJevS DEDlTappreflbla Citri, Maflaria nohra,dee dare ad) ultimo 

Maggio, all'fncrata generate di queiVanno.tiracogli per faldo -car. 60 £-630 

'SOLANA in uUnuoua,Maflarianoftra,deedare adjjflrftn© Maggio Aft* 

l'£ ntrata generated! gucfl'aoDOjtiratogli per fildo — — 0*0 JC— 50«« 




S..JL6N ATlO in Riua.Ronco noftro,dee dare adi ultimo Maggio /all'En 

trata generate di queft'anno, tirarogli per faldo car. 60 jf -114—10 

t-AGAZINO di Lino,dee dare adi pr. Giugno /all'Introi 
todiqueftojperreftoquiriratodacar.^.libroZcar. f pet! jo — X —105 • 

.Eradi itf.Gi'ugno /a Badia.,hauur.ogliqueftoanno,ft:imato 
in circa alprezzo,&quantiri car. 16 pefi 7$ — # ~6aj- 

.Etadi i^.Aprilc aBadia,perfaldodiqueitocontofpet 
tanccaefTaCorte : .car. 17 peG 

- f -150- 

Son una pefi 10 J- / loaj- 


.IVloNASTEROnortro del glorio/b Precurfore , e degno Martire di 

ChriftoS.Gio: Bat tilla d Oriana,qua!e noflro Sig.per fua diuinabo 

ta fi degni diffendere.e profperare.dee dare adi pf imo Giugno / al- 

l'lntroitogeneralc diqueft'anno.tiratogli da car.4g4.dcl libro Z. 

del 1'anno paflato car. 1 X 1706*— 10 — j- 

t, ,Etadi7.0ttobre/ aCafla.contia Delio Pefcatore , inpagamentodi 

quan to reflaua ad hauercper p c fee da lui ha uu to quefta quareflma 

pa{Tata,comeperfualiftainfilza -Car. j» X •— 9J— «ij — 6- 

6 .Etpiu / aPri(cianQVolpe f f reftodipanno»rafcia,eteledaluihauu 

te gli anni paflat i,come per fua lifta in filza appare diftintamc te,chc 

perifcordononfi fcriflero car. 50 X —47—8. 

9 «£t p i u / a Cafla,con ti a m .Bar tholomeo C a Icina to, in uirtu di vna fen 

tenzadella Ruota,per acqua godutaglida noftridi Badiaglianni 

paHaciidella fua rata parte,comc appare ne gli atti dim. Andrea Lo 

douicinotarodirfufamente car. 31 X — IJJ 

t .Et piu / aSanto Squarcialupcper tanti gli douemo pagarcfra otto 

mcfi,in uirtu di una fentenza della R no t a,vfci ta ne gli atti del detto 

notarOjperriftoroditempcitaparJtarannoijgs.checflbera Affit 

tualeaS.Remigio,conlcfpefe —car. 50 X — ijj — 10— — »— 

§ .Et adi ultimo Maggio /a F.Thomafofpenditorcper faldodi fuocon 

toquitirato,perfuariooccorfogliqucftoanno -car. 39 X — o»— 1&— 1— 

to O .Etpiu /perSuariooccorfoqueft'annonelbiiancio,cornefiuedecar. %9 X — 4— 17 — 10— 
.Et piu / all'Efi to generate di queft'anno,tiratogli per faldo di quefto 

conto =■ car. 61 X 3744-'- o — j— 

.Somma X 587°— — $— 


DM86. 59 

EehauercadiprimoOtrobre /perCafla.contone dal R.P. F. Pietro 
MartiredaTurinodiS. Domcnico,ptatihauutida unpenitete,in 

fodisfattionedi vnodebitofuo,chenoifihaueuamo fcordato-car. ji jC — 117— «ij — 8- 
* .Et piu / per Riginaldo Campione.per la Bofchettadel ValIone,datta 
glil'anno paflato datagliare, edapagarne a S. Michele profsimo 
paflato.chcnonfifcriflepecifcordo -car. 47 3? •—jo 

3 .Etpiu/pcrCafla,contonedaDoninoTurchinogianoflroAffittualc, 

in virtu di una Sen t c za di Ruota.per lo dan no da lui hauu to in arbo 
ri tagliati,e non piancati in quel tempo, come ne gli atti dim. Vince 
zoRoflb notaro apparedittintamente car. ja 3C —146 ., 

4 .Et piu / per Naftagio Calandra , per tanti ne dee in uirtii di una fen- 

tenza del Mag. Podefti. per l'interrcfle patito in uno paro di caual- 

li da carrozza uendutine perfani car. 47 •f. — 90 ■ 

10 .Et adi ultimo Maggio / per D. Mauro fecondo Celleraro , per faldo 

del fuoconto^nel quale efeguitofuarioquefto anno — car. 3 6 •£. — t— %% — 4 _ 

11 O .Etpiu/per Cotrofcrittionedellaconfimile partita per contro,pofta 

per eficmpio,eflendo ilbilancioucro.ereale car. 59 Sf 4>-<ij--iG~ 

1 1 .Etpiu /perlaSpefagenerale,perfaIdodiquelcontoqui tirato, per 

quantos'efpefomenoquefto anno deU'Entrata hauuta car. 60 X J44S ~»o — j— . 

> »— 

.Sonvna £ 5870 — o — 3— 


, 15 86. 

IPESA generate dlqueft'anno , finitoadi ultimo Maggio.dec dare.per fal 
dodegli in/rafcrutict>nri,qui tirat^&cOioti dalle loiopertitCrto 
me in cfii conti difiintameutcappare cioi 

jOrdinaria indanari car. 

.Cafcianaformaggiopefiioj. car. 

.Magazinod'Ogliopcfi i6Z- 


.Forno,di Farina flara 438- 

.Vinoconf»mato,carra 55 








.Taflc^Si Annate 


.Spefc Capuolari 



.Porti di lettere 





.Liti,e Scritture 



Somma t 21660— ip^-io- 

^pefo meno dell'Entrata di queft*anno,che fi tira al Monaft.nro- car. 59 % 5443 — 10 — j- 

. 11- ji 1 — H 

.Somma 1 17109 -*io — a— 


i 15 8$. ^O 

#NTR ATA generate dtqueft'anno finito adi ultimo Maggio , dee hauere, 
per (aldo degl'infrafcritti Conci qui tirati,& eftmti dalle loro parti 
te,come in efsi con ti dinintamcn te appare cioe 

.Badiadi S.Eulgentio in Camerooc car. 

.PrioratodiS.Remigio,Corte noltf car. 

.S.Mauro Maflar ia,e C orte noftra — - car. 

.S.Martiri,Maflaria,e Cortc noftra car. 

.Romea,MaiTaria noftra—- car. 

.Acquachiara.Maflaria noftra car. 

•S.Dionfgi, Martina noftra — • car. 

.Honorata,MaiTaria noftra car. 

•Pictra Salda,Maflaria noftra car. 

.Deusdedit,Maflaria noftra car. 

.Ifolana.Maflaria noftra car. 

•S.Ignatio.Ronconoftro car. 

.Malgheria noftra ' — car. 

.Socida di Beftiami car. 

.Razza diCaualli — 1 car. 

.Terratici Hiucrfi car. 

.Selue,cBofchi car. 

.Molina car. 

.Cenfi,eLiuelli- car. 

.Fitti di Cafe,e Borteghe car. 

. Hor to del Monaftero car. 

Aumentidil commun prezzo, 

.Cantina di uinoin Cameronc, incarra jo.uenduco 

.Cantina diuer(a,in carra io.uertduco 

.Can ti na del Monaftero,in earra 1 tf.uendu to * — 

.Granaroin Camerone,in ftara 937 Frumentoucnduto 

.Granarodiuerfb ftara 478 — * ■■ 

.Granaro del Monaftero ftara 250 

.GranarodiFrumentata- ftara 220 

.Granarodi Segala ftara 618 

•Qranaro di Migtio ftara 36s , 

.Granarodi Pan jgo ftara 175 

.GranarO di Faua t- ftara 193 

.Granaro'di Legumi ftara 1 5 

.Granarodi Melega ftara 230 _ 

.Granaro d'Orgio ftara 30 

— car. 


— car. 

— car. 

— car. 

— car. 

— car. 

— car. 








a 7 











*4 2 



44*7 — 19 - 10- 
1805 — 9. — 5- 
1611 — 3 

-'79-14 1- 

1010 - 18 



19S8 , 

-7ji— ij 

-636 — 

- 59° 

-124-— 10 


— 5» 

_. 68 

-227 — 10 


1 187— 15 

— 126 — 19 — II — 
—980 4— — 

— 221 — 18 


— 84 — 3—4- 

— 128—12 

1825 — 16 


—888— 1 6 • 

—320 — 10 

— 900 

.Somma jf 27100 — 10 J- 


El 586. 
STTO generate di quert'anno , finito ad i ultimo Maggio,dee dare, peril 
infrafcritri credit i del Monaficro.qui tiraci dai conn lore, cjoc 

.Quilico Fedele,efratelli ear. 

m. .GordianoLampridio arfittualc car. 

.Eutitio Lancjano fomafaro ■ ■ — car. 

.Henrico Lanfranco malghefo car. 

.OberroTJafiliTcomolinaro car. 

.Et pin Frumento flara i o. car. 

.Dcmerrio Contertabile maflaro ■ car. 

.ValerioLeoni maflaro car. 

.Vittorio.eCortefePaUadinimaflari car. 

.RinaldoSanfone maflaro car. 

.Tcmittio Solimano maflaro car. 

.Dante Congiurato barbcro car. 

Incfsigibil i,& a Tungo tempo 

m, .MarcoTullioVillanuouaRia affittuale 

.Favifto Giouiale gia maflaro 

.InnocentioMaioranogiafatrore — 

•LcomioManfrcdigia molinaro 




- 176"— »ll 8- 

-15J-IJ — « 

- 191 — < 


- i - 10 





58 X -%',%— 17- 

58 t -588—18- 

jj t - 7$ 8 — 

58 t — i|-» 7— 6 


Reftanti di queftoapno 
.Cafciaria formaggio,per ufo pefi 

5o a X *■ 
1* a X 5 
ao a * 5- 
1 <5 a X 5 
10 a / 3- 

.Cantinadi Camerone,per ufo — carra 

.Cantinadiuer&.perufo carra 

.CancinadelMonaflero, per ufo— <arra 
.Granaro di Camcrone,pcr ufo Aara 

.Dauendere Aara 50 a / 4. 10 

.Graoarodiucrfo,peru(b Aara 10 a jf a— — 

.Granaro del Mon after o.per ufo — Kara. 81 a $ a 

.Dauendere flara 250 a / 4. 10 - 

.Granaro diVcna,eSpelta Aara 50 a $ 1 

,C afla in coptanti — ■ ■ 

Somnu X 5 940 --ti — »■ 
•car. 3 X -xoo 

car. 34 X —60 

-car. 15 X —too 

car. a J £ — 80 

-car. \6 x — » 10 

tar. 26 £ —*»S 

-—car. atf 3? — ao- 

car. *7 £ -164 

—car. 37 X iiij- 

car. jo je —50- 

-car. 34 x S96— »p — *- 
.Somtna X 848 1 — *-— 9" 



ET 580 6T 

SITO generate di qneiVanno finito adi ultimo Maggio,dcc hauerepcr gli 
wfrafcritri debiti del Monaflero,qui tirati da icotuiloro.cioe 

m. .BartholoSaladino in Vinegia,a Cenfo A joo. car. ±6 $ 

m. .Aquila Gradi'ro affittnaIe,conco di tempo car. 5* X 

R.D.CIcmente Alem'nofiro Curator— — car. 4? / 

.FabritioGallonoftrofattore car. 57 jf 

.DelfinoCommodocamparo ...... ■ car. Jg 3? 

.AnnibaleGermanoferuidore cat. $g £ 

•Monaflcro noflro refta io credito,come fiuede- 



1 500- 

— J7— itf — tf- 

— *4 — 5 — — 
. — 60 

Somma jf" 4737 — 1 — 5. 
— car. spgf J744 — o— .g- 

•Somma £ iwx~~i— 9 _ 



In 1632 there appeared in Bologna a work on bookkeeping, written by Matteo Mainardi. This book 
is of far later date than the ones heretofore mentioned, but as explained in the historical chapter it is 
remarkable in that it attempts to describe, besides the system for the merchants, one for the keeping of 
executors' and trustees' accounts. It follows Pietra and Manzoni closely in a good many instances. 

The illustrations have small value for us except to indicate the little progress that was made in 
Italy with the shifting of the center of trade from Italy to Holland, as Simon Stevin's book herein- 
after reproduced, which was published in 1004 in Holland, was far in advance of this of Mainardi 's. 
We reproduce the title page of the second edition of this book, and a page which explains the purpose 
of the book as far as trustees' and executors' accounts are concerned. The two pages of the journal 
we give in order to show that each page is provided with the address to the Deity, that the clot is used 
for checking, and that we here find so-called combination journal entries, by which we mean entries 
in whicli are combined more than one credit or more than one debit in one entry. We do 
not, however, find the use of the word "sundries," as in Stevin's work and as we use it to this day. It 
will be noted that in such entries the debits are always named first and itemized before the credits are 
enumerated, and that the division between debits and credits is made with two horizontal lines or 
dashes, one below the last debit and one above the first credit. We also note the absence of the money 
signs, except the principal or the lire sign. 



R E A L E 



Formalmente Ragguagliato 

D A 


Con diuerfi altri Qucfiti vtili , curiofi , e neceflarij 

alia Mercarura 

In que/1 a rutoutt Impreffiom aggiontoui il mode, 
cht Mm fi franca . 


Per il Longhi. Con licenz,* AS Superiori. 



Laude, e gloria del la Santifsima, & Indiui- 
duaTrinita Padre, Figliuolo, eSpirito 
Santo; dclla Gloriofifsima Vergine Maria, 
delli Santi Apoftoli Pietro ,e Paolo , e delli 
Santr N.N. noftri Protet tori , come ancora 
dituttalaCorteCeleftiale. Amcn. 

Quefto prefenteLibro chiamatoGiornale,di forma 
N.dicartcN.copcrtodiN.di carte num. N.efegnato 
N.ediRutiglio figliuolo del gia Sig. LeonidoFonga- 
rellipupiJlo,d'etad , anniN.& erede ( 6abinteftato,b 
teftamentario) del fudetto Sig Leonido,paflatoami- 
glior vita It i^.Gennarodel prefenteanno,fottola tu- 
teladi N.fopra del quale, per mano di N. fara notato 
regolatamente, e formalmente, ogni qualita di beni 
ftabili, emobili, beftiami, debttori, e creditor i del d. 
g& Sic. Leonido, eperconfeguenzahorafpettante al 
medehmoSig. Rutiglio fuo figliuolo, & erede, come 
fopra; e fufleeuentemente tutte I'enrrate, e fpefe, 
chefraPannoieguiteranno in quefta eredita, lequali 
partite tutte farannoleuate da queiloLibro, e portate 
per mano del fudetto N.fopra vn altro Libro chiamaco 
LibroMaeftro diforma,carta ,coperta, efegnocome 
quefto, dicarte num.N.afuoi appartati.luoghi, con- 
forme e lo ftile Mercantile, che perbeflb PupiIlo(eper 
effoil Sig.N.fuoCommiflario Teftamentario) intende, 
che lifia data piena, & indubitata fede in giudicio , e 

In fede di che &c. 

to N. Commiffkrio Ttft. &c. affermo tpMtttodifop*. 

to N. Scriuano aiceuo y egiuro quant o di fofra . 

A GlOR- 


■* I 

. 10 

. IZ 

r ii 

. ii 





Laus Deo, & B. Virg. Rofarij M. DC. XXXIII. 
Adi 1 1. Dcccmbre Sabbato. 

jlllt Mfttimm, &(. al banco ltr.quattrocentotre,fol. tredtci, den. qmtttro quat li por- 
ta il no/lro Caneuaro i ontanti , retratti ftno a que/io giornofudetto, dt Fafft died- 
mil' J d* cauazzatura venduti a minuto, a bohgnini fette la cartca , e numerofet- 
tetntUa dt ynte, a bologmm trentadue il cento, comcfi vedeper vna taglia . L. £40 J. X 3. 4 

^credtto Fa/ft da cauazzatura incafanum. 10000. /.. 291. 13.4 

yy4 credtto Fajft dt >ite tit 1 njn num. 7000. L. 1 1 2, 

%Afpefe difuoco lir. vintifei,fol. tre*, den. due quat.per num. ottocentoquindici Fajft 
da cauazzatura., e num. quattrocent'ottantadue di "vite ferb ati per cafa. L. 

yAcredito Fajft da cauazzatura num.%15. L.20. j.6. 

*A credito F a/ft di *ite num 482. /.. 5.IJ.8. 

16. 3. a 

*A luca Barbim no/lro lauorafore alia Tofse/pone di Tondi lir, centodiciafette quat. 

cioe lir. cento per li patti in denari com ami , e lir. diciafette per corbe quattro 

ifOrzo hauutoptu me/tfono del no/lro Fattore, a lir. quattro, fol, cinque la corba, 

(taccordo. I. 

ji credtto alia 'Pofsefstone di Tondi . X. . 1 00, 

xAcreditoOrzoa Montorio cor. 4* L. 17, 


J Domemco Manganella noftro Suozzo. allaTofsefftQne di Bella lir. qentoquarant' 
^na y Jul. cinque quat. dot lir. cemouinti per li patti , cbe deue pagare in denari 
lir. vent'vna,fol.$. per corbe ^.d'orzobauutadal Fattorc t d'accardo. I»£i4i. y, — 

A credtto alia Tofsefstone di Bello. L.120. 

-* credtto a Orzo in gtanaro di Montorio corbe j . L. 2 1 . 5 . 

ALiuio Carboni, e ftatelli m/lri'mezziiuoli a Montorio, lir. centafefsantatri , fol. 

due, den. fei quat. cioelir. cemoquarama per li patti, cbe paga in denari t e lir. 

•pemttrejol. due, den. fei per corbe ctnque,emeza d'Orzabauuto,d'accordo. L.^i6$. j, 
U credtto la 'Pofsejfwne di Montorio . L. 1 40. 

^ credtto Orzo a Montorio corbe cinque, e. meza . /., 2 3. 2 . $. 

^fjtngelo Sufa noflro Suozzo a Romanellalir centoquarantatre ,fol, due , den. fei 
quat. ciol lir. centouentt per li patti cbepaga in danari , e lir. vintitre\fo,l. died, 
den. fei per corbe cinque, e meza d* Orzo hauuto, d'accordo, ptit difono. L. ,143, a. 6 

I jl credtto I a Tofsejftone di Ramaneilo . £. 1 2 o. 

* { sAcredito Orzo in granaro di Montorio corbe unqnc, e meza. L. 23.2.6. 

* 9 I 




Laus Deo, & B. Virg. Rofari j M. DC. XXXIII. 

Adi 3 1 1 Dccc mb re Sab ba t o. 




• 9 

• *3 
. io 


jlMicbele landinelli noftro bracente a Romanello lir, finttnoue , cioe* lir. vinti per 
japtgione dell a cafa, c lir. none quat. per corbe due, quar. due d orzo, bauuto piU 
giornifono dal Fattore, d' accordo . L 

^f credito Luogo di Romanello . £, 20. 

^f credito Orzo in grunaro cor. z. quar. t. L. 9. 


[» 29. 

Afpefe d'Ekmofme lir, ccntononantaJbl.otto,quat.difpenfate il Natale pajfato a di- 
uerfi Lwgbi Ttj, & apoueri dell a noftro: ?arochia t per Camma del Sig. Leonido, 
per noi dalli Mannini, &c. L. 

<A credito alii Mannini, tyc. al banco , 




£190. 8.— 

v/4 Canape grezzo in Villa lir, cinquecemofefan(anoue,fol, quattordki quat,per va 

Iluta di lib. duemillaottocentoqttar ant' otto, e meza di Canape , batjuta dalli noftri 
lauor.atori y della fua parte t apprezzata fenza pregiudicio lir. vinti il cento . L 
1 xA 'credito Luca Barbini per lib. j 37. e meza. £, 107* io« 

* ■ I xX credito Domenico Manganelh per lib. 7 11, £. 1 42 » 4< 

• 7 J ^f credito liuio Carboniperltb. 837. e meza. L. 167. 10. 

• 7__ I <sf credito ^tngelo Sufa, per lib.6ii.e meza . £. 1 2 2 . 1 o, 
. 7 \<A credito Micbele Landinelli lib. ijo. L\ 30, 

Si**** — 


. 10 

, 7 

. t 



*4fpefe di repaxationi, efabricbe lir, certtotrentanaue,fol. fei, den. otto. quat. pagan 
per mandata queftu giornafudetta a M. N. noftro. Capelietto, e fona , cioi lir. tin- 
quanta per la fua annua prouiftone di coprire , e riuedere tutte /e noftre cafe di 
Villa, e di Citta, e ilreftopcrfpefe, cbe da conto batten fatto in rifarcire le cafe di 
Villa, come di tut to ne appare lift a in filza di piufomma, per mandato dalli Man- , 
nini,& banco. iX 139, 

jt credito li Mannini, 6"c. al banco . 1 

6. 8 

yAlla Tojfejftone di Tondi lir.fettantafette , fol. otto, den 8, fanno buoni a M. ' 

Sabadmo Tazaglia di Mal'albergo, efono per fei nauate diftramo , mandatoci li | 

■ me ft pafj'ati, com pre foui le condotte, cos) d' accordo infteme. L.^ 77*. 8. 8 

j Jdla Tojfejftone dt Bella lir.fettantafette, fol. otto, den. otto quat. buoni alfudetto, co- 1 

*' me fopra, per fef nauate di/lramo da letto, come fopradetto. L.C 77, 8, 8 

Ulla Tojfejftone di Moworio lir. cetitocinque,fol, trediciper otto nauate di ftramo da I 

lettomandatoliilfudettQ,comefopra, /-fit 

^tlla 'Tojfejftone di Romanelh lir. centocinque t fol, tredici quat, buoni al fudetto per* 
I aim otto nauate diftramo da letto bauute t come fopra, 1. 1 1 05 . j 3 . — 

I sAcrcdito Sabadino Tazaglia lir. 366. 3, 4, | 


toy. XJ. *■» 



€n&c bcVoijs dcc looffeltjcUc* Conftcn fees 
nac me 31 taltaenfdje maniere/allen Cooplte 
fteten/3'cec nuten&ep*ofptelfjetu3lnio?mc* 
cenDe eenett pegl)etijc&en/f)oel)y seftete en&e 
pttfcctc3AC&mmg^e!)outictUalnictt)ol)bcl | 
clcli bp |)em feluen if djtelijcft m alien ftnen fa 
Ken en affaire gtoote ejrperientte ctigftenfaU 

C dntyetranOateett mtt gtootet Dilf gentien/ 

Xbt Die3Jtaliamfcl)c talc in onfecfpjaftm 


memojfen) Coopman \m%ntibt& 

l>en:€n&e mi tet lieffcen en pjofp 

% tefces gftemepnen fteluaetts 

eerft ttrtgljcgeuentnt JaoP 


twarcntovjoot blijettyj fcer <£cptntoanDie 




We are reproducing herewith the title page of Ympyn's book, which we have taken from Kheil's book, 
where a thorough comparative study is made between Ympyn and Pacioli. Ympyn, as we have seen, was 
the first Dutch writer who practically translated Pacioli into Dutch, French and English, and from him 
continental Europe has derived its subsequent texts on bookkeeping. The original of this book was not 
available to the writer, but we have taken from Kheil's book the most important subject-matters which we 
review in the following lines : 

Ympyn, as stated heretofore, copied Pacioli practically verbatim. We find, however, here and there a 
few deviations which we think it important to mention at this place. 

Pacioli speaks about the two divisions of his book, one covering inventory and the other "disposi- 
tion." He is somewhat vague in explaining this latter term. Ympyn says that "disposition" is "the 
establishment, systematizing and execution of the current and customary as well as the extraordinary af- 
fairs of a business. 

Ympyn suggests that the index should be bound in parchment and placed either at the beginning or 
the end of the ledger, but in such a manner that it can be taken out if necessary. He uses the Italian 
terms "Per" and "A" untranslated. In front of corrective ledger entries he uses a cross and does not 
mention any other distinguishing marks. The term "cash" is personified to cashier instead of pocket 
book, as used by Pacioli. He enlarges on the terms "Cash" and "Capital" more than Pacioli does. For 
branch stores the sales are entered into a sales journal, and totaled once a week for transfer to the ledger. 
Ympyn is more extensive in his explanations than Pacioli about barrato or trade, also about the draft and 
its use. We should remember, however, that Pacioli describes these more fully in the parts of his book 
not covered by the subject of bookkeeping. 

Ympyn recommends a separate book for household expenses, and a petty expense book for the small ex- 
penses of the business. The totals are transferred from these books to the journal once a month. He men- 
tions a special cash book for special kinds of species or for foreign money which is handled by the firm, 
very much as some banks today use a separate account with bank notes of large denominations. He ad- 
vocates the use of separate books for statistics, or memoranda, in the nature of diaries ; and suggests a 
shipping book. As to accounts, he mentions interest, building rents, ground rents, expenses, household 
expenses, merchandise expenses, building repair, garden expenses, salaries, loans, expenses of childbirths 
and an account for marriage gifts. 

Like Pacioli and Manzoni, Ympyn uses a profit and loss account, very much the same as we do today. 
He also draws off a balance to prove the correctness of the ledger. Ympyn, however, puts the balance at 
the end of the ledger as an account, although he does not explain it as such in his text ; in this he does not 
follow Pacioli. He balances the profit and loss account to capital account without passing it through the 

Ympyn specifically mentions that merchandise must be inventoried at cost and he uses a merchandise 
inventory account, to which all accounts showing an inventory of merchandise or goods on hand are closed 
and then this account in turn is closed to the balance account. He does not journalize these entries. How- 
ever, we find that he does journalize his profit and loss items, as does Manzoni, but which Pacioli does not do. 

Assets in the balance account are put on the credit side and liabilities on the debit side. He uses no 
opening balance account in the new ledger, but evidently posts from the old balance account in the old 
ledger in reverse order to the new ledger, because the closing balance account in the old ledger gives the 
folios to which the items are posted in the new ledger. We have seen that Pacioli says that you can trans- 
fer the capital account either as a balance in one item, or itemized; the latter having the advantage of 
then representing a summary of the inventory, and each new ledger then starts with an inventory. 

The journal, profit and loss, capital, and balance accounts illustrated by Ympyn are printed in Kheil 's 
German review of Ympyn, but we regret that he did not reproduce them actually, as with the modern 
printing much of the form and arrangement is lost. 

Ympyn permits no erasures. He wishes a line drawn through the wrong amount or words the same 
as Pacioli does, in order to be able to prove of what the error consisted. He insists that explanations to 
the journal entries must be so clear that anybody can understand the transactions they record ; that books 
kept in the Italian manner as described by him, with a journal and a ledger, "make everything as clear as 
daylight and will prevent swindles and defalcations, as occur now so frequently and almost daily." 

He adds the freight to the merchandise and posts it to the merchandise account. He deprecates trad- 
ing on long credit, and announces it as bad because "the wolf does not eat any days and the due date 
comes nearer not only by day but as well by night. ' ' 

The two diagonal lines of which Pacioli speaks, are used in the journal when the posting is finished 
and in the ledger when the account is closed or transferred to the new ledger. Capital account Ymypn 
credits with the assets and debits with the liabilities, which agrees with the idea of the personifying of 
accounts and results in a net credit in this account, which net credit is the same as we use in the capital 
account to this day. Ympyn uses no ledger headings and shows but one column in the journal. He uses 
Roman figures in all money columns, both ledger and journal. 



Tlu* following pages, Nos. 119 to 136, represent reproductions of the journal and ledger and other 
interesting forms as given in the book of Simon Stevin. which appeared in the Dutch language in Am 
■tarda in 1604, was rewritten in The Hague in 1607, republished in Latin in 1608, and republished by 
Stevin '8 son Hendrick in 1650. As we have seen, Stevin was a tutor and adviser of Prince Maurits of 
Orange, then Governor of some of the Dutch provinces. Stevin first taught the Prince bookkeeping and 
then induced him to install a double-entry system of bookkeeping throughout his domains and government 

Stevin apologizes for the use of terms in foreign languages, such as debit, credit, debitor, creditor, 
balance, journal, finance, etc., but says they are necessary because if he used Dutch terms the bookkeepers 
would not understand what he was writing about, and as bookkeepers only are supposed to profit by the 
regulations promulgated and ordered by Maurits, the Prince of Orange, for the double-entry municipal ac- 
counting system, he insists that he must use the foreign terms. 

The objection of the Prince that government clerks would not understand Italian or double-entry book- 
keeping, he overcomes by advising that he could hire and should hire clerks who did know it, for they un- 
doubtedly would be better men. 

The objections to the necessity of double-entry bookkeeping for municipalities and governments he rea- 
sons away by stating that a merchant has some direct personal supervision over his bookkeepers and cash- 
iers, but the government must direct them through other persons. As this is not as safe as the merchant's 
personal supervision, it follows that if a merchant needs double-entry bookkeeping and finds it profitable, 
the government needs it that much more. 

Stevin does not give rules for the making of journal entries, but he explains a difficulty which the 
Prince evidently met, when the latter asks : "If Peter pays me $100, there are two debits and two credits : 
I am his debtor and my cash is also a debtor ; he is my creditor and his cash is also a creditor. Which two 
of these four must I select for my books T ' ' Stevin answers : ' ' Take always my creditor and my debtor 
because Peter keeps books with his creditor and his debtor." 

Stevin urges upon the Prince that governmental treasurers invariably become rich, and when they die 
leave such a muddled state of affairs and records that there is nothing left but to forgive and forget, but 
that such is not the case with bookkeepers and cashiers of mercantile establishments; they invariably die 
poor. A merchant, he says, knows what his bookkeeper or his cashier or treasurer should have, but this 
is not so with a Prince, who has to take the cashier's word for it. 

The Prince then asks if bookkeeping ever had been worthy of such consideration that books were pub- 
lished on it. Stevin replied that numerous writers had taken up the subject, and that while doubtless the 
double-entry system was originated in olden times, yet in Italy where it is said to have been executed first, 
it is considered an art of which no other is so honorable and worthy. 

The Prince (apparently floored by Stevin 's lucid arguments) thereupon agrees to take up the study 
with the view of installing double-entry bookkeeping in the governmental departments as soon as Stevin 
and he were through with their studies of algebra. 

Stevin has a firm place in the heart of the writer, because he mentions in his book that one of his for- 
bears was a treasurer of the city of Flissingen, thus supplying the missing data for the genealogy of 
his family. 

Comparison of the journal and the ledger with the reproductions of the Italian writers heretofore 

i. will at once show that in printing as well as in arrangement the Dutch were far superior to the 
Italian. A comparison with Pietra and Mainardi will make this very plain. The examples must be pro- 
nounced as bong excellent for their time. The journal entries are differently grouped than has been done 
by any previous writers, very much more systematic, and in many instances only totals from other records 
are used. 

It will be noted that all religious terms at the top of pages or at the beginning of books, customarily 
used in the Italian method, have been omitted. The slightest reference to the Deity is absent in these 
books, due to the fight for religious freedom which then waged in Holland. Stevin was a great supporter 
of the Protestant party, so much so that Brown relates that when in 1645 a proposal was made to erect a 
statue at Bruges to his memory, a Catholic agitation was aroused in the House of Representatives to de- 
feat the project. Even a clerical editor expunged his name from a Dutch dictionary of biography, where 
it had appeared in earlier editions. However that may be, the writer having been born in Holland and 
then having kept numerous sets of books, can vouch that twenty years ago the majority of books which 
came under his supervision were opened and closed in the name of the Diety. 

Stevin 's omission of the use of religious terms was followed in England, whereas Europe to this day 
follows Ympyn and others, which is corroborating evidence that Stevin through Dafforne has influenced 
Kutrlish and American bookkeeping more than has Mellis, who followed Pacioli in the use of religious terms. 

Through a peculiar coincidence the use of the terms "pepper" and "ginger" appear as frequently in 
his illustrations and examples, as they do in those of the Italian and other previous writers. 

Stevin personifies the impersonal or economic accounts when he states that cash account is an account 
with the cashier and follows this idea throughout his work in connection with other accounts. He men- 


tions the three methods of buying and selling theretofore described by the Italians, namely, on account, 
for cash, and in trade, and the combinations that can be made with these three. Like his predecessors, he 
states that in the beginning of every book two entries are necessary, which should cover merchandise, and 
cash on hand, as also the debts owing and accounts owning, and like Pacioli and Ympyn he explains fully 
that sometimes a business can be started on credit but he doubts the advisability. 

Stevin is the first to use the system of controlling accounts, and as shown in the first page herewith re- 
produced, in the second line after the table, the same name for these accounts is retained today. He uses 
the word "contrerole," which comes from the French " controler, " which in turn comes from the two Latin 
words "contra" and "rotulus" (our roll) and "rota" (our wheel). The definition of the word "con- 
trol" is "to check by a duplicate register" or "verify an account." The total of his controlling account 
was obtained from the detailed monthly reports from the sub-treasurers or cashiers of the various places 
and departments, and were posted to these controlling accounts through the medium of journal entries. 
From these accounts tables were compiled showing the delinquencies for each year of each sub-treasury or 
of each place. He describes that an endless variety of these tables may be made in order to show the true 
status of the various operations at various places. He also states that if no tables are desired, then there 
shoidd be a separate account for each column in these tables, and especially for each year. The table re- 
produced shows how particular and careful he was on this subject. 

The ledger shows both the page of the journal and the page upon which the other part of the double- 
entry appears in the ledger. This is one of the first writers who enters the journal pages in the ledger. 
The pages of the journal are, however, put in the margin, on the left of the date in the ledger and not 
directly to the left of the amount, as we are accustomed to do at the present time. The explanations in 
the ledger will appear to you to be shorter and clearer and more to the point as to relevancy than was 
customary in the Italian method. It should also be noted that the term "per" is used on both sides of the 
ledger. Stevin says that many bookkeepers use "a" on the debit side where he uses "per." He sug- 
gests that his method is more reasonable, as can be learned by translating the entry in an ordinary sen- 
tence; thus, which is better language? "Peter is debit to me 'for' ('per') pepper sold to him," or "Peter 
is debtor to me 'to' ('a') pepper sold to him." He then states that it is not a matter of importance, that 
his readers can do as they like, but he wishes them to follow the better sentence. 

In the journal he does not use the expression "per" before the debitor, nor "a" before the creditor, 
nor does he divide them with the two slanting lines // as do Pacioli, Manzoni, Pietra and Ympyn. Stevin 
simply used "debit per" between the names of the debtor and creditor thus coming closer to our present 
form of journal entry. 

It is difficult to state what the two diagonal lines (//) between the debits and credits mean. 

In the chapter entitled ' ' Discursion in Theory ' ' there has been set forth in detail Stevin 's theory of a 
double entry with two debits and two credits, thus carrying the transaction through the proprietor's ac- 
count but eliminating the same by algebraic formula. 

The late Joseph Hardcastle, C.P.A., of New York, in 1903, in his "Accounts of Executors and Trus- 
tees," chapter on "The Personalistic Theory," very plainly sets forth the same idea elucidated by Stevin. 
He even goes so far as to state that Pacioli (he spells it with an "i") and Manzoni used the slanting lines 
between debits and credits to indicate the omission of the word ' ' proprietor ' ' twice. 

Stevin explains that Roman figures in the ledger are not needed because they are never used in the 
journal, which is a book of more importance, and if they are not put in the book of more importance why 
should we put them in the book of less importance? He explains (as does Pacioli) that the ledger is not 
important because if the ledger is lost it can be written up entirely from the journal, whereas the reverse 
is not true, because the detail which the journal contains is lacking in the ledger. He further states that 
in the Italian books Roman figures are not used in the day book. 

It will be noticed that each page of the ledger has a consecutive number (not as we number by giving 
two pages, the debit and the credit, one and the same number). Stevin explains that this is better be- 
cause then all your debit pages will be uneven and the credit pages will be even numbers, which will aid in 
checking if an error is made in putting the little dividing line between figures representing the pages of 
the debit and the credit in the journal, as is customary in the Italian method. The fact that but one col- 
umn is used in the journal, makes this little dividing line between the figures of the debit postings and 
those of the credit postings very important. Stevin further explains in this connection that it is still 
more confusing with a combination journal entry, where there are a number of debits and but one credit, 
or vice versa, when the word "sundries" is used. This because the debit of a combination journal entry 
comes first, and thereafter a number of credits, yet the total of the journal entry (which is the amount for 
the debit entry), stands at the last and therefore the debit is posted last, as will be seen from the illustra- 
tion reproduced. 

Stevin is the first of the writers mentioned in this book to use combination journal entries with the 
word "sundries." We have seen that Mainardi has combination journal entries or journal entries with 
more than one debit and more than one credit, but he does not use the word "sundries." 

In the ledger it will be noted that the first entries, or the opening balances on some of the accounts, 
bear the date of "0 January." The use of the cipher at the beginning of the year, he says is absolutely 
necessary, because the books are opened on neither December 31st nor January 1st. It is a period in be- 
tween these two. He explains this with the illustration that the first rung is not the beginning of the 

The date in the ledger is repeated before each entry, instead of following the Italian method of using 

the words "a di detto," which mean "the day of the above month," because he says the date to which 

"ditto" refers may be several pages back and therefore hard to read at first sight. 


Unlike Pacioli, Pietra and Yuipyn, Stevin uses definite headings for his ledger accounts, and is the 
first one to use tl»«- ttrms ' debit" and "credit" instead of "dee dare" and "dee kavere." He puts the 
year on top of the page, and he balances his ledger accounts by making a sub-total. Closing entries do 
not go through the journal. Profit and loss account is written up at the end of the year, and also at the 
close of particular transactions, and while Stivin does not give a trial balance, in his descriptions he speaks 
very particularly of the same, and describes how to prepare it. While in his illustration he credits a legacy 
to the profit and loss account, in his text he admonishes the reader to put it to the capital account, giving 
his specific reasons for it. Cash entries are journalized in daily totals. He maintains a separate cash 
book in which the receipts are put on the debit and the disbursements on the credit, the same as they would 
be found in the ledger if it were a ledger account. He also explains that this looks as if it were double 
work but it is not, as it is not the bookkeeper's work to keep a cash book, but the cashier's. He further 
argues that because the bookkeeper is sometimes also the cashier, that fact should not alter the rule. He 
has a separate cash book for petty expenses, in which to enter small items which are posted to the ledger 
only once a month, in order to lessen the number of entries. 

About the reconcilement of differences between bookkeepers, cashiers, treasurers and others, he claims 
that these variations are due to the different closing periods of accounts and reports by the various officials, 
and requires that they be preserved by writing their full detail in the journal and making a reference of 
the same on the ledger account affected. Stevin says that as the head bookkeepers through these recon- 
cilements would discover entries which belonged to a period previous to the date of their discovery and 
their entry in the journal, that the current date on which the entry is made in the journal should be used 
in that book, but that in the explanation the original date should be used (we now use "as of date" so and 
so) . But he warns his readers that when posting these entries to the ledger, the original date and not the 
journal entry date should be used. He advises that trial balances be taken in February, May, August, and 
November, which are customary mercantile due dates, which in turn will lead to a settlement of many 
accounts and will make this work easy and light. Furthermore, it will give data and statistics upon which 
the merchants can base their buying, selling, and credit budgets for the future. He advises that the 
Italian method of bookkeeping is so adapted to expansion that whereas before but one bookkeeper could be 
employed, under the double-entry system any number of bookkeepers can be used, for, if the work becomes 
too much for one man the system should be revised so as to provide for controlling accounts. This means 
to post in totals only, so that one sub-division can be given to a bookkeeper to be controlled by one head 
bookkeeper, who deals in totals only. 

As to the cash book, it is used because it obviates the making of numerous journal entries every day, 
thus shortening the work greatly. He fully illustrates this, and transfers the totals of the cash book to 
the ledger by journal entries, preferably monthly. 

Stevin provides a double column in the ledger account for merchandise. In one of these he puts the 
weights and measures, and insists that they be balanced also. He says that in his illustrations he made 
them come out even, although he admits that that very seldom happens. The result, however, would be 
the same, for the balance to be carried to the new ledger or to be used in "the statement of affairs" would 
be based upon the weight, and whatever is over or short, as far as weight and measure is concerned, would 
automatically adjust itself in the profit and loss. 

He objects to the name of "memorial" as used in the Latin countries for the day book, stating that 
"memorial" is a book of memoranda (things to be remembered), whereas the day book is used to write in 
roughly the daily transactions preparatory to journalizing them. This he calls a blotter. He draws a 
line between each journal entry from one side of the book to the other side of the book, through all the 
standing lines and columns. He explains that this line is necessary, because some entries cover several 
pages. (How we accountants wish some bookkeepers would make journal entries with explanations pages 

Stevin says it is customary to ascertain once a year what the profit or the loss of the business has been. 
This is what he calls "balancing" or "making a statement of balance" or "ascertaining of capital." For 
this purpose, he advises to "add together cash and merchandise on hand and actual accounts receivable, 
deduct therefrom the accounts payable ; the difference is net capital provided the accounts receivable are 
all good. The difference between the net capital of last year and this year is the profit or loss for the 
year. ' ' According to Stevin, the making of a statement of affairs was not done concurrently with the clos- 
ing of the books, the latter being done only when a new ledger is opened or where the merchant retires 
from business or dies. 

To prove his profit and loss arrived at through the making of a statement of affairs as above explained, 
he makes up a profit and loss account, which he calls "proof statement." Therefore, his profit or loss is 
ascertained first from the balance sheet, and in order to prove whether that is correct, he builds a profit 
and loss account. How few modern bookkeepers and young accountants understand this principle today ! 

It will be seen from the reproduction of his financial statement and profit and loss account, that the 
profit and loss statement is just as it would appear in the ledger account if these entries were really posted 
to a ledger account as we do today. The balance sheet therefore represents an unposted journal entry, 
whereas the profit and loss account shows the result of a posted journal entry. In this Stevin is of course 

Stevin makes the statement of affairs a mathematical problem rather than the result of debits and 
credits. He adds and subtracts, but does not reason where "proprietorship begins and ends," as he does 
with all other journal entries. Hence, the entries comprising the closing of the ledger and the profit and 
loss account should not be in the journal (he reasons), as the making of such entries is only done when pro- 
prietorship is affected. They are merely the bringing together to a conclusion of net proprietorship or 
net capital. 


He further explains that the ledger must always be in balance because of the mathematical rule of 
' ' equal amounts added to equal amounts must give equal totals. ' ' 

In closing the ledger, Stevin transfers the balance of the various accounts direct to other accounts in 
the ledger without the aid of journal entries, and calls it often "by slote" the Dutch, and sometimes "per 
solde ' ' the Italian for ' ' in order to close. ' ' He puts his assets and liabilities into the capital account, and 
his profit and losses in the profit and loss account. He finally closes all accounts by closing the profit and 
loss account into the capital account. As the difference between present assets and liabilities or net pro- 
prietorship must be equal to the capital at the beginning of the year, plus or minus the current profits or 
losses, the entering of the present assets and liabilities in his capital account is an unnecessary duplica- 
tion, except it be to effect a closing of all ledger accounts and using the capital account for this purpose 
as a clearing account. 

Stevin explains this method by saying that other writers, and especially the Dutch writer Bertholomi 
de Rentergem, have in the rear of their ledgers a "balance account," (as Pietra and Ympyn) into which 
they close their ledger accounts. This, Stevin says, is built from a journal entry made in the old journal. 
This entry is also posted in reverse order in the new ledger from the journal entry in the old journal. This 
method Stevin does not like. He says these writers when opening their first journal and ledger, in the 
beginning of a new business, start with an inventory (see Pacioli and others), but in subsequent ledgers 
he says they do not do this, and there they call it a balance account. Why not be consistent, he pleads, 
and open each subsequent journal and ledger with an inventory ? He dislikes the balance account method 
evidently so very much that he wants to get away from it as far as he can, and thus he dumps it all into 
the capital account, because, he adds, "the result is exactly the same." 

Stevin gives an exhaustive chapter about the settlement of partnership affairs. He states that if all 
the partners are active and were conducting a portion of the business in various cities on the principle of 
branch stores, each partner should keep a separate set of books, very much the same as the method he ex- 
plains for consignments or traveling agents, and at headquarters or at one of the branches there should 
be a joint bookkeeper, whose duty it is to deal in totals, so that each partner may know where he stands in 
relation to the others. If only one partner is active, this partner should keep the books. 

He learned in one instance, as very likely modern accountants will learn from time to time, that a 
good merchant, no matter how illiterate he is or how ignorant he may be about bookkeeping, usually can 
tell very accurately whether the accountant's financial statement and bookkeeping results are correct. 
Stevin was called in to adjust the affairs between a number of partners, of a large partnership. The five 
active partners were residents of the cities of Venice, Augsburg, Cologne, Antwerp, and London, where 
they conducted branch establishments of the firm. One of these partners had not kept any books. Stevin 
was finally induced by this partner to visit him and to write up a full set of books of all the transactions 
of the partnership which he could find, and thus ascertain the financial settlement between the partners. 
This he did, after considerable labor. The particular partner who had kept no books, however, objected to 
the settlement, because it was £300 less than he figured was coming to him. To prove this, he stated that 
they had no assets or liabilities of any kind, having liquidated the business ; therefore he said : " If I de- 
duet my disbursements from my receipts, and add to the balance what is due me from the others, the total 
must be my portion of the profit." Stevin agreed with him that this was right, and the set of books was 
discarded and a settlement made upon the argument of the partner who was ignorant as far as bookkeep- 
ing was concerned. From this experience Stevin determined upon the following rule: when called in to 
make a partnership settlement, he would demand three things: first, the amount each partner has re- 
ceived more in cash than he paid, or what he paid more than he received ; second, the difference between 
presently existing accounts receivable and accounts payable, to which he added the cash and merchandise 
on hand; third, what the agreement was between the partners as to divisions of profits and losses. He 
illustrates the application of this rule by the following example : 

A paid more than he received by £2,000 

B received more than he paid by 4,000 

C paid more than he received by 3,000 

The net assets, or the difference between accounts receivable and payable, added to the 
cash and merchandise on hand, amounted to £7,000 

Each partner was to receive one-third of the profits or stand one-third of the losses. He then puts up 
the following account : 

Partnership Debit. Partnership Credit. 

Due A £ 2,000 Due from B £ 4,000 

Due C 3,000 Net assets 7,000 

Total due A and C £ 5,000 £11,000 

Net profit 6,000 

Total £11,000 


As of above profit oue-third is due to each of the partners, each partner's account would stand as follows i 

Due A as per above £2,000 

Plus one-third of the profits 2,000 

Due C as per above £3,000 

Plus one-third of the profit* 2,000 

Due from B as per above £4,000 

Less one-third of the profits 2,000 




Net assets . £7,000 

Those of us who have read the numerous involved court cases on partnership settlement, certainly 
must admire Stevin 's ingenuity. 

Consignment accounts, which Pacioli calls traveling accounts, are more thoroughly described in this 
work. Stevin thinks it wrong to debit consignment account and credit merchandise, when the goods are 
shipped on consignment, because the test when to make an entry is "the beginning and the end of pro- 
prietorship." lie says it would be foolish to debit a clerk and credit merchandise when a clerk takes 
goods from a cellar or warehouse to the store or from one part of the store to another. And he feels that 
consignment is a transaction of a similar nature, with only a greater distance between the places of stor- 
age, lie states if we want to keep track of these consignment transactions, it should be by way of memo- 
randa but not in the regular books. Like Pacioli, he wants the traveling man or consignee to keep books 
on the double-entry system and report sales at convenient times, these reports to be entered in a separate 
journal and ledger until there is "a beginning and an end of proprietorship." It is important to note 
that Stevin very seldom uses the word ' ' capital, ' ' but substitutes the word ' ' proprietorship ' ' throughout. 

All the way through, Stevin uses as a test for the making of a journal entry "the beginning and end 
of proprietorship." Thus, when goods arrive in the warehouse, that is the beginning of proprietorship, 
and that account is not touched again, as far as the journal and ledger are concerned, until the goods have 
left proprietorship through consumption. So, if a barrel of beer were received from the brewer, it would go 
into the warehouse account or the merchandise account, and there remain until finally the butler on one of 
the war vessels would distribute it to the sailors, when it would be charged out to them. In the interim, how- 
ever, the warehouse has sent it to a small ship, which brings it to the ocean, there it is transferred onto a 
transport, and probably is transferred on the ocean two or three times from one steward 's warehouse on one 
ship to another steward's warehouse on another, until it finally reaches the war vessel upon which it is 
consumed. While he urges the necessity of following this barrel of beer from place to place, he states that 
this should be done only in memorandum accounts and not in the general ledger. 

Equally insistent he is on the reissue of tools used in the construction of fortifications, canals and 
buildings, or on the farms and in the field. He says that tools are first purchased, issued to one particular 
piece of work and then returned to the warehouse and used in other places and transferred from place to 
place until finally worn out. All of this he feels should be carefully recorded but not in the general ledger. 

As to the wages, he very carefully explains that a wages or pay roll account avails one nothing. The 
wages he says should be carefully distributed to each department for which they are incurred, exactly the 
same as we have seen Pietra does. He first distributes his wages, as he distributes all his supplies, to 
definite departments. Thus he says we can arrive at true costs. This method he uses also in checking up 
the supply house and the cook, for he instructs the cook, as we have seen, to give a record of the daily 
meals served in order to check the pay roll, and he checks the cook by instructing the warehouse men to 
figure out the cost of the meals per man. Thus he says, if the cost per meal is considerably higher than the 
average, and the pay roll agrees with the meals served, then the warehouse man has either made an error 
or stolen some goods. 

In this connection, he provides a perpetual inventory, in which each kind of merchandise has two 
columns, one for the receipts or ' ' ins ' ' and one for the disbursements or the ' ' outs. ' ' He balances each 
column when new goods arrive, then counts what is left, and adjusts his books to the actual count. 

Gifts of merchandise, lie states, must be valued, for three reasons : first, in order to be able to ascer- 
tain actual expenses and consumption of merchandise for each department ; second, the proprietor should 
know at all times for how much he is obligated to others ; third, in order to know exactly the actual capital 

In municipal accounting, he urges that the ledger of any year be held open until at least the end of 
the next year, to prevent heavy transcribing, very much the same as is done now with some tax rolls. 

Stevin in instructing his bookkeepers in the municipal department, tells them to use the words "debit" 
and ' ' credit ' ' in the explanation of each journal entry, thus making it a little plainer to the uninitiated in 
the terms of bookkeeping. From the illustrations it will be noted that he does not do so in mercantile 
bookkeeping, but only uses the term "debit." 

What the writer has said in praise of Stevin should not be interpreted as meaning that he considers 
Stevin 's system perfect or even as perfect as we have today, for in many respects, it is not. But the writer 
believes that Stevin has left his unmistakable stamp on modern American methods. It would be interest- 
ing to study the earliest American financial books and ledgers in order to establish that through the Dutch 
settlers of New Amsterdam (now New York) Stevin 's ideas were brought to America, rather than by way of 
England through Dafforne, who we will see further on in the book, failed to translate to the English lan- 
guage many of Stevin 's ideas. 


D O m" e" I N E 

Mette CONTREROLLE en ander bchouften vandien. 
't Welck. M 

Verclai'ing vanghemeene l^egel, tvaerdeur ver- 

bo'etworden die dbujfen mette fwariihedcn ujtte fetve [pruytende, die- 
men tot nocb toe up gee n T^ktncamers van Dometne en Fitiante 
hee } t connen wertn. 
Wefende Oeffeninghen dcs Doorluchtichften Hoo^ftghe- 
boren Vorft en HeereMAVRITS by Gods Ghc- 
nade Prince van Orange, &c. Ho: Loff: Mcmorie. 

Bcfthreren deur SI MON STEV1N van Brugghe, in fi jn Icvendcj Hooghghemelten Hceic 
PRINC IN Superintendent vande Finance, &c. Xo uyi fijn naghclaten 
Hantlchnftcn by ten gheftelt deur Gin Soon HENDRICK 
STEV1N Ambachttheerevan Alphen. 

TOT i t T D "E N 

Tcr Druckcryo Tan IVSTVS LIVIVS, 
In't tireede laer des Vredes. 





Roofe gemaeckt op denlaet/len December 1600. 

Staet of capitacl debet. 

ttr Atrnottt Itttbt fel. 14 51.8.0. 

M.t/1 d't"t bur jfftilt bjfiott 
ytmitftn ' - J 140. 9.1. 

Sommc 5 191 . 17.I. 

S net ot capitacl credit. 

Ptrnetenjol.j - 17} -fg 5 one. tot 

7R'tfont,tomt - - 60. If. X 

Per ftferfol. 7 • 120 f& tot 40 fl 

'tpont, tomt - - • - 20. 0. 0. 

Ver Oman it Srvartefol. 9 . - 515.12.0. 

Per Adrian) dt Winter fol. n- 150. Co, - 448. 0.0. - 54.18.$. 

Ptrcafftfol. 19 - - - i 944 . 7.5, 

limine j 19 1 . 17. 1. 

Sulcx dat Debiteurs.met gereet gelt en waren.hier 
meer bedragen dan Crediteurs voor vveerde des 
capitaels op den lactftcn van December 1 6"oo - 3 140.9. it 

Maer op den lactften December i599> of 't begin 
des jaers 1600 dat cen felvc is , was het capitacl 
vanzi5?o£3,$8§, want treckende den debet 
514 e£ °" J5>vanden credit 1667 c£ 9 $ 8 §, blijft: 
alsvooren • • • 

Welckc getrocken vande 3140 ©£9$ » §> blijft 
voor *t gene datter op dit jaer verovert is,ende in 
defc ftaet gefocht wicrt - 


987. 5- 5. 


MAer om nu te ficn of het bovefchreven vaft gaet,fo dient 
dit tot cen proef : Ick vcrgaer al de rcften der poften van 
vermccrderende of verminderende capitacl, 't welck fyn de re- 
ftcn der poften die inde voorgaende ftaetmaking nicten qua- 




men, alstottc vvcfentlickcftaetnictbchoorende: Endevvant 
de felve fyn partyen van vvinft en yerlics voorgcvallen inden tijc 
defer bouckhouding, datsfedertolanuarius 1600, vvelckeby 
aldienmen het bouck flotc ( gelijck int volgcndc 10 Hooftftick 
gedaenfal vvorden J op rekening van vvinft en verlies fouden 
comment foo moet dan daer deur oock bevonden 
vvorden van 987 ©2 5 $5§- Tot defen eindc begin ick het 
Schultbouck te overloopcn van voorcn acn , ende ontmoet my 
eerft de pofte dcr nagelen fol. 5, vvaer op ick vvinft bevinde van 
75. 4.7. daer na ontmocten my noten enandergoeden, als hier 
oiavoJght. Dochftaetnochtegedencken, dat ovcrfchietende 
goeden hier bcrekent vvorden ten felvcn prijfe als inden voor- 
gaenden ftaet , om dat vvy nemen haer vvcerde foo te vvefe^ 
vvildcmen in d'een en dander nefnen den prijs verandert te zijn, 
men foudet oock meugen docn. 

Winft en verlies debet. 

Per onccflen van coomfebap fol. 16 - 57. 7.0. 
Per omojien vanden buyfe fol. 16 - 107. 10.0. 

Somme I 64. 1 7-0. 

Kifi credit aljprtuffijt overtencom- 
mtnde mette voorgaendt rekt- 
ninghiergtflcltperfolde - - 987.5.5. 

Somme 1 152.2.5. 

VVinft en verlies credit. 

Per w'mjl op nagelen fol. 5 - . 75.4.7. 
Verwinfl of noten fol.f - • 109. 7. 2. 
Vtr vvinjl of peftt fol. 7 - • 18.19.0. 
Vcr vvirfl op gimberfol. 9. - - 41. 8.4. 
Fir rekening vanvvinfl en verlies 

( wiens pojle te gedeniken n dat 

ten tijde defer vverckingin debet 

alleenelick hadde tyvee parly en, te 

we ten van 1 00 ^ en 1 2 _£ 

maer in credit dne partien als 4 
o£$-4-«» tS(j£,met 1 000 
(£) fol. 19 - - - 907. J. 4. 

Somme 1 152. 2. 5. 

Nu dan het prouffijt deurdefe vvy fe pock bevonden fijnde 
van 987 c£ 5 ,# 5 1> als te vooren int (lot des ftaets, foo mach 
dit tot proef des vvercx verftrecken. 






1 1 

• f 


'tlacr 1600. 

f'tr/ibtjdtn ftrlitmd'bn ftr Ctfiiul >** mj Ditr'u\ Rjtfi 
l66j "9? 9 JJ 8 J9 , itn i*t itk^tmynutmitm it- 
It flirt Ydxptt Kulrrndt , mj lnyttdtn htbbt In tt bf 
bttrtn it mtytlttndt ftrtitn V**%tlt ■ yy ttrtn tnfcbtditn: 
E-dt ttrfi I 

Ctfft inftrtdnjild* • - - 

N^tli* 4 4^/fn yrrgtmJt 
*° J * 8 7 - '■" >'~\ 

4 . 85' for 1 . 1 . /**<* 3 lore' MfcMl oJ> tftnLcmt 
7- 91 1/4/ 1 of 

J 10 tff '•* 9 jj ''/">'• "»« 

1,4; far 4. g. 
NM 4 4*/ffl yytgndt 
■09- 79 »«i.4-"\ 

6.84 »«•!.!.>«** 

8- 80far 1.6. 3 


Piprr j 4h/«i yytynit 
»°9 - lJOfar 1.0.^ 
10-160 far 1.0. f.V«7 S S-flf /e/jofl 
11 - 154 far 1.0./' 

764 far 6.0. 

Gimbtr 5 4/»/« yytgtndt 
»° 4 - 166 far 1.0A 
4 • liofar 1.0. 1 
«-ii8farioA NW|194 

7- 16 4 far 10. 1 

8- 1(6 <-ir J.o.J 

'//mo rc«K 

f£M/^a$''^*•' ,/ »" ,,, ' 

I 304V.Tr 10 o. 

H« navolgcndc fyn Debiteurs getrocken uyt 
de voo rfch rcvcn ftact. 
^tdrUtndtfVtnltrytrfebjntndtS limiiui6co. - 
Pitltrdt ryitttvtrfchjnmlt io/«niM 1600. - - 

latijKts it Smtr ytrfibyntoit 1 Mxr/iw 1 60 j. - - 


CdfitMfl »*» mjDitrit\ t\»ftdtbttptr ytrfibtjitnCniittm- 
m. at it yytlekt i{ my ttn ynrnttmitidff ittr it WW- 
fchrt*tnjl«tm*\i»ll>t*i»<tt ftbMch ltfont*h Wx&f t 

Urn Xcirtt rtrfcbjnmlt rlr* yM*trlt\t03. 

D4*ilHftliytrfibynmititniMtytt6oo, - ■ - 

AemtHt Uetbt y'ttfchyntnit im 1 o Jpril 1 600. - - 


D 1 


































't Iaer 1600; 

Onctflen V*n ttimfchap debit ptr ctffe , den lit tat! I iWi/r 
maent van Fibrnarim blijcliinde by 'I memtriail Van dien 

Onctflen vandtn huyfe debet per caji , dear betaelt in deft 
maent Van Februarim blijcJtende by '/ memoriaelvan dien 

lacquei deSomer debet per nagelen , deur dat iclt^ an hem yer* 
ctcht beb i balen te betalen binntn. 2 mamde'n, vvegende 


Ktten debet per Davit Roth, deur dat ic\ Van hemgicttbt beb 

3 b»len te betalen binntn 3 matndin, vvegende 
»° 4-70/ar 1. o" 








■ — 

■■ "» 








■ 6 



■ 6 




■ ■ ■ 











~~ 1 2 Meye. 

- 70 tar 1 . o."\ 
-80 Mr 1. 0. ? 
■ %itar 1.0.J 

N« J 38 -f£ tit 8 rt 'tpttt, am 

241 (.ir 3. o. 

Onctflen van Ctomfihap debet per caffi , denr betaelt in drfe 
maent van Matrte blijcltendt by 't memoriae! van dien 

Omofttn Vandi huyfe debet per cafftjeur betaelt in dejt maent 
Van Maerte blijcltende by 'I memeriaet van dien - • 

Caff idebet ptr nagelen.dtur dat ic\ anion! vcrwcht beb X ba- 
len an lofrp Sander 1 VVtgendt 
„o 4. 861 tar 1. l."\ 

iy 7 itari.i. 

Gimber debet per cajfe , deurdat ,c{<cntant getocht htb 3 ba- 
len van Ltuyi Ianfi, VVtgendt 
I," 1 4 • 264 tar 2, o ."\ 

1 5 - 270 tar 2. o. > Kit 794 ^ tut jo £ 'tftnt . 
16. x&itari. o.J 
• 8oo/<rr6. o. 

Onctflen Vancttmfchap debet per cajfe , deur betaelt indtfe 
maent April blijc^ende by '/ mtmtriatl van dtm- ■ r — 

Onctflen van den bay ft debet percafjfe, dear betaelt in defe 
maent van April blijc^ende by 'I mtmtriatl Van dien - 

Davit Rjets debet per Omaer de Svvartt , dear dat ic\ Davit 
geafligneert beb van Omaer t'ontfangen in VtUt bttalingh 
Van dies idtpavitfchuldicbbin.veryaUendedm 2 Matr- 
te 1 600, en in mindering Van diet my Omaer fcbuldich it, 
VcivaUende 6 Meye 1600 






















• 31 





Kd^ilin x *«/«• yyritnle r 

•« II -90/4TI. o. \ 

h- 8»im, i. o. fNeti76i#totio£'t font - 

relynd, f*rtj„ „ btultn bimmm , m m ^J t _ ..ZJ>*"" " ■ ** 

178 i«i. o. 1 
film 1 btienyyitjide 
■• ii-8tfteri.8. 

I J- 86 »*T 1.8. \ ., 




Pieter de mtm debet per rtr/ihejden pdrtien, dn hem yereeebt It be 

■ Ultn binmtn e yyelten, en eerjl : 
Cimber 8 bdlen yyqendt 
«° 4 - 166 to 1 
{ • 160 tdr *.o. 
6 - ifS tdr 1.0. I 
7-I64 tdr j.o. 
8-ij6 I4r l.o. 
14 - 164 to J.o. I 
1 J • 170 tdr 1.0. 
lit iC6t*r 1.0 . 

iio{/«r 16.0. 

Ns</» 7 (We* yyegendt 
10 '4- 79 Mr 1. oA 

j • 80 Mr 1.0. I 

6-8iMr 1.0.I 

9-79'«"M / 
7- 81 Mr 1.4 
3 - 84 ur 
8-8.0 Mr 



566 Mr 8.0. 


Cuffi dibtt per Om.ur Ht Srrdrtt, yxn hem tut/tun in mindermg Ma 
't ytr/thtnen den 6 Meye 1 600 

Im KcirM debet per Cdffi, tin htm betdtlt in mmdtrin^ ydn't rer/che^ 
nen den 7 Mdtrlt ■ 600 

Jlerntul Itctbt debet per ujfe , an htm betdtlt in minderingb run 
't yer/ibenen den 1 o April 1 600 - - 

Onctflen ytm cttmfekip debet per cdfle, deur betdtlt in deft mdtnt ran 
'Mrjebl'ntlttndeby't memviael yon dim 

Onttjien yanden hnyfe debet per Cdfe , deur betdtlt in defe mdent ym 
Miyt Htjdiendt by '/ mtmnidel »<m dien 

Cdjjt dibit pet Idcenti dtSomer, ><n hem ml fun in minderingh rtn 
'/ rtrfehenen den 1 Mdtrte 1 600 















■ 6 







Onccjlm yandm hny/i dibit prr tafft , diur bil.xdi in it ft. mains van 
lunimblifclitndtby'tmtmoriatl van dim 



Atrntut Ucihl dtltt frr cafft ,an htm btUtll inyoticnun^hvan 
'I ytrfiham dm 1 o jtftU 1 600 - 

Oncol} in yon Cetmfcbap dibit pir cafft dna biiatit in At ft m.xtnt tan 
Imitu blijeltrndtby'lmimtriattyandiin 

Omdtr dt Svvurtt dibit fir ytrfchtydm parti tn . an htm vtrccchttt 
bttalm binnm 1 mamdm, diigttiyirt \ijn in handm tin ^tndriti 
Cerfjyn FaHtur.En dat dim lafl yandm yoirfclirivin Omatr.blijc- 
\mdi byfyn mUftvi yandm 1 6 Innint 1 600 : En tin ttrjltn 

Pipit 3 balm VVtgmdt 

n" 9 - 150 tar. 1. o "\ 

xo. xio tar. 1.0. V^etnsS-fStot 36 il'tpont. 

n- If a tar. i.o. J ' ■> e I 

764 tar. 6. o. 
Tiitm » balm vytgtndt 
»o • 3 -J6 tar. 1 . 8.1 »t r. • 

m - sa >«•... 8 . f N » '7i mtot 10 $ tpont - 

W tar. j. o. 

Jiagtlm 1 balm Vrtgmdt 

n°it- 9 otar. »-o.\ Nw l?6 a# m ,j R'tpont 
II - 83 tar. I.O.J ' •> U> I 

tyStar. 1.0. 














Cajft dibit pir Vtrfihrydtnptrfmmm, yanhtmlitn entfatn girttt gilt 

all might. 
Adriam dtVVinttr in mindiring yon ytrfchmtn 8 tar* 1 tfoo 
Pilttr dtJ'rittt in vollt bitaling yanl ytrfchmtn 10 luliu 1 600 
PitlrrdtfVttteinmindiringyan'tytrfibtnmdin 5 lulius 1 600 
la«jDtl dt Stmtr myotlt btlalmgtant ytrfchmtn 1 M<v/. 1600 
/« ;«m rf* jsmrr hi mindtring yant ytrfchnm 7 Mtjt 1600 


Ptrftbrjdmprrficnm dibit fir cajfr, an btmlitn bilathgirttt gill ah 

Vtlght : 
UtiUmitinytJltbttaUngyan't ytrfchmtn 7 Mrfrr/f 1 600 - 
Davit Hfili 'ft ytrfchmtn dm 18 ' 1 600 
*4tm»t laebitptyrrfchatndm ioUniia \6oo 


















Z>4W« Hfib dibit pir cafft, an him bitatlt in vldimingh van 't vtr- 
fibmm dm xt Ittnim 1 600 

MM itbtt pir caffi. dtnr dat ic\gtcocht htb 3 balm gtrttt gttt vvt- 
gtndtntt 1 acfj} ret 7 fy'tpmt - 










■ s 

■ 8 
• 8 



■ 8 



t Jaer i <Joo. 

Piyrr <M»* /w attrm.dtmr dat itlrttmanielt htb mmAniriu Ciatfi. 

all yUlu I 
Prpw i lo ft?'«/ 40 & V f«f bjAmdr'ut Ctatfi. art my ftlfprrt. 

tirnt - - - - 
W« 66 fg> tl tatta IM 6 g ' 1 ftnt , 4< k^ an jtnitin filaefi. 

gtlt>ert M, cm* - 





J^r^ming >»»->»;nfJ <a ytrliel debet ftr eaffi . demr dmi u\met C a- 
tlint mum dtemijmjnbl ten lm»tlu\t regeyen litbbe 

1 00 



Prrfchrydia fartiea debet fer Aeraaat Jafbf\. dtmr dat nit ran hem 

tflukl btbbt lOOO Cf* '! burtflmim- 1 * ten himdert l'p,eri , en 

du y—r tm aunt ,yy aer afde yeijcbeyden ftriien dafdanieh \ma: 
CaJJe dtmr tUt uli >mm htm tatfam btbbt it btye/cbrtyea hacfifunmt 

yam - - 
Rjtti nwi yaa yymfi m ytrliti dear dim dm intriil der btfe/cbreym 

bitfijtmmt tf eta putnl bedtttihi ... 




• Oil 


lacaati de Stmtr debet fee rer/tbrjdtn pnrtien , dtmr dot ir^iniji- 

Iftm htb 5 oo -£ >f tniiili tejm ■ leu buiderl t'fiatrs , ta dtt 

vttr etnvurnt, yratr afde ytrfibtydtn fartita da/danieh \mn : 

Caffidtardat iclrhemgeielt htbbtde beytjcbrtym hnftfimme yarn 

Hfleeaiag raa yyiafi tm ytrlitt , demr Jim den inter tii der btye/tbre. 

VM huj'ifimmt if tm mami btdratcbl - » 





■ s 

Adtiatadt fainter debt! ftrytrfilmtjdm fart ten 180—^ dtmt dat 
hj yaamytntfata httftif yyifftt ioo,_ g fietrliax ft J3 (I 
bet f tat, btdr amende 1 65 ,-£.*"> 4" v*mtm it bttalm am Omaer 
drSvrartebmnex Uaaea tf tvyte mtindrr. maficht.htl fnlfetr- 

hmxg'itlttnt if 36 J), yyarr afde ytr/chejJm f art tm dafdaaich 

CaJJe dear dat hj yaa mj tnlfata httfl de U re/ihreyem ftrame yarn 
r\el{tm«l yaa yyimflm yerliei.demr dam de yyiffil yaa j -il teftmde 

ifde icO -J^fleerluicxbtdrattbi ... 







Aetntmt l*ttbf\ debet Jtr cjfe,an htm btlatll caller yerfihimu MM 
dea it Srftember 1600 - ... 

101 1 

1 1 

Caffi debtlftr retimta} yaa yyiafi m ytrliti, dtargrtrft It hebbta hei 
jfttmitai Otmi • - 




C'!f' debet fir laeamti de Scmer , yam htm tntfamdatteryerfibmm 
yr.uden loOHobir 1600 - - 


E Omaer 




1 1 



't Iaer \6oo. 

Omm it SfVMtt lot Lcmten debet per ^driirn di Printer, dent d»t 
hy tear my entfaen htrft cp rrijffel vanden/elvcn *Adri.\cn , Uijc- 
leende by fyn febryven. - 





Onctjien "van cccmfcb.ip deiet per cnjfe.dettr betaelt indt maenden Vti» 
Inliu, JhihJIm, September, 03<,btr , Kfeml/er , tn December, 
btijcltende by t memcrrhel Iran dim - 




nc'-Penfmdeiibuyfe debet per eeiffe deur betttlt inde mtenden ttm 
lu'.im, ^lt<g»jhK,Septembe>,OH<iber,lii>T>ember,e>i December, blije- 
fyndeby't memorial yandien - - 


Mercktdatdcfe twee lactfte paction van oncoftcn 
foudenna 'tgemeen gcbruyck vcrdcelt bchoorcn te 
vvotden ten einde van ydci maent , fod veel op elcke 
vicl : Doch all'oot vergctcn vvas> ick en hebt niet vvil- 
len vcrfchryven, te meet dattct inde dace fomvvylen 







Capitael debet. 'tIaeri6oo. 

Pit ytt/thtjit* ptrtint ... 

Ptrimtmfil. J , Aiir dtlin intl, flAtimt\i*z htytntt* Vl"'7i flf 

5 mtt*,*»yymiitb 7 fi 'iftmt, ttr*t - . 

Pnptptrfil. 7. dmr dtiln tniitJlAtlmtliMi btmitu \ij* 1 10 fQ 

ma yytttiitb 40 A 'tp**t, ctmt 
Pm Ommv it Srrtrtt ytrfthjmmlt it* 4 Stpttmbtr t* 1 4 Dtttm- 

btr 1 600 fit. 9 .... 

Ptrjtiruit* it FVUtn yttfihy*t*it At* 8 <Ww 1 600 fil. 1 1 

Okm. I Pit Pittnit Wutt ytrfAjmnit it* j Miat 1 600 jit 1 1 
Dma. PtTlsnmtitSmimytrfdijnnitinjiiitytitoofil. I| 

!>«»». Ptitf/jiftl. 19 - ... 




I'll « 





■ 1 


























Caflc debet. 

PtftmfitttlfU. J 


Pit Om.'.tr it Srnfttftt. 9 

Pit Intents it Stmtrftl. ■ j 

Ptr ytrfibtyit*pn>tit» 

















Nagelcn debet. t Iaer 1600. 

Prrcnpilnrlfil. } . . 
Pit Jlnmut Inctbiftl. i { ... 


Ptrrt{t*!*x ><o» yyinflm ytrlitsfot. i 9 »«r gtfltllty 
JI*iy*ait/t»,yyt/mitpTt*fl*tip unpin - - 





















Noten dcbct> 't Iaer i (Jop. 

Ptrtnpilntlftl. j • - 
P/r DrfW/ Hftltfil. 11 
PttAmunt Inctlisftl. if - 
Ptrenjftfil. 19 


Prr wfyniag >/«» »f»/7 »i) vttlinftl. 1 9. kittyjltii ty yn* tltjin. yytfinitpnnjiijt tp *tit* 














J 00 






Capitacl credit. 

'titer 1600. 

Permrfihfydtnfisrtin . . 

Ptr AemtntUubttttfihynendeien jo tmitu 1600 fit, 1 4 • 

Pn reining fan »/»3 Mutt lie f fit. 1 8 . . . 













3 = 
























Caffe credit, 'tlaer 160c 

Ptrenu$en><Lncotmfib»ffil.i6 . 

Per enetflea vnnden hnyfi fit. 16 

Prrtnttflmynncotmfclxiffil. j<J . . 

Per tnctften yundtn hujji fit. 1 6 
Pergimberfit.8 . . 

PemmtHmyimenmfihdffil.16 « 

Per 6acijir»V4nden huyfefil. 16 . . . . . 

PttAmntUabtfit.n . ;. 

Perciitiift'emritncttm/fhaffil.16 - j 

Pw cneeftfn fm Jen hnyfifil. 1 £ 
Per Aepientldttbs fit. 14 • . 

Pertneijleo ><w ettm/chnffit. 1 5 
Perenceflrn Tranden hnyfifil. 16 • y, 

Per Vfrfchiyden firtien - . . 

Pw At W< t\eelifil. 1 4 

Pet JUt *tm de/hfi en e>'ttlfdr4tfn in debet fit. 1 8 



Nagelcn credit, 't Iaer 1600. 

Per Intones de Strnerfit. I X 

Petfjjifnl. 4 

JVr Oimv <// Srr4itefi[. 8 





oe 1 












1411 4 




I o 

104 16 

■ O 

■ M 

■ 14 




No tea credit, 't Iaer 1 6 oo. 





Per Pitttr dePtfttt fit. to 

PerOmnerdc Syr arte fit. 3 
Prrfeftrfil. 6 • • 




Per cnfitneffil. » «/«)• dntter indtjIitttnHkjngbeHim- 
dtn \ijn 1 7 3 -fl? 5 •»«» ■•'"• . »« TrTtuduh 7 ft 








1 1 





1 1 









,^^ . 


Peperdebet. tIaei»6oo. 


PtftrfpHtlfit. j . - 
Ptrmitmfil. y ... 


■ 10 




Pt/n\t*i*% >«• »mH t» ynlfifti. i r,,kiirffl'h tj 
y*.»f *A*drfm, Ittjtmit fr—jfwl 7/Y* ■ ■ 


»7 8 










Gimbcr debet, 't Iacr 1 600. 

PeretfiUrlfil. j - - 
Ptrt*fftfU.% .... 


Ptrrt^fntu^>tm >vi*Jltn*trlitifil. ig.hitrttjltltbj 
flit fan dtftn t>t/imltfriii]fijt ty^imbtr - - 












Omaer de fVvarte debet. 

tlaer 1600. 

Prr tifiutlvtrftbyttmit 6 Mrjt 1 690 fit. ) 

P" ttt(thtjdrnfdrtun vnfchjnmdt 4 ,S>p<. 1 600 

Prr jtitimn dt W"i*ttrf rnjplftl. ■ 1 


. 100 


■ 8o 


■ 1 




Adriaen dc Whiter debet, 't laer :6oo. 

Ptr csfitttl Vtr/thjnmctt 8 Itanm 1 Coo fit. 3 - 

Pit -mfihtjAtH fat in vtrfehjmmdt 1 mttudm n.tfcht dti yyijfil 
Mtfi • .... 











Peper credit, 't Iaer 1600. 


Pir cafiuelfil. J dtur A Attn indefldetnu\i»^teYc»- 
dm vj» 1 *o -fSt't" ' m V"^ 4° § ' font, 
come - - 













Gimber credit. 

PnPittndtyvUufil. 1 e 









Omaer de S wartc credit, 't Iaer 1600. 

Per D**it Rjth eft vtrfchmtn 6 iityt 1 600 fit • 14 

Pnctfitopfrtrfchnm 6 M tyti Coofal. 4 

PtrttpUttlfil. thin Itjttltij flat ytndtfiu - 





6 9i 








Adriaen de Winter credit *t Iaer 1 600 . 

Pi r cufji tpt vnfchtnm 8 tuiiu 1 600 fit. 4 • 

Pf r Onun de S>tdrte eft ttrfekenea bin nevtnfd. 8 

PtrcufiUtlfil. 1 hitrgtjltlt bjJMtVm dtfin 















PictcrdcVVittc debit 'tIaen6oo. 

Pit nfiittl ttt/tbytndt i o Imnim i 60 a fil. j . 

Pit tti/ilxjJem ftriun vtrfihymit j Imlim I «00 









Iacques de Some r debet t Iaer 1 Ceo. 

Pit tMfiittl ytr/ibyntntit 1 Msirtt 1 6 00 fit. }. » 

PtDupltm vnfAjmtmdt 7 M{r« 1 600/1/. j - • 

Pit yttjibejdnifdrtim H kt*lt» 1 o 08tl. 1 6co 






loos Noirot debet 't Iaer 1600. 

Prtt*]fioffrtrfthmn 7 Mttrii 1600/0/. J 
Pfr t«^f iy>( Vtrfilimn 7 Mdtrlt 1 6 c o /«/. j 








Davit Roeh debit, t Iaer 1600. 

VnOmtrtii Svvjr'tcpt tirfihmtn i Mryi 1 6cc fil. 9 
Ptruffi tfi Kerftlmtn »8 /mi'w ■ (00 fit t 
Prr f<r^f «/>* ytrfihtntn x3 lwyui 1 600 fit. J 


















Acrnout Iacobs credit. Iaer 

Pr» m/7t «/» tn/ihinm 1 ^»ri/ 1 600 fil, f 
Pfr f </7? »^/ yrrfthmtit 1 ,/f »n7 1 600 fil. j 
Pit c*fft tp't Tm/ihtnin \o Ixniu 1 600 fil. % 
PtrttJJtip '1 ttrfthiom 11 JV^r. 1 600 fil. 19 

Pfr tipiiulfil. j hiirgt/ltlt tjjl.ti ttm Jrfi» 





■ 00 



1 J7« 









Picter de VVittc credit. 't lacr 1600. 

Perc/ijft tpt vtrfibenm 10 funim 1600/0/. 4 - 

Pit cajftcptvn 'fihtntn S lulitu 1600 fit. 4 

Ptrcupilatlftl. ibingPeltbyJItttydit itfet 






■ 008 







Iacqucs de Somer credit, t laer 1 600. 

Ptrtafii cptrtrfc hrntn i M,irrtri6oofi!. 4 

Ptr c*JT' tpftrfihtntni M.itrit \600fil. 4 

Ptr c*Jfi opt mjihtnm 7 Mryt 1 600 fit.' 4 • » 

Po- f <i^? «f> * Vtrjchmtn I o OUsbrit 1 too jit. 18 « 

Ptrt/pitAttfil. 1 bitritfltlt tjfttlt va dtfin 


















loos Noirot credit, t laer 1 600. 

P»r ripiW ¥trfehjatndt j Mtutt i «oo/W. a 




Davit Roels credit. 't laer 1600. 

Per mpiittl ttr/cbjfrxdt i Mtyt 1 600 fit. 1 • 

Ptrnttn ytrftljittndt 18 ln»mt 1 600 fit. 6 







Aernout Iacobs credit. t laer 

PtYiapitdtl verfchjitndt lo ^Sptit 1 600 fit. J. 
Prryrr/thtydcHpttnen vrrfchy*«nd* }0 InaitH 1 6 00 
Ptrvtrfthtydenfitriitnyicrjcbjntndt n J^>«. i«oo 




1 01 a 








Oncoften vtn Coomfchap debet, 't Iacr 1600 

IVr «/£/•/. f 
Prrttftfil. f 
Pttuffeftl. j 
Ptr f ft fit. 1 
Ptr tt ft fit. f 
Ptt tdfftfeJ. 1 1 







Oncoften vanden huyfc debet, 't Iaer 1600. 

StVnM. Ptrttftfil.% 
Mtmlt Ptr t* ft fit. ( 
jipril. Pert * ft fit. j 
U&. Ptrt*ftfil\ 
Imim. Pnttftfil.1 
Dtttm. Ptr t*Qtfil. 19 





















Cafie debet. 

tlaer itfoo. 

PtTjtmtmt Uttbftnfd. if . 

Pw framing tan vrinft en ttrUnfit. 19 

Per Uc tjuti de Stmtrjtl, i j ... 






■ oao 

















Rckening van vvinftcn verlics debet. 1600. 
Pttfiftfti.t? - .... 

Ptr jtrrntul Intel. ftnftU If 

Per tnttfltn yon ceomftbjpfel. 17 • • . 

Ptr tntejltn ytmtttn huyfifit. 17 

Ptr npittulfil. 3 titrgrjttll tyjitli ><■» Wr/m 




*" — 





• 07 










Oncoften van Codrnfchap credit, 't Iaer 1600. 

PtrrHitiiingytmyyinfitnytrlittfil. 18 hitr gifltlt bjfltttytndt 
fat - ' 






Oncoften yanden huyfc credit, 't Iaer 1600. 

Ptrrtltt*m«yiayyinJ}cnytrlirffil.i3 hitrgffltlt bjjltttymde- 

fm - - 



• 8 
J 1 










Caffc credit. 

'titer 1600. 


Ptrrtlttning y*n ytinjl tn ytrlittfiL % 8 

Par Ittcquu dt Scmrrfit, 1 x 

Ptr jlJriarn dt y Vinta fit. to 

Ptr lAtrn&ul laubtful. 14 

Ptr Oncofltn ytn cotmfchdpftl. ■ $ 

Ptr Onccfltn ymdmJuali hi. id 

Ptrctpitulfil. 1, hitrfftttt hJI't* >*> J tjm 

















— — 















Rekening van vvinft en verlies credit. 1600. 

PtrltuntidtStmtrftl. ix 
PtrAdritmdtW'mttrfil. 10 
PtryyinRop nay Unfit. 4 
Ptr y-p'nfl cp mttn fol.6 
Ptr yy inft cpptptrfit. 6 
Ptr yy inBtpiimbtrftl.* 










■ 8 








Reftanten van Hoghcnhuyfc. 









500 - - 






150- 0-0 

330 -0-0 





300 -0-0 



590*0- o 

Den fin der voorfchreven tafel is dufdahich : Ghenomcn 
d'eerfte vijf jaren van 'velen , dattet houden der contrerolle 
gheduert heeft j tewefen van 1611. 1612. 1613.1614.1615. 
Hier af fijn vijf colommen, voorelckjaers befonder contre- 
rolle een : Noch fijn op den cant gheftelt dcrghelijcke vijf ja- 
ren, haer anvvijfingh doende opelckder relren daernevens 
ftaende > vvaer af 'tghebruyck dufdanich is. 

Ghenomen datmen na het jacr 1615 wil weten de fommen 
der Reftanten dicder fijn ten eynde van yderjaer, der jaren 
1611. 1612. 1613.1614.1615. Om dat te vinden , ickfiedat 
ncvenshet jaer 1615 op den cant ftaen 70-0-oonderhet jaer 
i6n;Dacr na o-o-o.onderi6n } voorts 300 ondcn6i3.En (o 
voorts 700-0- o. 590- o-o.ondcr 1615. Angaen- 
de voorfchreven 0-0-0. ftaende nevens het jatt i6i5,en dat 
onder i6u> fulcx beteyckent iiet jaer 1612 heel voldaen te we- 
fen, fonder daer na van dat jacrs rekening cenighe Reftanten 
meectc connen vallcn. 

O 1 Het 



In the Library of Congress and in the Library of Harvard College, we find a book by Gerard Malynes, 
printed in London in 1656, under the title of "Consuetudo Vel Lex Mercatoira," or "The Ancient Law 
Merchant." This book is a voluminous work, written in the English language, one-half of which contains 
a digest of the law merchant as then existing; the other half of the volume is occupied by a reprint of 
Richard Dafforne's book on bookkeeping, "The Merchants' Mirrour." It also contains an introduction 
to merchants' accounts, by John Collins, together with a treatise by Abraham Liset of Ghent, called "Am- 
phithalami or the Accomptants Closet." 

We have seen that Richard Dafforne was really the first writer in the English language whose work 
went through several editions and therefore may be considered as having been more popular than that of 
his predecessors Ympyn, Oldcastle, Mellis, and Peele. Dafforne resided for a good many years in Holland, 
where he obtained his knowledge of bookkeeping. He was a teacher in the Dutch and English languages, 
and in bookkeeping. Part of his treatise called "The Merchants' Mirrour" was written in Amsterdam be- 
fore he moved to London. The preface to his book indicates his familiarity with the then existing books on 
bookkeeping, as he names quite a number. Most of the authors of these books he discredits, but he seems 
to think highly of Simon Stevin, whom he copied in a number of instances. Simon Stevin, however, was 
a great scholar, whereas Dafforne evidently was but a shallow teacher, for while he quotes freely from 
Stevin on the most important points, yet he omits to bring home the force of the question as Stevin does. 
Thus through Dafforne's faulty transfer of the bookkeeping ideas of the Dutch authors into the 
English language, we have lost the very essence and foundation of the theory of bookkeeping. Any 
one reading Stevin first and then Dafforne, will have no trouble in arriving at this conclusion. It is 
like the reading of a letter from an experienced old man, followed by the treatment of the same subject 
by a high school student. 

In the following pages we are giving a partial reproduction of Dafforne 's book, consisting of the title 
page, the introduction, about half of the text, and a few pages of the journal and ledger, together with the 
entire trial balance. We are omitting part of the text, because it is simply a repetition of previously men- 
tioned methods, applied to numerous mercantile transactions. All of the text in which he attempts to give 
some theory or explanations, we have reproduced. It will at once be seen that Dafforne was great at ex- 
plaining how a thing should be done, but incapable of expressing clearly why a thing should be done. 
He has attempted this in one or two places, and failed signally. We are reproducing so much of his book, 
because, as explained before, we believe that in Pacioli, Manzoni, Ympyn, Stevin, and Dafforne we have 
the gradual steps of the transfer of bookkeeping knowledge, within a little over one hundred years, from 
the Italian through the Dutch into the English ; unless, indeed, the Dutch transferred their knowledge to 
America, direct through the settlers of New Amsterdam (now New York). 

At the time of Dafforne's writing, English mercantile customs and bookkeeping methods certainly 
were in a bad way, judging by Dafforne's own words and complaints. There is an entire absence in the 
journal and ledger of references to the Deity, although the text is full of them. Dafforne even quotes in 
the language in which it was written a Dutch dissertation on "God, the Giver of all good, all knowl- 
edge, and all wisdom." 

He explains that a merchant in Amsterdam uses a cash book and a bank book, because his ledger and 
journal are always behind in posting, otherwise "the ledger might cause the avoidance of the use of these 
two books. ' ' He urges the use of a petty expense book, the totals of which are posted once a month or 
quarterly, in order to avoid numerous small entries. 

What Pacioli calls the memorandum book he calls a waste book, because he says everything is trans- 
ferred from it into the journal, and when this is done it is useless to preserve it. In Holland they do not 
preserve it. The inventory and the trial balance are not written in this waste book, because they contain 
information of a private nature. Blotting or erasures in the journal are improper. He puts his slanting 
lines (//) in the left-hand margin of the waste book, in order to indicate the transfer to another book, and 
he evidently prefers this method to the diagonal line drawn through the entries, because, as he says, ' ' it ob- 
scures the writing and the figures." Checking of the journal and ledger he calls "re-pointing," using 
the translation of the old Italian expression of "lancing" or "pointing" as explained elsewhere under 
Pacioli. Dafforne, however, does not say how he does it. 


11<- does not use the expressions "debit" or "credit" throughout his books, but names them debitor 
and creditor, lie charges the one and discharges the other. He insists that nothing can be entered in the 
ledger unless it is first entered in the journal. This includes the forwarding of balances from a full page 
to a new page also the closing entries for profit or loss, and the balancing of the accounts. 

Inventory he says consists of stock or estate or capital of the owner, which consists of "increasing im- 
properly" and "decreasing improperly" of the stock or estate. He attempts to explain what the word 
•• improperly" means by quoting from Stevin, but he missed entirely what Stevin meant, as he applies it 

He uses the word "stock" wherever Stevin uses the word "capital." As the word "stock" comes evi- 
dently from stick or stem, it really has the same origin as the word ' ' capital, * ' as through all the defini- 
tions and derivations of the word "stock" the thought of "main" or "principal" seems to appear. From 
this we might state that capital stock is really tautology, for the two words mean the same thing. 

In explaining the first journal entry "cash debitor to stock," he personifies the cash account, because 
it "represents (to me) a man." He indicates the meaning of debitor by stating that by reason of giving 
the cash to the man, he is obliged to "render it back," or, as we have seen in Italian, "shall give." He 
indicates the meaning of creditor by mentioning the words ' ' upon confidence, " or, as we have seen in Ital- 
ian "trusting." In spite of his quoting so freely from Stevin, and coming so near to what Stevin says, 
Dafforne has failed entirely to transfer to posterity the idea of the real reason for a double entry or two 
debits and two credits. The nearest he comes to it is by stating that cash, merchandise, and all we possess 
are but "members of that whole body (stocke), therefore by the joint meeting of all those members the 
body (stocke) is made compleat." Thus it goes through the entire book, always how but never why, the 
very opposite of Stevin. 

Merchandise of large size and quantities is always kept in a separate account, designated by the name 
of the merchandise it deals in. If, however, the merchandise consists of small articles of which but a few 
are handled, the account is called a general merchandise account. He credits a legacy in one place to 
stock or capital account, and in several other places direct to the profit and loss account. Debitors he calls 
those "of whom we are to have," or in other words, as written in the Italian, those who "shall give." 
Creditors he calls "debt-demanders " and as far as inventory items are concerned, he says that stocke is 
debitor to these debt-demanders. 

He says that through a personal or private ledger you can keep a secret of a person's present worth 
or estate. He is very emphatic in denouncing the use of the cash account for this purpose, as he states 
three Dutchmen do in their treatise, namely, Waninghen, Buingha, and Carpenter. Here he again barely 
rubs elbows with Stevin 's ideas of proprietorship. He flays the three Dutchmen for promulgating ideas 
as "book deforming" instead of "book reforming," and he calls their ideas "indefendable errour," 
' ' forged imagineries, " " f orrain bred defects. ' ' He further says : " If we were as exact discussors as we 
are imitators, we had not been so besotted as to entertain those f orrain defects, having better at home." It 
should be noted that elsewhere he praises Stevin, and nowhere does he flay him like the above three Dutch- 
men, yet had Dafforne been less of a discussor and more of an imitator, he would have presented Stevin 's 
exact theories without fault, and thus preserved them for us in the English language as Stevin did for 
his Dutch countrymen. 

He gives 15 rules each for journalizing debits and credits, but he personifies everything to debitor 
and creditor. In the ledger he uses a double column, one for money, the other for quantities and weights. 
Cash discounts he deducts from cost of merchandise, whereas rebates are credited to profit and loss. Thus he 
disagrees, as he says, with Passchier Goossens, Johannes Buingha, J. Carpenter, and Henry Waninghen. 
Dafforne succeeded here through his faulty reasoning, in mixing up things to such an extent that many 
minds today are still mixed up on this subject. Waninghen and Carpenter want to carry trades of mer- 
chandise through the cash account. Rightly he objects to this, for cash he says should have no entry un- 
less money is really paid or received. 

He does not call in his text the difference between the debits and the credits "the balance," as we do 
today. He says deduct the lesser from the greater, and make a journal entry for ' ' the difference. ' ' In his 
ledger accounts, however, he does not call it, like the Italians do, "difference " but he calls it "balance to 
close." He uses the word "equalizing" where we now use "balancing," the same as we translated Paci- 
oli's word "soldo" into "equalizing" or "closing." The closing of the ledger he calls "ballancing of the 
leager," or " leagers-conclusion. " Like Stevin he claims that the ledger needs to be balanced when new 
books are started, or when the merchant ceases to trade or the owner dies. Balancing, he says, consists of 
three things, the equalizing of all open accounts, the entering of the difference and transferring of the 
same to the new account or to the balance account. He does not like the word "balancing," and prefers 
to call it ' ' estate reckoning, ' ' the same as Stevin does, and in this connection he refers to Stevin by saying 
that Stevin carries his closing balances into his opening capital account, which he calls contradictory, and 
merely a mistake on Stevin 's part. The balancing is divided into a trial balance and a true balance ; the 
trial balance consists of debits and credits of the open ledger accounts before profit and loss entries are 
made. He published in Amsterdam a " three-f old-mony-ballance, " which we have reproduced further on. 
The true balance he says consists of the "remainders" of the ledger accounts after profit and loss entries 
have been made. 

It should be noted that he says "remainders," as does Pacioli, and not "balances," as we use 
today. The remainders of the accounts he puts in the true balance on the same side as they are in 


the ledger ; namely if cash is debit in the ledger it should be debit in the true balance, for he says, balance 
is a debitor in the place of cash. He gives a detailed explanation of how to close accounts kept in foreign 
money, and to take care of the profit or loss in the exchange at the time of closing. While he exhibits a 
balance account and makes journal entries in order to close all accounts in this balance account, he is very 
particular in explaining that such a procedure is not needed if you desire to use the balance book in the 
nature of private information. In that case, he says, post direct from the old account in the old ledger to 
the new account in the new ledger. 

The illustrations given of the journal will show that all entries are numbered, that he uses "debitor 
to" instead of "debit per," as Stevin uses. Neither does he use the slanting lines (//) so customary in 
the Italian method, for a division between the debit and the credit, although but one column is given. The 
ledger page references in the journal are written in the form of a fraction, as Pacioli mentions. Ledger 
headings, while not as used at this day, are more pronounced than the Italian method, and are almost 
identical to Stevin 's ideas. 

In the ledger accounts herewith reproduced, "to" is used on the debit side and "by" on the credit. 
The journal page is also given as well as the ledger folio of the relative entry in the other part of the 
ledger. Both sides of the ledger bear the same number of the page, and they are called folio. He does 
not use the word "sundries," in the journal nor in the ledger, nor does he use a sub-total in balancing his 
ledger accounts, as Stevin does, but uses in front of the total the Italian word "summe." Nowhere in his 
work does he use the term ' ' assets and liabilities. ' ' He uses dots instead of check marks. 





For the perfect Ordering and Keeping of his 


Framed by way of Db.bitor and Creditor, after the 
(fo termed) Italian Manner : Containiog 2 50 %are Questions, 
With their Anfwers, in forme of a Dialogue. 


A WASTE-BOOK, wich a complete Journal and Lbagbr thereunto appertainina . 
Unto the which I have annexed two other ffaJle-Booki for exercife of the Snuiiom: and at the" 
end of each k entred the brief Contents of the Leaden Accounts, arifing from thence. 


A MONETH-BOOK, very requUite for Merchants, and commodious for all other 
SCIE7lCE-L0r£'K'! of this Famous Art. 

The Third Edition, Corretted and Amended. 

Compiled by Richard Daffornb of Northampton, Accountant, and 
Teacher of the fame, after an Exquifite Method, in the 
Engfifh and Dutch Language, 

J. Vahden V. 

&00 eentgt) lictjt'terifpemi .-atari, 
qawt toerfc beracljt, oR fottfet t'ontttren, 
2?ir- maecket bectcr, &00 liv tan 1 
'lirjcbb grootc lutt noc'n meet tc Cccren. 

H. L. S. 

CojDcclt iemant tooo: tjet Lccjcn ; 
Oict 3 oct ban fyn DotKl tocejen. 

Ucrcnoe, lecre irk. 
The Contents are immediately prefixed before the Book. 

Printed by R.H. and # G. for Nicholas Bourn, at the South- entrance of the 

Royall Exchange, 1660. 







'Merchants Adventurers of England. 
Englifb Merchants for the Di [cover j of Kern Trades, 
Merchants of E aft- land. 
O F i Merchants of England , trading into the Levant Seas, 
Merchants of London, trading into the Eafk- Indies. 

Adventurers of the city of London , for a Trade upon the Coafls and In-lands 
of divers farts of America. 

Richard DAFFORNfifo wifheth your Unckrftanclings 
Illumination , in your Tcrreftriall Talents Adminiftfation , that 
with comfort you may hear the joyfall Sentence of your twice com™ 
mended fervice ; M*t. 2 5 . Ver.-i 1,23. 

Well done thou good , and faithfull fervant true, 
Theu hafl been faithfull over things a few, 
lie make thee Ruler over many things, 
Poffeffe the joy of thy Lord, King of Kings. 

Right Honourable, &c. 

Fter many yeers refidenceat Amfterdam in Holland, I (upon 
thei often Importunate Letters of fbme Merchants, my very 
good Friends) refolved to pitch the Tent of my abode in Lon- 
don , which being ertected in Anno 1630. 1 then (after fome reft) 
fet my courfe unto feverall Stationers Shops ? there gazing a- 
tout me fas one reviving from a Trance) to view what the Laborious Artift 
had acted and divulged in Print (as other Nations) for the Affiftance of Mer- 
chandizing, wherewith (Blhssed be the Great ALL) this Renowned 
City is throughly Enterlaced, and Adorned. 

But as a Shipper anchoring upon an unknown I(e,prefently perceiveth thole 

a x parts 


The Epijlle Dedicatory. 

parts not to be inhabited, by the l^on-tillagc, or the like j even fo (contrary to 
mycxpcftation)I perceiving the number of Writers to \fc few/eared that love 
tothis Art was likewifcfmall: Seeing That Good Acceptance Engen- 
dereth Good Performance. The truth of this lean aVerre with ma- 
ny Inftances in fevrrall Authors; as Fmpain, John Jmpen , Cloot t Mem- 
ber , SaVcnne t Xiichltu Tieterfon , Q(entergem , Marten Vanden T>yck , Hoot* 
beck, 'van Damme , Wencelaus^ Coutertels, Simon SteVm, lohnWiHemfonjWaningbe^ 
TaJJckia, Goojfen, and divers others , whofe Books are extant. By which 
may evidently be conjectured, that in thofc times,and in their parrs whercthey 
then publifTied their Works, were found many Science-lovers that affected this 
Art • by whofe allurements thole worthy Writers were induced tofetPen to 
Paper, endeavouring with their beft gifts to fatisfie the defire of thole Art-defi- 

The Merchants of the Low-countries (of whom I can (peak in part) bein£ 
generally enamoured of this Art ; becaufeof its Utility,allure their Teachers to 
induftry, by applauding their Vigilancy; encouraging them (with the pre- 
fence of their Children and Servants in theSchooles) daily to publifh new 
Qucftions j or at leaft to revive the profitable Labours of ancient Authors, 
making them fit for our times. 

But we,alas,thc fmall love (pardon my truth fpeaking) that a great part of 
our Merchants bear to this Science, daunteth the Pen of Induftry in our Tea- 
chers,making them with a fufpective fear to doubt(& not altogether ground- 
lefs) that the profit will not countervail their pains ; by which means readers, 
Merchants, and therefore Toutb y are linked in Ms enemies ftackles. 

What may be thecaufe of this Ignorance ? Are our Teachers fo inefficient ? 
Or berth dame Kature y with her Coadjute or induftry befto wed her Benevo- 
lence more fparingly upon our Nation than upon others? The laft cannot be: 
for we can learn it exquifitly abroad of other Nations (as multitudes can wit- 
nefsjwhy not at home?I anfwer,as before,becaufe at home(for want of love to 
this Art) many Merchants areinfufficient Vtefidents to their Servants, who by 
their Documents can be but Equivalent Imitators. Want of love to this Art y is 
thecaufe why James Peek, and others that have written in Englifh upon this 
fubjed:, are knowne by Xame onely, and not by imitation. Yea, even the me- 
moryoftheir Thames dkth, being there is no caufe to commit their painfull 
Labours to the Name-reviving Prefs. How then fhall our Youch attain unto 
this Art, but by frequenting abroad amongft other nations ? And 

They being then at Q{ome t 
Will do as there is done. 
This ftupidity cannot be imputed to our Teachers : for if at home (as other 
people do) we did by Love" allure, and with fyward induce each other to Arc 
by a competent Difpenfation amongft our felves, of that money which we 
beftow abroad amongft Aliens y then would our Teachers be vigilant, cur Land 
adorned with this Knowledge, and our Ytuth fhould not need to be trans- 
ported into other Countries for Arts documents. 

Againft the forcfaid Ignorance 1 have emboldened my felf to prepare 



The Epiftte Tiedkatorj. 

this Antidote, being by l^ature obliged to offer up part of the W/'c/otof Mite o^ 
nay knowledg unto the Land of my 'Breaths fit ft drawing. 

Divers are the humours or men : therefore there is buc fmall Probability 
to pleafe all :yetto endeavour a generall fatisfaction is itfiblameable. 

My intent is not to prefcribe thefe Principles as fully fufftdent, though 
for their timber approveable: for time at prefent doth not yield permiffion to 
impart what my Affe&ions defired, and Will determined to divulge % but thefe 
are Allurements onely, to ftir up the better experienced to amend whae I (through 
want of Art) have not lb compleatly handled as Idefife.and it defervcs,being 
an Art (faith Simon Stevinin his Princely Book-keeping,/^^ 1 2.) worthy to 
be numbred amongft the Liberall Sciences. But I already hear Objections a- 
gainft the Firjl t 8c Second Wafte- books ; that therein are exercifed fome accounts, 
which are altogether needleffe here in England : as is thcBanck-AccountA grant it 
to bean Account notutefullin ourKingdome-but that the knowledge thereof 
fhould be un-ufefull to this Arts-Lear ners, 1 deny. True it is,that by forth we 
Atetircumferenced with the Ocean , but the Great- All hath not fo ftri&ly limited us 
within the bounds thereof, that we are abridged from the Conversion and En- 
tercourfeofMerchandi^ingmth forrain Nations , as well by their frequenting of 
our Bordersps we Commercing with them in the Body of their Countries. And 
when our Merchants (Old or Young) trade with them in their places jnuft not 
they leant ttbe acquainted with their phrajes ufed among them concerning Commerced 
Of which Banok is none of the leaft in feverall places of Europe, Unto which 
ourEnglifli Merchants have their Concourfe. And mufttheadvertifementof 
the Courfe thereof (before we come to the A tuallexercife) be ft Blemijbjxnd ac- 
counted as a needlejfe thing in my Book ? tygbt Worjhipfuls behold the Rancor of 
black Envy ..that endeavoureth to have us ignorant of Martiall afl&its,untill we 
come to the point ofBattail. The like Objection is alleaged againft my entring 
of an Account, of Txm and %eady-mony. What if we have them not in ufe a- 
mongft our feives ? Let us caft up our accounts with other Zfyfww, and (to our 
coft) they will teach us how to frame an account of time and <%eady monytf our 
Fatlor t or Correspondent be in disburfe for us any quantity of mony , and for 
Time worth the reckoning, as experiencehath (hewed me in many pafliges. 
And what then ? Muft not we feek the aid of fome experienced ro affift us ? be- 
caufe we regarded not the documents of them (at home) that endeavoured to 
inform us of the Manner and Matter. What Amercement doth not this Difdain-mr- 
thy wiifull Ignorance merit ? 

Again,the keeping of an account of Time and Ready-mony (fay they)may 
be avoided with an account Currant / or a General atcdunt, upon whkhis entred 
matters Bought^oldprawn^etniUedfihfenpxTaken upon Depofito,and the like: 
of which manner I am no way ignorant-Butletus come to the Period,or Foot 
of that General account ,and there the Concluflon flieweth,that I am Deb 1 tor. 
to another, or the Contrary ; how fhall I find <%eady-money that at prefent 1 am to 
receive or pay upon that account ? 



A N T 1 2_U ITT. 

Good Friend of mine (faith Simon Steven) being exerci- 
fed in the Old Hi/lories, did fee this forme of Book-keep 
ing ( meaning his owne J before it was perfe&ed in the 
Prcfle ; he was of judgement that it had not been ufed 
in Italy, . but about two hundred years • But that the fame, 
or one in many parts very like this, was ufed in the time 
of Jnliui Ctfar, and in Rome long before ; and that fome Reliques of 
Ancient time are come to the. hands of them, that of late have received 
it again. 

Which Opinion 1 thought not to be un-befeeming, the rather, becaufe 
it feemeth ftrangc, that fo excuiifice a Deep- diving-Science (hould be invent- 
ed fo lately : But be it ask will, I will enter the Opinion of my above- 
faid Friend, who faith, that 

In place of the proper words now ufed in the Italian-book-keeping, fot 
mcrly other of the like fignification were ufed : as thefe, 

fDebt-book, Great- book, or Leager Tabal* accept! & expnft. 

I Debitor and Creditor Acceftum & exftnfum. 

For < Parcells tranfported into the Leager ■ 
I Parcells not tranfported 

I w 

Wafte-book, or perhaps Journall - 

Nomina tran/lata in Tabul.u. 



All which (faith he) is apparent in innumerable places of the Latine Wri 
ters. but efpecially ex Oratione Ciceronk pro <%<)fcio Comedo. And that the one 
fide of their Book was ufed for Debitor, the other for Creditor t is manifeft 
(faith he) in a certain place, 2s(atufalis hifioritt Tlinii, lib.2» cap. 7. where he 
(peaking of Fortune, faith thus : 

Huic omnia Expensa. 

Huic omnia FeronturAccepta, & in tota Rati one Mtrti* 

Hum foU U T R A M Q.U E P A G I N A M f*tit. 

If others took regard unto this matter, perhaps further certainty might be 
found, and that this forme of Bookkeeping, not onelybythe Romans, 
but might have been in ufe before them amongftthe Grecians : for being 
the Romans were no great Inventors, but had their exquifite Art from the 
Grecians, it is in reafon moft probable to come from them ; whereof fur- 
ther certainty might be found in reading the Greek Hiftories. Thus much in 
Simon Ste>eff , fol. 1 o 5, 1 06. A ]\io 1 c 1 ous 



r* A. A 

V v v vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvwvvv 

Briefe Contents of the chiefeft Points 
contained in this Book. 

i . \N Introduction unto the matter by way 
•**ofa Dialogue, place 1,2,3. Again y un- 

dtr the third and fourth place isfpoken, 
2. o/ 3.601.4. 

3. of the CaiTi,<i»iBanck-bo6k,pla.4.fol.4. 

4. of the Specie- 4.10I.4. 

5. of the petty Expences-Book,pla.4.fol.5. 

6. of the Copy-Book of letters, pla.4.fol.5. 

7. of the Memoriall, and ufe thereof, fol. 5. 

8. of the Copy-Book/w accounts fent to 
any man, fol. 5. 

9. Of the Wade- Books, form and office, 
place 5. fol. 6. 

10. of the ]owxm\\!S,matter,form,and office, 

11.0/ the Invcntary-f4£/f> 

12. of the Ready- mony in Ca(h,and how to 
£m>£«, pla.13.foL9. 

1 3 . of the Mony in Banck,W hew to hook 
it, place 17.601.9,10. 

14. Of the Unfold- wares, at the making of 
our Inventary^place 27.fol.11. 

15. of Houses, Lands, Rents, and Legacies, 
fol. 1 1. 

16. Of J-iwels , Moveables, Ships-parts , 
fol. 12. 

17. Of Wares unfold for Faftorage accounts, 
place 36.fol.11. 

18.0/ Wares unfold for company- account , 
place 37. fol. 1 3. 

19. of Wares abroad unfold for proper ac<- 
count, place 38.fol.13. 

20. Of Wares abroad unfold, for his, or their 
account ,whofe F after 7<j»;,place 39. fol. 13. 

21. Of Wares abroad unfold for company ac- 
count,yhce 43. fol. 14. 

22. of Debuors,ofwhomwearcto have, place 
45. fol. 14. 

23. of ' Dcbt-demanders$h.$6 .fol. I J. 

24. ofCafl), by fomeentrcdtn Stockes place, 
fol. 15. place 47. 

25. of Stockes concealment, pla. 52.foI.17. 

26. of Traffi'ckes continual I exercife, place 
62. fol. 1 8. with the chief accounts that are kept, 
fol 19. 

27. Of Rules $f Aid ,very cxquifite to be 
learned without beok,fo\, 1 9, 20, 

28. o/Proper Accounts, and 
the Dependances, place 63.fol.21. 

29. Of Buying upon feverall cendttiehs^hce 
6. fol.21. including place 70. fol. 22. 

30. of Barter, or Truck $hce 7 2. fol.2 2. in- 
cluding place 75 .fol. 2 3. 

3 1 . Of Wares bought to b: delivered unto me, 
2.3. weekcs or moneths after the agreement, 
place76.fol.23. including place 79. fol. 24. 

32. Of Ships-parts bought^hcc 80.fol.24. 
33> Of Houfes bought, place 81, 82.fol.24. 
34. of Legacies bought, ph^j^f 0.24,2 5. 
35- Of flapping of wares to fell for my account, 

place 85. including place 91. fol. 25. 

36. Of Selling, place 92. fol. 25. including 
place 96.fol.26. 

37- Of felling for other wares, that is, Barter, 
orTruck,p\sce 97,98,99. fol.26. 

3%.0ffellingwares,tobe delivered by me, 2. 
or3.weekes, or moneths after the agreement , 
place ioo, 101,102. fol. 26, 27. 

39« Of Abatements upon wares bought, place 
1 03*10 J .fol. 2 7. 

40. of abatements upon wares fold , place 
104,106. fol. 27. ' 

41. Of Abatements fvr mony reccivcd,or paid 
before the time, place 107.fol.27. 

42. of receiving upon feverall condttiont, 
place 108. fol. 28,29. in 12. feverall Articles. 

43.- of the words, His account, and My ac- 
count,andthe difference thereof r ,pl.i09.fol.i9. 

44. Of Gratuities given, or received, place 

45 . Of paying upon feverall conditions, place 
1 1 1. fol. 29,30^ jn 9. Articles. 

46. Of advice from our Factors, that the for- 
mer fent commodities, or part of them are fold ' 
or, that part of thofe feat commodities are loft 13,1 14,1 15,116,1 17.fol.30.51. 

47. Of Returnes m wares jrom oar F after, 
place ii9,i2o.fol.3i. 

48. of Rctumes m mony from our Faftor, 
place 121. fol. 31. compared with phce 108, 
Articles, 9, 10,1 1, 12. 

49. o/Factorage Accounts and 

THE £>EPENDANCES,plaCe I 2 2. fol. 3 Z. 

50. ofreceits of wares to fell in commifion, 



The Contents of the Book. 

place i»3.fol.3»jW*^*f place 128.fol.33. 
booked without afaUor-boek, and without an 
jff#»« of Time, «*i Ready mony I m olfo 
with 4* 4ff«»f of Time 4>x/ Ready- mony, 
place i29,i}\.3}.dndfo of fcverall Va- 
rieties, Including place 141. fol. 35. 

5 1 . Rec cits of mony Remitted unto us, place 
145. including place 146.fol.j5. 

52. Rcceits of monj drawn by us, undtr the 

53. of Sales tf commifion wires upon fe- 
vtrall conditions, place 146.fol.36. including 

54. Relumes in wares fent unit our Makers, 
place ^.including place 163.fol.37. 

5 5 . Returnes in mony, remitted by Us uuto our 
Maflers, place 164. and drawn upon w, place 
165.fol.37. including place 168. fol. 38. 

56. of forrain affaires in Tailor age account, 
place 169. fol.38. including pla. 

57. of Company Accounts, and 
thi DapENDANCES,placei74fol. 39. 

5 8. of the Stock promifed ToMee place 

59. Receit of the promifed mony, place 176. 


60. Receit of the promifed wares, place 179. 


61. Buying upon fevtrall conditions , place 
181. fol.40. 

62. Wares fiiipt to another Land for company ', 
place 184.fol.41. 

63. Payments upn fever all conditions, place 

64. Sales of wares by means of my Admint- 
firation,phce i9i.fol.42. 

65 . Sales of wares by Factor, or Correfpon- 
denc, place 194.fol.42. 

66. Returnes from Factor, or Correfpon- 
dent in mony drawn by us, place 198. fol. 42. 

67. Returnes in mony remitted to us, place 
I99> fol. 43. 

68. Returnes in wares from Factor, or Cor- 
refpondent,place 201.fol.43. 

69. Stock promifed by MEE, to be paid pre- 
[cntlyjphct 202.fol.43. 

70. Tran (porting of Accounts in the Leager, 
from one leafe unto another, y\itt ao7.fol . 44. 

71. Equalizing of Ovev,or Undermeafures, 
Weight, Leackage, Pounds,Ells,«- the like, 
place 2 1 3.(01.45. 

72. Ledgers Conclufton,or Baltanctng of the 
Leager, place 2i6.fol. 46. And the caufes that 
may move to a Generall Ballance. 

73. of the Tryall- Ballance, and the manner, 

74- of the True Ballance, place 

75. Obfervaiions in BaHancing of the Leager 
place2 2».fol.47,48,49,50. ' 

76. Particular obfervattons upon the Debit 
fide of the True- ballance, place 241 .fol.5 1 . 

77. Particular obfervaiions upon the Credit 
fide of the True- Ballance, place 242 fol.5 1. 

78. ofthe foumalls forme,phcc 243^0.5 2. 

79. Of the Journalls office, place 244. 

80. of the ftgnifying figures that fiand above, 
and under the lines in the lournalls margtne, 
place 2 46. fol. 54. 

81. Of thetVafte- books further Exercife, being 
compiledin Londonfa].} 5. Lit J.K.N'.i. 

Zi.of the compleat lour nail unto the faid 
Wafie-book, beginning Lit.K.N°.2 . continuing 

83. of the Kalenders/or«i,4»iUfe,Lit. N. 

84. of the compleat Leager, depending upon, 
the fore- faid \Va fie- book, and loutnai, Lit. O. 
N°. 2. continuing Lit.P.QJl. 

85. Of the lour nail, Kalender, and Leager, 
N°.B. with the order how to begin New books , 

86i0/f4tfirft Wafte-Book, entredfor the 
Beginning Learners excicifc, and taught by me, 
LU.T. N'.i. compiled in Amfierdam,whofe 
Contents (through the varieties of Titles num- 
bers) are apparent, and inflantly difcemed by 
the Books Over-view, containing 78. Titles, 
differing from each other in matter, for the Be- 
ginners exercife 1 andfo compiled, that, the fur- 
ther be pa(feth,the more mcreafeth his Studies 

$7, Of the Kalender, and brie fe Contents of 
the Leager, depending unto the faid Wa fie- book, 
Lit. Bb.N°. 1. with a t hre e-fold Mony- Bal- 
lance of the (aid Leager,\S\t.CcM a . 2. 

88. Of the Second Wific-hook,e»tredfor d 
further Exercife of the Beginner -, and taught 
by me, Lit.Dd.N.°.i. whofe exqmfite varie- 
ties cannot truely be difcemed but by the work- 
ing of it ; which work will require .is muchferi- 
ousfiudy at the very End, as any of the former 
Propofitions: which approveth,that in his Lear- 
nings time no wafte time isjpent. 

89. of the Kalender, and brief e Contents of 
the Leager, belonging unto the fecond Wafit- 
book, Lit li. N°. t.mcluding Kk. N -3. 

90. o//foF actor- Book, 4«</ ufe tdaueofin 
feverall mamwrsofenirances^Lit.Kk.N .4. 

91 . Then foUoweth a Table, which fbeweth 
How to find what the Principall, aadfimplc 
Intereft of any Given, »r Taken fumme wit 
be at the agreed times end, L. Mm.N°.r. 






Tbih* Matbj \ School-Tanner. 

Phil. LJOw now School Partner? Whither away thus folitaryf it feems you are inforae 
itJ ferious Meditation. 
Sch. Surely you "have judged aright : for I was mufing upon our Matters Inftruclions of 
Book- keeping, taught us by way or Queftions aud Anfwers ; whereof I have torgotten 
much, becaufe I frequent not the daily examination, 

Phil. Very likely : For Extreme it the Preferver of Art \ therefore do I daily re fort to the 
examination,which(you know) our Matter continually ufeth: the Which not ortely confir- 
meth what we have,but it is likewife An Augmtnttr of Knowledge according to the Motto of 
James Peel: Practice prolurtth perfection 

Sch. Surely you fay truth : Therefore 1 intreat you (feeing we have time and opportuni- 
ty) to queftion me in fuch things as at prefent are . readied in your mind -, beginning with 
the firft grounds of our Matters Inftru&ions,and fo in brief fort to wade through them ajl, 
for the refreshing cf my memory. 

Phil. Very gladly •• for in questioning of you Khali be the better confirmed in that which 
3 already I have obteined. But feeing that all good gifts (even in mean Mechanical matters) 
proceed from the All-giver^ as in Bxoi.i i . Ver.z > 3,4,5 J 7,appearetb, therefore do I hum- 
bly intreat my understandings Illumination from thee i 

fb\ al'toeibulleuV den, Die alios febepue $gt, 

ffcclrVftamrigb toeejen, $onoec &>toj, of fojm, of 2Cp5t, 

£Df pet oat ons begrip, oeoenben ban, of uattn : 

flkfebam, fllmartgb, TXfy*, ercr,<D>oei>igbbobenmaten! 

^Dhnoemelibe^lf, au*b*tfcben8ts $atuur ! 

M«irt?a)^atife8miU»eSBoat '. &tojtgb]?.tei>e$eruar, 

totptckK, of !Srarbr,of #bBtt « font mg toifoom ? ano $«gbe, 

2>at tefc oen gwra npt'btnD'jCno' onoer to? j' tec Deegbe, 

£Drisr toat maetttacfc*toerk is,M ougbeft aoigbaoen, 

OTp fluvttn bu#>en a'ew baafc oatt m? gbittren oeeoen, 

spate ala dc spenfeb bogb bltegbt (tno'mift ubri^ulp 2D ^«r) 

^pfnebelt on*betoaattb met Icarus ter not ! 

acb ! llaat jclf atbtings ILtef o, of toaan m? we gb«* fcbermfe, 

©baft mp an f eberp begttp, tiffoeo atttael, toace beratte. 

jDet oingben onoer ftbeio ocdiu, mjt nwJte JLoren, 

2EfftWtw©oeD,enoimuaao,balt&it itoatmacbrnptwertn? Taking 


An Introduction to Merchants jJccompts. . 

Taking now my beginning from our Mafters grounds, I intend in order (according to 
capacity) to paffe through them all : and being that Book- writing, by way of Debitor and 
Creditor,afterthe(fo termed) Italian manner, is renowned to be anexquifite knowledg, 
(hew me its event. 

Sch. The Event or End is (faith one)that which moveth to Allion, and the End finall is 
ever better then that which is for the End •, yet this End cannot be attained, but by another 
thing intended, as a means thcieonto ■• So, that all rhings which fas means) are for, and 
conduce to the End.are not intended, nor profccuted.but out of a deliberate and full inten- 
tion of the End*. 

J» like 

The End of Book- writing is to give contentment unto the Book-owner,and to (hew him 
(or tbem,whom they do concern)at all times, and in every degree, how his Eftate ftandeth 
in the fo written Books. For, the view of a well eftablifhed Eftate in a mans Books, procu- 
red contentment unto the poffeffor •, yet this contentment (for no reft without former la- 
bour J cannot be attained, but by another thing intended as a means thereunto : to wit, 
Bock-kerf tng knowledge : and being known, profecuted, andaffe&ed ; the fame being very 
Requifite, Ufefull , and Commodious for the writing. 

f Princely Revenues, findings of Cuftomes, and the like duties ; of which at 
prefent I intend not to treat, but may hereafter have fome occafion to (hew 
the neceffity thereof in Princely Courts, as well as in Merchants paffa°es 
Ot the which there is a worthy work compiled in Dutch for Prince Mau- 
rice, Conteof Naflaw, which he learned of the Compiler, Simon Stevin 
hs Mathematician, and exercifed the (ame io his Court, which ftill (as I 
have been informed) is there in ufe, as alfo in the Swethian Court, and elfe- 

I Merchants-trading ; being for Prtper, FaftirAge, or Compaq accounts : of 

Uhis I intend to fpeak at prefent. 

And this Mirrour of Eftate is not to be feen in any Book.but onely in theLea»er,wRofc 
proper office it is to (hew the Eftate of the fame to the Book-owner. 

Of neediest Booh 

This reproveth the keeping of a mans Eftate in many Books : as in- a Book of Buying, 
another of Selling, another of Receipts, another of Shipping, and what not i AUthefe 
Books cannot (hew a mans Eftate, nor Cafe of (landing with any man> or in any Commo- 
dity, untill all matters are drawn to a head upon a paper in form of a Leager % fo that they 
have every way as much trouble in writing their imperfecl form, as we in making our work 
compleat at once : but the generality want capacity to apprehend the manner, add re<5tifie 
their own defects : therefore they afreci this form but with fmall affection. 

Phil. Being that the tenor of our fpeech concerneth Books ^ I take it not unfitting that 
you rehearfe thofe Books that arc moft requifite for Merchants avoid all thofe'need- 
lefle Books. 

Of the Cajh-Boek, and Eanck-Boek. 

Sch. A Merchant in Amfterdam ufeth a Calh Book, and a Banck-Book, becaufe his 
Journall and Leager are (in potting) behind- hand, elfe the Leager might caufe the avoid- 
ing for thofe two Books. 

Of the Specie- Book* 

A Merchant ufeth likewife a Specie- Book,More ufefull for the Low-Countries then for 

England, becaufe* of the variety of Coines there in ufe •, as likewife in times of controverfie 

to approve what Coins pafled in Receipt of Payment i whereof Joh* Coatereels of Ant- 

^. wero 


An IntroduBion to Merchants Jccompts. 5 

werp hath (hewed a worthy example in his Book called SBtn fstilt tout_foete&:ufcett. 

of the petty Bxpences'Book. 

More, he ufeth a Book of petty Expences for hoafe-keeping, and fmall disburfements 
upon Merchandizing -, the which are potted once a moneth, or quarter of a year, into the 
Journall, of which the faid John Coucereeis N°. B./«/.9,to, 1 1. hath lively inftances. Si- 
mon Stevinin his Princely Book- keeping,/*/, f 2. writeth concerning this Book, thus : 

This Book of Expences is likewife a kind of aCafh-Book, and is onely for charges 
which generally are potted once a moneth in one fume into the Journall .• partly, for 'bre- 
vity, to pott many petties into one dm me •• partly, becaufe in great mens houfes, ics the 
proper office of fome one man to adrainiftrate thofe petty expences,rendring an account of 
each particular, as well for Muftard and Matches to kindle the fire, as of things of greater 
importance, unto which end there is kept a Particular- Book. 

Copy Book of Letters. 

More, he keepeth a Copy Book of Letters, which informeth his memory of what he 
hath written unto others •, and this Book is very requifite againft controverlies of advices, 
the Letters fdmetimes not being well underftood by the receiver. 

Of the Memoriall. 

A Merchant may ufe a Memoriall, there to note fome things that properly appertain to 
no other Book : as for inftance $ I lent unto a man a (hilling,or a pound,for a day or a week, 
its fufficienttonote a word or two per memory, without making any Journall parcell of 
the fame : yea not in the Clad or Watte- Book, for that hath another office. Simon Stevin, 
fol.zu Some enter fuch things in the Clad, but the fame is fo large, that by prolongation 
of rime its hard to be found} and caufeth likewife a doubt in the Accomptanc whether it 
(hall be potted, or not. 

Copy Book for Accounts g 

Some ufe likewife a Copy Book for Accounts, fent, or delivered to any man, becaufe 
the Leager agreeth not compleatly in each particular parcell in order,or day, with the fenc 
Account j elfe that Book,and the writing thereof m ight be avoided,Of which form, if any 
man defire an inftance, may have it in the Book of John Coutereels, ///. O.fol. G.ejr.j. 

Font other principall Books doth a Merchant ufe in his Trarfique, to wit: 

Cwajle-beoi, fore-runner of the Journall 
JXfmwdtfCK Day-book, fore-runner of the Leager. 
^\Leager, or Gather-book,Mirrour of a mans Eftate, 

foaffor hook,(ot the entring of each particular received,pack or par- 
cell of wares alone,that cometh into his hands to fell, either in Commilfion, or for Compa- 
ny Account. Of thefe laft four Books I intend to treat, and to explain their proper offices, 
asmuchasthe^-C*»»/»«'£erihallpleafetoimparttomy prefent memories apprehenfi- 
dn. For, 

On thee, God, I do depend, 

Ever me with thj Shield depend, 

That $c[u6 my Redeeming Lord 

May Mercies fentence me offord •• 

And that the illuminating Sp'rit 

Grant that I may know my {elf aright, 

To put my confidence alone 

In Trinity, hut ejfe-where none. 

Far none but thou did (I wifdome give 

Unto Bczaleel, Uxi sfinne ; Ajlb 


- 1 ■ - 

An Introdu&ion to Merchants Acccmpts. 

And even tf love thou dtdft relieve 
Him with Another chofen One. 
LORD, ft infnfe thy gifts in me, 
And *id me in this work of mine, 
Tbdt it to m*nj»fef*U he, 
The fraife thereof fhaR all he thine. 


So called, becaufe when the matter is written into the Journall, then is this book void, 
and of no efteem j efpecially in Holland, where the buying people firme not the Wafte- 
book, as here oupNation do in England. 

Phil. Explaine the office and dependances of the Wafte-book. 
icb. Two things are to be noted in the Wafte-book. . 

**$£! *■"* 

The Forme is, that this book is lined towards the left hand with one line (batfomeufe 
two) and towards the right hand with three $ leaving towards the left hand a Margine or 
whitenefs of an inch or leffe, according to the books largeneffe, to enter therein the Day, 
Moneth, Mark of the Commodity, or all : and between the three lines towards the righc 
hand, there to enter the mony, as by feverall inftances (hall be made plain. 

The office of this book is, that onely the Daily-trading ought to be written therein, e- 
ven as it is truly acted: 


Buying, Selling, Receiving, Paying, Drawing, Remitting, Aflignments, Shipping, &c. 
and this muft be entred immediately upon the action of the thing acted, to the end no paf- 
fing parctlls be forgotten, according to the Dutch Proverb: 2>at men fcrjjvfr, £>at blpff, 
That which is written, Remaineth. In this book ought neither Inventory nor Ballance of 
the Leager to be entred 5 for that is againft the office of this book •• it being onely to write 
Traficking paffages in. In this book may write Matter, Accomptant, or any Servant of 
the houie, by whom the thing is acted, or by advice and order of another. Jn this book 
muft the matter be entred in plain fincerity as it is acted, without Debitor, or Creditor 
foi me * for that is thd proper office of the Journall .• like wife many people underftand the 
Wafte- book entrances, that apprehend not thr Journall forme. In this book ought the 
parcels to be entred clofe under each other as they were acted, without leaving of any emp- 
ty paper, to avoid fufpicionof Forging any parcells betwixt them, upon any omitted occafi- 
on : and each parcel! ought to be fcparated with a line from the other before written, and 
enfuing parcel. In this book ought the acted matter to be firft entred $ partly, becaufe it is 
a fore-runner of the Journakefpecially when the Merchant ufeth anAccomptant thatdwel- 
leth without his houfe-,for he may fometime be abfent when fuch matters are acted. Again, 
there may be an error committed in Weight, Meafure, Quantity or Cafting. Again° be- 
caufe the matter or condition may be changed, by diminishing or augmenting of any thing? 
or by wholly leaving out ofanymatter,the bargain being broken, and fo that parcel] can- 
celled there •• for Blotching or Racing out of any parcell in the Journall is unbefeeraing. 

Phil. What confederations elfe are to be obferved in this Wafte-book ? 

Scb. Five other things muft be duely obferved in this book : 

1. The Year, Moneth, Day, Town or Place wherefuch matters are acted. 

a. The Name and Surname of the Party with whom we trade : or, if it be Fa&orage, 
then unto the former name muft- be added the Owneis name for whom the thing is effe- 
cted, as likewife the placed his Refidence .'and whether the Bargain be for Time or 
Ready mony, that's alike, in refpect of Booking the fame unto him whofe Commodities 
they are. 3 . Tne 


■■■■■■■ ■ ■ ■ — — — — ■"■ m • -- ■■-■ i t' i 

An Introduftion to Merchants Accompts. 

3. The quantity or quality of the thing traded /or: as. Ells, Pieces, Coioiirsi 
Weight, Mark, Number,Exdiange8, AfSgnments,or the like . 

4. The value of price of the thing traded for : whether Wares, Exchanges or 
the like. ' 

5. The conditions or ciratmftances that were ufed abont the matter: as Time 
Surecilhip, Bonds given,or taken, Brokeridge, &c. * 

The Wafte Book parcells are of tenour, as the 
ending examples. 

Anno i5jo. the 2 J. of March, in London. 

■..I— ■,■ .■ ■■■!■■ ..— -. - 1 ■■ ^ ■ ■ ■ ■' 1 - ■■■■■HWPHina «■■■ >!.,■— 

MarmaMe Grimjion of Northampton, lendeth me 68. J\ until! the 
firft of May next coming : which fumme(by his alfignment)my Caftiier 
receivethof^r/i&«rAfrfwr//?j,inconfideration whereof I am td allow 
him certain mony 5 being, with principall 

Affigned Sjbrdntfohnfon upon Thomxt Cojter y for the accompt of 
Senger solt 3 to receive,4P5.f .the rernainer hath my Cafhier received of 
tfohn Sybrantfony by alignment of the faid Cojier, with 7. f, 10. for fix 
Weeks time forbearance : the whole being 

Agreed with -facob zfthnjon of Marken, to let him have 3000. Flo- 
rines tor Francktbrd,at 81.5. Flemi(h,to be repay d to me,or Aflignes, 
the firft of June next j as the Exchange (hall then return from Franck- 
ford : this being mony for the Company of Edward Dcnit at Nor- 
thampton and me, each one halfe, producing 


In part of payment of the fame,I deliver him iS.Lafts, 7. Mudde of 
Rye,being in Company f for Edward 0enis,md* for me -, at 1 J o. gl. 
each Laft ready-mony,is gl. 3834. 8. 12. The rernainer have I made 
good in Banck (for him) upon the accompt of tfebn fohnfon Vinck, 

abating 22. \ ft!, for BanCk-mony,at one per Cent, the whole produce th 











rhtl. What ufe havethofe (landing ftrokes that are -drawn in the Margine t 
Sch t They have two ufes: 1. They (hew how far is pofted out of the Wafte-boole 
into the Journal!? and they area fure mark that a man omit no parccll, being called 
away from his polling: neither to e,nter one thing twice upon the faid calling away. 
2 . They (hew how many Journal parcetls are included in fuch a Waff e Book parcel : 
infomuch,that in re- pointing of the Wafte-Book, a man may the eafier fee the 
quantity of the included parcells, when the Wafte and Journall (hall be compared 
againft each other. Some draw thofe ftrokes on the right hand, where the mony is % 
but that multitude of Strokes darkneth the mony fummes: each hit choice. The 
Wafte-Book parcells ought With all convenient fpeed to be pofted into the Jour- 
nall, andLeager, to the end the Book owner may the better difcern how his cafe 
ftandeth with each man,and matter. Thus much of the Wafte- Book in Form, dffct^ 
and Circumflancet : Now, 


It being the firft exquifite Book, wherein carefully waft be obferyed, that each 
parcel have its Charge,and Difcharge •• that is,the true Debitor, and Creditor, where- 
with each Journal parcel ought to begitfwhich being well apprehended,and with fit 
words(according to the nature of the matter)expreflcd,tf one of the chief efk frhrifUs 




An Introduction to Merchants Accompts, 

belonging unto hoik- ketftng. Mark well •, he that can difcern the true Debitor and Cndttor 
in any propounded proportion (concerning this Art) h3th the right (Theorick) inrvard- 
ground- knowledge and contemplation of the matters: and he, and ooelj he (with the help 
of ArithmetickJ goeth firm in his action , to give each man his due, and book hij matters 
under due and true Titles. It is very requifite (if poflibleit may be effected) that the 
Journall be written by one man t for in times of controverfie he can beft anfwer for his own 




Fhil. What things are moft requifite in the Journall to be noted f 
Scb. Three Notable things arc to noted in the Journall .• 

i. The Matter whereof it is made. 

3. The Form thereof. 

3. The Office whereunto it is ufed. 


fhil. Proceed to the Explication of the firft member. 

Sch. The Matter whereof the Journall is made, may be drawn to five chief branches: 
for it 

'i. From the Inventary : as in the io. and fo to 6i. place. 

2. From Traffickes contirraall Exercifc : as in 6t. place (including 


3. From tranfporting of full accounts in the Le3ger unto a new leaf , See 2otf. 
proceedetrK place. 

4. From the equalizing of Over, or Under-weights, Mealures, or the like. 
See 2 1 2. place. 

5. From the LcagerS Conclude, or Balancing of the I-eager. See 215. 

fhil. Go on with the firft branch. 

Scb. An ufuall Inventary generally confifteth in 

"1. Ready-mony,and that in Ca(h,in Banck,or both. 

2. Wares remaining unfould for proper accompt : under this fecond 
member is included Houfes, Lands,Rents,Ships-parts - as alfo Wares 
unfould for Factorage, or Company-accompts, and thofe that were 
formerly fhipt unto another place, being as yet unfould for Proper, 
Fa&orage,or Company accompts. 

improperly ? Debi ft l ' Pco P Ie unt0 wtlom we formerly fould : or, that promifed 
by mSns of tors: and? ^payment of exchanges,and the like, 
th m \ 2. Factors, V 

<>aine inl *' P * rt0<rs J^ at havc DOtas vet g ivcn us full fatisfaftion. 
& K.4. Matters, £ 

{. |" 1. People of whom we have bought, or whofe Bills we 

f 4. Debt- 1 have accepted. 
Decreafing: jdeman- ! 2. Faciors, "5 

improperly }ders:and *{ 3. Partners, »unto whom we as yet have not given full 
by means of c them in 1 4. Matters, ^ content. 

ll . Wares,partly fould for Fa<3orage,of Company-account. 

Phil. In the above-ftanding Table you fpeak of Stockcs Increasing, and Decreafing Im- 
properly 5 explain the word Improper. 
Scb. Simon Stevin, difcourfing of Merchants Book-keeping, fei. ft. with frince Mm* 




An Introduction to Merchants Accornpts. 



m/,concermng Stockes Increafing, and Decreafing .« the Prince faith, that, Monies. Wares. 
and D#//<v\f , Increafe Stock -for the more a man hath of them^the greater will his Stock 
be. Contrarily, Dtbt-demanders Decreafe Stock. Simon Stevin replyeth, to be of ano- 
ther Opinion 5 exprefling himfelf with the enfuing Inftance : If (faith he) in former Books 
I bought of Peter a Bale of Pepper upon Time •, that Pepper augmenteth not my Stock : 
for Peter demandeth of me the value,time being expired. In like manner, my Stock de- 
creafeth not, becaufe Peter is a Debt-demander : for its as much augmented by the Pep- 
per. But ifa Bale of Pepper be given me, that r truly augmenteth my Stock : for I en- 
ter, Peffer- debitor to Stock. And, /tf/54. A Merchant giving certain hundreds to Mar- 
riage with his Daughter, that decreafeth Stock. By this may eafily be difcerned, what 
Stock Augmenter.and Diminifher properly is. 

Phil. Speaking of Stocks Increafing,and Decreafing, you rehearfed in how many parts 
thefubftance of an Inventary did confift$ but let me now hear you nominate the true 
Debitors and Crtdittrs of the iante onelj , without any other Circumftances of Dictati- 

sch. To give you [the better content, I will fpeake of each in order as they ftand: and 


Phil. How Book you the Ready- mony after the way of Debitor and Creditor •- 
Sch. Cajh Debitor to Stock. 

Phil. Why make you Cajh Debitor ? 

Sch. Becaufe Cafh (having received my mony into it) is obliged to reftore it again at 
my pleafure .• for Cajh reprefenteth (to me) a man, to whom l(onely Upon confidence) 
have put my mony into his keeping j the which by reafonis obliged to render it back, 
or, to give me an account what is become of it.* even fo, if Cajh be broken open, it gi- 
veth me notice what's become of my mony, elfe it would redound it wholly back to 

Phil. Why do you ufe the word Cafh, being the word Mob) is in ufe amongft our Na- 
tion i 

Sch. Simon Stevin treating of this word with Prince Maurits of Nafjau, in the fife 
Head point of his Princely Book-keeping, fpl 52. faith, that he could give none other 
reafon, but oncly, that this word is in Ufe t which if it were not, I account i t better(faith he) 
to have hid^Mony is Debitor. 

Our Mailer ufually alledged the difference between private, and generall difcourfes, 
(hewing that many words are ufually among Dutch, French, and other Nations, with 
whom a Merchant doth trafficke*. therefore he thought it fitteft to ufe generall words , 
as being generally known, andmoftufefullin Book- keeping-, elfe (faicf he) why (hould 
not Mony bear its own Name as well as other commodities i 

Phil. OneotherQueftionI have :o demand before you proceed, which is, Why is 
Stock made Creditor '. 

Sch. Becaufe the word Stock containeth in it, all what a man pofleffeths whether. Mo- 
ncy Wares, Debts due to us, or the like: and (marke this well) Cajh, yea, each particular, 
thing that I'poiTefle, is but a member of that whole body Stocke -, therefore by the.joynt 
meeting of all thofe members,the body(Swfc) is made complear. 

17' Phil. Having patted the firft part of Ready-mony,treat now fomewhatf 


For in the hands of the Honourable Lords of the Bancke, I have a certain fumme of mo> 
ney > how malll I Book that < ^ ^ BaQcfc 

NOTE.— Pages 23 to 43, 10 to 14, 24 io 44, 48, 49 and 53 of the text are omitted, because they give 
questions and answers setting forth how journal entries under differing circumstances are made. They do 
not present any argumentation or theory, nor do they show why they are made, and therefore are prac- 
tically nothing but repetitions of what has been said in other pages. 


, * Jn hurodvBion to Merchants Acompts. 

4 o 



♦ 3 



FA»7. Let me hear you enter this according to the nature of. the Inventary. 

Sch. They were fent before-, and therefore I enter now. 

Edward Dmis of Northampton his account at Roan in France, in the Adminiftration 
of P. D. Debitor to Stock \ for the charges by me done at the firft fending. See 46. 

Phil. But fuppofe the charges that you did at the firft fending were writ off from his 
above-named Roan account, unto his account currant, being that I would have all disbur- 
fed money upon one account * and therefore that account hath no charge now upon it. 

Sch. Edward Dtnit of Northampton,his account at Roan in France, in the Adminiftra- 
tion of P. D. is Debitor to Stock: Not*, for a Blank fumme, both in Debit and Credit ; 
and muft be fo carried to each account fir Formam y becaufe there muft not be a Debitor 
without a Credit or, nor the com rary . 

thil. Suppofe P. D. had in the former books made fale of part, or whole ♦, whereof you 
had advice then, but no Returns. See 46. place. 

Scb.P.D. at Roan, for the proper account of ED. uN.N. Debitor to Stock 5 for as 
much as the known fales import.- and fo I pafs forward, according to the Tables tenour, 

Wares abroad, unfold, for Company- 

Phil. I perceive you cleave clofe to the Table. 

Sch. School-men(aslhaveread) fay, that a good Difputant ought never todigreiTe 
from the propounded Propofition, untill it be difcuffed. Neither ought any Writer to 
commit a digreffion from the grounds of his intended fubjeft, as is here the beforeentred 
Table in the 10. place; asalfo the enfuing three Tables ; to wit, The Table of Accounts 
Prop if in the 65. place : the 'fable of Factorage- accounts in the 122. place : and the Table 
of Ow/M/jjr-accountsinthei74. place. From thefe I intend not to ftray-, but in order 
will work upon them fas the Table flwll deliver matter thereunto : ) the more,becaufe any 
one which mail have occafion to feek a matter in any of thofe particular Tables, whether 
in the Invent aries, Profcr, Factorage, or,Comfany- Tables, may prefently know what goeth 
before, or, followeth his deiired matter. 

thil. But to our intended purpofe •, rehearfe fome Inftances of Company unfold Wares. 

'Voyage to Roan, configned to Pierre du Pent, being in Company"! 

for fames Bartram, and me, each J. J Debitor 

Sch.<£ Voyage to Lisborne, configned to Pedro del Verde , being in > to 
Company, \ for Robert ch/ten^nd Partner, J for fames foyner-, I Stock, 
(.and 1 for me. — J 

Phil. Having in order waded through the fecond branch of the Inventary-Table, in the 
10. place; proceed to the third branch of Stocks increafing: being 


Sch. Four in number are they comprehended under, in the third branch of xhe 10. place, 
and may all be joyned as under one 1 yet in brief I will touch each apart t as 

ci.b. c. to whom we formerly fold, or, that he had accepted our Exchanges, 

< Debitor to Stock. 

£2. c.D. at Venice my account currant, Debitor to Stock. 

3. Partner, 


An Introduction to Merchants Accompts. 15 



I'Whobath part of My eftate in his hands, to be imployed, by 
him for the good of our Company .• N. N. my account by him 
I inCompany,DebitortoStock. 
< 3. Partner, 1 ? Whofe part of Stock is in my hands to be by me imployed, and 
: I am for him in disburfe : N.N. his account by me in Compa- 

{ ny,,Debitor to Stock. 
\$.M. M. atColchefter his account Currant,Debitor to Stock. 

By the word Currant, do not Ionderftand the account that is oppofitetoan account 
of Time, (for I diftinguilh them by the name of Time,md Ready-mony> but by Currant , 
I underftand, a Running account, (Conte-Courante) upon the which all things maypafle, as 
well for time, as Ready- mony. 

Fbil. Thus I fee you have paffed through the three branches of Stocks IocreaGng, with 
the dependances of the fame in a briefe manner : what followeth next to treat of i 


Sch. In the 10. place is (hewed, that Stock hath (Improperly)a DecreaGng part $ and 
that again is divided into five Subdivi{ions:of thefe in briefe likewife,after a plain manner: 
as thus, 

"i. D.E. Of whom we formerly bought, or whofe Bills in former Books 
we accepted , and prefently Booked them, but not due to be paid in thofe 
^. E. F. at Conftantinople, my account Currant $ for that he hath made me 
more Returns then my fold Wares did import. 

/My account by him in Company , he having paid out more then 
A his part doth import. 
5.Partner>$His account by me in Company .• I having received into my hands 
J> mony for fold Wares, and detain his part thereof, where he 

Debitor to-? ,| ought to have it, 

4. JVC His account Currant - y the credit or which being heavier then his 
Debit: but whether it be in Ready-mony,or, for Wares fold upon time, 
thats not materiall, in refpeel: of his Running-accounts form. 
5.G.H. His account of Kerftes, for fo much as was fold upon that account 

in the former Book .-See 36. place. 
Durances in Company,* for A.B* for B.C. and $ for me .• for fo much as in the 
former Book was fold upon that account : See 3 7. place, it being compared 
with this. 
^Edward Denis of Northampton, his account at Roan in France, in the Admi- 
niftration of P. d. for as much as the known Sales import. Not*, in the 42. place,. the 
JEaftor was made Debitor to Stock, for. the like fumme: therefore our Stock ftandeth 
well in the like cafe with others. Again, we have our firft charges done us good unto our 
Stock in the 40. place. 

Stock Debitor to Voyage to Xisborne, configned unto Pedro del Vergo, being in Com- 
pany, 7 for Robert Clifton, and. Partner^ for %-amts fry ner, and \ for me : for as much as 
the known Sales import. You muft conceive, that Pedro del Fergo, our account, being 
in Company, i for Robert Clifton, and Partner •, ,; for /. J.andi for me : either (landtth , or, 
fhouldfiand Debitor to Stock, for the like fumme, that. Stock ftandeth Debitor to the 
Voyage for the Sales 5 for the ^of age cannot have a Credit, but by one, or more Debitours 
jhat even Co'unter- poize that Credit, 

Phil. I have feeny our Dxtentj in the handling, of the Ihventary-Table,as alfo in 
the Booking- of a mans known efUte-,but if a Merchant will not have his eftate known* 



1 6 An Introduction to Merchants Accompts. 





how will you behave your fclf therein? Ha! 1 think I have pos'd you how. Now you 
arc (tall'd,! trow. 

Scb. In fuch difficult Queltions you cannot debarre me, to take the aid of fome Re- 
nowned Authors : tor in the firft place of our Dialogue 1 feared my weakneffe, becaufe I 
frequented not the daily Examination •, but although I frequent not the School, I am yet 
not ignorant or what the Authors paffages are upon this Sut je& : and therefore I will de- 
cide your Queftion, with the Solution of Mafter Henry Wamingbcninrhc firft Chapter, 
the 1 7. Queftions anfwer ; his words are thefe : Cafh mull be tntredin place cfstecke , ma- 
king dU that is due to m Debitor to fajh : contrarily, Cap Debitor to all tbtm that arc to have of 

With him (in the very fame words) agreeth his Difciple Joannes Buingha, who now 
at Amfterdam, after the death of his before-named Mafter,fuccecdeth his place in School- 
mafterfhip. See the 38. page of his Book,printed 1627. 

$■. Corf enter Gent, in his Mofi Excellent lnftruttion^ printed in London 1632. is a direct 
Imitator of both the former : Seefol. 20.24. o* his Book : and no mervaile •, tor the grea- 
teft part of his publifhed Book, is nothing elfe but a generall copy- of Henry W*ni»ghens 
Book, both in words, and number of the Queftions.^. C. in his Epiftle to the Reader, 
pretendeth Ignorance, of not knowing the Author, who in the French Language many 
years agone was eafie to be found. 

Phil. Shew me fome Inftances how they would Book their paflages". 
Scb. In briefe I will : and firft, 


Kerfies ^Debitor to Cam. 


Of the People that owe to us. 

Robin Good-fellow^ 

Herman HareL-heady^Dcbitoi to Cafh* 

$ohn Gentleman, 


Of the People that we ewe unto. 

P Rowland Red- beard. 
Cafh Debitor toftRalph Would- well. 
fcReypft Reach- far re. 

Hit. Suppofe a man at the making <ti his. Inventory hath fome mony, how (hall he 
Book that i 

Scb. The before-named in the places of their Books mentioned, fay, The Ready-mony it 
not to be entred, till you disburfe the fame. 

Phil. Suppofe with part of that concealed mony you bought warts jud with other part, 
paid them unto whom you are indebted : how enter you that t 

Wares ? 

p eo pl e v Debitor to Cafh. 

^'J This being thus'rehearfed, what will you concludes have thefe ( think yon) dt- 

Sch. Suppofe they had, what's that tome? But becaufe you fhouldnot flout at me, 

thinking my capacity to be fo ftupid, that it is void of diftinflion, I will in force bnefe 

1 notes onely touch the fame. Firftly, 


An IntroduBion to Merchants Atcompts. 


j Firft,Iet me coafider whether the -Book-owner be more indebted then his Eftate H 
wortr-5 wliich ifhebe, theri is their entrance good, for his Effaces concealment: for the 
Debit fide of Cafri ought to be heavieft, or, having no monj, it mu(l be even, beeauje alt is 
paid out : but if he have any Eftate, then is the Credit of his Ca(h (who ftandeth in 
Stocks fteariV heavieft : and therefore an Errow, being there is more paid, then was re- 

Secondly, the commodities that we have at the making of our Inventary, were boughc 
in former Books, and there made Debitors -, and that we now enter them again Debtors to 
Cajb, is to re- buy them .-and confequently, in place of book- reforming, look- deforming a 
and an undefendable Err our :' '. 

Thirdly, the People whom we now make Debitors to Cajh, axe abfolutcly our Debitor*; 
and do we fay them,who are to pay us < many men would defire to be our Debitors. 

Fourthly, As fenfelefle is-ir, to make Cam Debitor to People that are to have of us •, will 
they that are to have of us i oo. X. for a Bill of Exchange by us accepted, fay, Come my 
Friend, you have accepted an Exchange, to pay at time expired, which is now .• fend your 
man to my houfe,and the mony (hall incontinently be paid to him i l think nothing lejje. 
(^Fifthly, Cafb may never btt&namcd. Nota, not named, but when money is eicher truly « 
and really paid, or, received, as in the replace is mentioned. But if thefe People eater 
forgedlvaagmzries in the Pore- front of their Books .-what is not to be expected before the 

Sixthly, The Stock which they feek to concede, is maniteft in the difference of Cafh ic 
felf. For let then tranfport their Cafh, and they (hall find (if as before is faid, that their 
Eftate'ftandW£ll)fthat Cafris, and in tranfpottmg forward, alwayes remaineth Creditor. 
Baltance that Crf/fc, and tell me what (hall be done with the difference. Carry it toanewac- 
count, what then,? there it will prove to be Stock. Carry it to Profit and LofTe, there it 
will prove to be Stockes Augmentc-r. Wonder is it, that thefe and many other For rain bred- 
defeiJs muft now be eloathed in Engli(h Attiri, and pafle for currant amongft us ! Surely, 
our Judgement is weak in the difcerning of this An. 

Phil. I perceive their paflages in Booking of their Matters,doth not dfgeft with you •, is 
I z there a more plain way < difcover that. 

Sch. If we were as Exaft Difcu(Jors,as we are Imitators ; we had not been (obefotted,is to 
entertain thofe Forraindefe&s,having better at home. 

Look into fames Peele, whofe well- entrances, through neglecting Age (or dildain of 
Domeftick Writers, and extolling ofForrain) are as ftrange to us, as though (as the fay- 
ing is)they were written in Heathen Greek.. He (heweth us the fit ground- work, how to 
conceale a mans Eftate, in the Booking of his private accounts, and matters manifefted 
for Merchandizing. 



Phil. Inftance fome particulars,how to Book the manifefted part. 

Sch. You (peak of fart ; whether he bring ia part, or, Alf, who can certainly know 
that i being that we can but Aime at it, as the Blind at the colour of Cloth. And for that 
which he manifefteth,may be 


jMarmaduke Man, 

[John. Knell 'at Lisborn, my account Proper,— J 

Debitor unto the 
Private account. 

Phil. How (hall the Mafter, or Book- owner, enter into his private Books the thing? 
manifefted for Merchandizing * 

Sch. Generall account^ Banck, 
for Traffick, Debi-fcPerpetuanes, 
tot to // Uarmaduke Uan, 

\ fohn Knoll at Lisborn,my account Proper, t 


■S An IntroduBion to Merchants Accompts. 








thil, Suppofc there is gained upon Wares fould. 

Sch. Wares Debitor to Private account, for the Gaines \ do the like in Factor accounts, 
and all othcr,upon which Gaines arifetb. 

Thil. Suppofc I lofe by Wares, or Exchanges. 

Sch. Private account, Debitor to Wares, Exchanges,or, unto that account j upon which 
Lofle arifeth. 

Hit. At the Conclude of my Book, I furrender Monies, Debts, and Unfold- Wares. 
Scb.Vrivue account Debitor to Cafh,Men,and Wares,each name fevcrally. 

5 8 thil. How (hall the Book-owner enter back in his private Books the [urrendrcd feverall 
I matters? 

Phil. Cam, Men, Wares, each name feverally, Debitor to Generall account for Traf- 

Thil. How (hall the Book-owner enter into his Private Book, the Gaines that are round 
upon his Book of Traffick i 
Sch. Generall account for Traffick,Debitor to Profit and Lofle. 

thil. But if he loft in his Book for Traffick. 

Sch. Profit, and Lofle Debitor to Generall account for trafficlr; becaufe it hath fur- 
rendred back lefle, then formerly was confidented unto the fame: Judge of the Gaines 
likewife, that the Generall account for Traffick yielded more, then the firft in-laid 
Principall. Here you fee the matter plainly difcurffed. Here you fee the ground-work, 
by which they are confuted, gathered from one of our own Nation $ which to their mif-en- 
trings might rather have been 

A worthy Refutation, their Approbation 
To bring them to our Nation, 

But it feeemeth that this Abfurdity (and many more, which upon due Examination of 
their works apparently / can make appear) was not difcerned, or, being decerned, how to 
amend it, Experience had not befriended them. 

PA/7. Rehearfe fome other Inftances of their Mif- entrances, that (for the Reader) they 
may be as Buojes in this Sea,to keep him from Ignorances Ship- wrack. 

Sch. Very loth am I to pry any further into their Books : for their Adfurdtttes are ma- 
rly in divers matters. And if I (hould dive into them all, it would be thought that I one- 
ly uttered Satjricall Snarlings, where my plain meaning is, toftirre them up to a more 
feriousjlitdy, that the filly beginner be not fruftrateof his Expectation: feeking in them 
fas one (zith)Sapientia, but finding Apedia : therefore let me proceed towards our intended 

thil. Well -, for this time let us do as you defire : What followeth next to treat of, 
feeing the Inventory, with the DependanceS (which is the firft matter whereof the Jour- 
nall is made) are difcufled ? 

Sch. The fecond matter whereof the journal! is made, is the next thing in order that 
we are to treat upon 5 and proceedcth from 


as in the Ninth place is rehearfed: wherein is to be confidered three Principall accounts, 


An lnttodnUim to Merchants Mccompts. 


• P Proper 
In K Factorage 

If Demeftkk- affaires: for (o I terme thofe thinss* 

Accounts: and each \ 'J 1 * \ in aftaa11 Adminiftraiion, adminiftrate as 

of thcfe again, inl) chiete Mana 8 er in the mactet •, whether in Proper* 

Factorage ,or, Company accounts. 

\FmaitK-affdm; forfo do I nominate thofe mat- 
ters, that another adminiftrateth as chiefe Aftor in r With the Wares Bills 
the matter, without hand-action of me, or, mine: (Factor ^ and Monies that I 

and thus do my ■ —^Partner S fend to him, to be 

jj £ employed for me. 

C Friend: unto whom I fent my 
Matters Wares, becaufe they were not Vendible here, as in the 39. place is expreffed i the 
faid Friend is to be countable for the Sales thereof to me, and I to my Matter , with 
whofe order I fent them thither j he not having any acquaintance with the man, nor 
Trading for that place. Of thefe I intend to treat in order t zs they are entred in the above- 
ftanding Table : but firft I will Book fome exquifite 

Rules of aide, very requif$ts in Trades continuance, to be learned without Book. 

i.Whatfoever commeth untoHis (whe- 
ther Mony, or Wares) for Proper, Facto- 
rage, or Company account, the fame is 


a. Whofoever Promifeth,the Promifer is 
1 Debitor. 

5. Unto whom we pay (whether with 
Mony, Wares, Exchanges, Affignations)be- 
ing for his own account s that man is 
_ Debitor. 

4. Unto whom we pay (as above) for 
another mans account i 
The man for whofe account we pay, is 

1 Debitor. 

1. Whatfoever goeth from us (whether 
Mony, or Wares)for Proper, Factorage, or 
Company account, the fame is Creditor, 

2. Unto Whom we Promife, the Promi- 
fed man is Creditor. 

3. Of whom we receive (whether Mo- 
ny, Wares, Exchanges, Aflignations) be- 
ing for his own account :- that ' man is 

4. Of whom we receive (as above) for 
another mans account: 

The man for whofe account we receive , 
is — Creditor* 

5. When we buy Ware* 'for another 
mans account (whether we pay them pre- 
fently,or not, that is all one in the entrance) 
and fend them-unto him,or unto another by 
his order* 

The man for whofe! account we bought j 
and fent them, is for the Wares, and Char- 
ges,— — Debitor* 

6. If we deliver an Aflignation unto any 
man (whether it be our own, or anotfeers) 
that man for whofe account we deliver that 
Aflignation in payment,is Debitor. 

This is much like the third Article, but 
this is here thus entred, becaufe this Article 
is here more largely explained, for the bet- 
ter underftanding of Aflignation. 

7. When we,or any other man for us,fen- 
deth commodities unto another Land, or 
Towne, to be fould, for Proper or Company 
account, then is 

5. When we buy for our felves, or for 
another man,and pay not prefently*- 

The man of whom we bought thofe 
Wares, is • Creditor; 

6. Whofoever delivereth an Aflignation 
unto us upon any man,for his own account : 
the man of whom we received it, is Creditor. 

Upon whom I deliver mine Aflignation, 
to be paid by him for his own account , that 

man is— —Creditor. 

Whofoever (to pleafure, or accommo- 
date me) payeth my Aflignation, the ac- 
commodating man,is — Creditor. 

7. When we receive advice from our 
Factor, that thofe fent commodities, or part 
of them are fould,or loft then is 

D2 Voyage 



An Introdudton to Merchants Accompts. 


Voyage to fuch a place configned to fuch 
a man — Debitor, 

8. When we pay Cuftome, Infurance , 
or other charges, npon the fending of thofe 
commodities,then is 

Voyage (as above) Debitor. 

9. When we caufe the fent goods to be 
infured, but pay it not prefently, then is 

Voyage fas above)- 



10. When we enfuie any mans fent 
Wares, and receive the mony prefently , 
then is Cam- Debitor. 

ir. When we Infure any mans fent 
Wares, and receive not the mony prefent- 
ly, then is the man, for whofe account we 
Infured thofe Wares, Debitor. 

i a. When we receive advice, that the 
former fent Wares", or part of them are fold, 
then is 

The Faflor that fold them for our ac- 
count — Debitor. 

i j. If any man draw Exchanges upon 
us for himfclf, or for any other man, the 
man for whofe aecotmt the fame was drawn, 
is- ■ Debitor. 

14. If we remit Exchanges unto any 
man, for bimfelf, for me, or any other 

The Factor, if forme, or the man for 
whofe account it was remitted ,is — Debtor. 

15. When we lofe by gratuities given, 
whether great, or fmall,or howloever, then 
is Profit and Lode 

Voyage to fuch a place configned to fuch 
a man • Creditor. 

8. Cam, or charges of Merchandizing is 
Creditor. Nota, divers Merchants keep fuch 
an account of charges of Merchandizing, 
efpecially thofe that have Caftiers within 
their own houfe. 

p. The Infurer is Creditor. 

10. Infurance-reckoning,^} 
Or &is Creditor. 

Profit, and Lofle. — ^ 
Chufc of thefe which you pleafe. 

11. As above Creditor. 


Merchants that trade much in thiskinde, 
ufe an account in their Books, called 1»[»- 

1 2. When we receive Retumes, either in 
Mony or Wares, in lieu of thofe fould 
Wares,then is 

The Factor that payeth us, or caufeth us 
to be paid, Creditor. 

13. If we draw Exchanges upon any 
man for bimfelf, or for any other man, the 
man for whofe account we draw, the fame 
is —creditor. 

14. If any man remkteth Exchanges unto 
us for himfelf, for me, or for another man 5 

The Factor, if for me, or the man for 
whofe account the fame was remitted to me 
is Crtdvtor. 

15. When we gain by gratuities recei- 
ved, whether great, or fmall, or howfo- 

Dtbitor. ever,then is ProfTt,and LofTe — ■ — Creditor. 

Phil: Having thus placed your Rules of aide, proceed (as was determined) to the firft of 
your before-mentioned Principall accounts. 

Sch. The firft nominated Principall account(for plain apprehenfions fake) I will dij^laj 
under the form of account 



An Introduction to Merchants Accompts, z i 






(Buying, upon feverall conditions .• See the 6$, place. 
! Shipping of wara to another Towne, or Land, to be 
fould for my account: See the 85,.place. 
C Domiflick- *ff aires. \ Stllin S. u P on Overall conditions : See the 92.placc. 

whofe parts may be\jhatementswon\ W ' rf,: ^ t ^ : 10 *.P la <*. 

IM" 1 ! : See the iop. pl*ce. 

{Receiving : See the ioS. place,having 12. branches. 
Gratuity : See the 1 io. place; 
Proper, ^ {?*}*ȣ : $ ee the 1 1 1 . place. 


r Advice y that the fent goods, t Sonld »See the n 3. place. 

ur ■ . — «,J or, part of them are \Loft.-Seethe 117. place. 
Forram-afaires 9 con-J >J r s he k '* 

lifting in ^««"*'«^ , sec the 121. place. 

Phil. The Table being entred in briefe as above, requireth an explaiamg 5 therefore let 
me fee your Entrances upon each member apart. 

Sch. The parts being divided into Affaires Dome/lick, and Ferraine, I intend to treat firft 
of the firft ; and therein again of the branches orderly as they follow, whofe beginning is 


JvW.I^jiWheat.andpay for the fame prefently, even upon the receit thereof: How 
(hall I enter that? 

Sch. Wheat Debitor to Cam. Nota, Some will,, that of the likePafiages mould be 
made a double Entrance, becaufe upon all Occafions the mans name might be found upon 
the Alphabet : each do his pleafure 5 I account this way clear, and evident. For afterward 
if anycontroverfie.ftiouldarife, that Book (from whence the Queftion arifeth) will mew 
the Year, and Moneth 5 then is it upon my Book eafie to be found. Nota, All accounts of 
Commodities mn& have 1 lines within, to keep the quantity of ERs,Meafure } Weighty and the 

Phil. I Buy Rye Contant,but pay not inftantly. 

Sch. Rye Debitor to the Man of whom T bought it. Nota y the word Contant figoifieth, 
upon Demand; and that again,for 1.2.3. daies, or i.2.or three weeks: generally, it is inclu- 
ded under onemoneths time , for that which is contained under the nomination ofmoneths, 
is 1.2.3. or more moneths. 

Phil. I buy upon two moneths time a little parcell of Pepper, Ginger, Cloves, or the 
like -, fome one parcell. to the value of 10. t* and fome lefle. 

Sch. Groceries, Debitor to the Man of whom I bought them : understand my meaning, 
which is not, that I mould make the Commodity Debitor to the Marts (ervant, becaufe I 
bought it of him.-, butunto the Principal!, or Man,, towhomitbelongethy in refpecl of my 
knowledge. Nota, the Entrance of that which I buy, upon 2. Daies,2. Moneths, 2. Years, 
is all as one : for my acknowledged man muft be known upon my Books, as well for 
2. Daies, as for 2. Years. 

Phil. I buy Latton-wyre upon 3. moneths paying v,, part prefently. 

Sch. Latton-wyre Debitor to the Man Principally from whence it came. And then ? Man 
Principally Debitor to Cam, fox the ^,-part now paid. I enter this thus in £; parts, be- 
caufe fome make the Bought Wares Debitor to the Selling man, for the part upon Time: 
and Wares Debitor to Cam, for the part paid. Here you fee Wares are divided into two 
parts, (which is unfeemly) and therefore muft have two Journall parcells ; fo there is every 
way as much writing, as to make the Wares Debitor to the man for the whole 5 and then, 
him Debitor to Cadi for the paid part. But if feverall Wares to pay \-, part in mo- 
ney, what brave dtvifions would then arife '. for each parcell muft have two Debixoi s, and 



7 o 

2 1 jfn Introduction to Merchants Jccompts, 

Creditors, which will be no fmall trouble •, or elfe they muft learn to place their parcels 
with more judgment. 

Phi. I buy Cloth upon 9. meneths Time, which is to ride out i, then to difcount for 6. 
moneths .• paying for tbem m Banck, and enjoy Banck- monies allowance in hand. 

Se h. Cloth Debitor to the Man, for the whole coft upon 9. Moneths : and then , the 
Mtn Debitor to Cloth for the Difcount j and then, the Man Debitor to Banck for the 
fumme writ in.- andthcn,Cz(h Debitor to Profit and Loffe $ becaufe the monyby me 
written in Banck, and the Difcount, counter- vailed thefirft Principall upon 9.moneths. 

Fhtl. I buy Barly upon 8.moneths time,difcounting inftantly 5 paying part in Mony, part 
byAifignement,part with Rye •• the remainer in Banck, abating (o much as the Banck- 
momes allowance is worth. 

Sth. Barly Debitor to the Man, for the whole upon 8. moneths : 2. the Man Debitor to 
Cafh for the fumme payd .3. the Man Debitor unto him, who was to pay my Affignati- 
on forhis own account : 4. The Man Debitor to Rye, for the delivered value: 5. The 
Man Debitor to Banck for the fumme made good, either upon his account, or, upon the 
account of another, by his order: 6. The Man Debitor to Profit, and Loffe, for Banck- 
mooies allowance •, becaafe this, and the Banck- mony, make both but one compleat pare 
of payment ■ but it I had writ in Banck his compleat part of payment , and he made 
good the mony for Banck allowance to me, by paying it in hand 4 then rauft we enter, 
Cafh Debitor to Profit, and Loffe : 7. The Man Debitor to Barly for the 8. moneths dif- 
count. Nota,Henry Waninghen, Chapter 2. ^ueftton 14. entereth the Man Debitor to Pro- 
fit, and Loffe, tor the difcount. Paflchier Cooffens, ?u tyamburgrj, printed 1594. f*rcell 
44. 47. and others, entreth the like. Johannes Buingha, folio 39. gueftion 7. entretb the 
like. J: Carp enter, fol.34. his Booking is with Henry Waninghen the 14. parceU alike $ and 
.. -nely an Imitator: andfo of other Authors. But premeditation fheweth, that the ite- 
ptt es of com modities mould »»/ & carried unto Profit, and Loffe, as our printed Authors 
in generall do, without any further in- fight into the nature or the matter : For Barly, which 
before was Barly upon time, is now become Barh for Ready- monj % which atche buying 
(in refpec"t of the Time I was to fland outbid have the ufc of the mony in mine own hands) 
coft me more then it now will yield me Ready mony ; the while then Barly upon 8. mo- 
neths was more chargedjat the buying, then it now is worth Contant, reafon requireth that 
Barb) fliould be dtfeharged^ becaufe I have disburfed my mony .• See Ralph Handfon upon 
Abatements in his Table. 

This muft be well regarded in Rebates, to the end, that each/far/* may bear his own 
Burthen 5 well noting, that the Rebate* are not made good in mony: See Ralph Handfon. 

ff^Butifwebuyfundry commodities, and have an allowance upon the whole buying, 
then muft we enter, 

The man of whom I bought, Debitor to Profit, and Loffe Proper •• for no one commo- 
dity may enjoy the allowance made upon the whole Cargo,or Parcell $ and to make a divifi- 
on pio rato, of each commodities Capitall, would be a troublefome (bht true) worke: 
therefore Profit and Loffe Is the briefeft carriage in fiich matters, being the Facts after 
either of the wayes, redoundeth unto our finall advance for the Abatement. This in briefe. 

R . SForReady-mony,andprefentlypay: bee the 65. place. 

y in g^Upon "me,the conditions being fcvcrall : See 66,67,68,69,70. 


Phil. I buy Wares,for other Wares j value being equall. 

Sch. In bought Wares(what name foever) Debitor to the Deliverd Wares : this is fel- 
dome feen. <r> But if writing be not tedious unto us, or we not paper-penurious , the 
btft,and moft uniforme Booking (in refpecl of the generall verieries) of giving, or recei- 
ving of diverfities (being Wares, and Mony, or feveralf WarcsJ istohave the received 
Wares Debitor to the Trucking Mah -, ?nd then,tbe Trucking Man Debitor to the Deli- 
vered Wares. 
' Thil, 



An InttodetBion to Merchants Accombis, 

7a Phil. You have related your mmde in things of an Equall value; but if I buy Wares 
paying with other \ Wares and Mony. 

Sch. Henry Waninghen, Chapter 2. unto the 6. gurflion, anfwereth in Dutch; 'iTaWt 
totmen faopt 3>tbtf«en Caffa, 35aet naer, Caffa 2Deuitatn't goet oatmen tocgljaft, / Eneltfh it .• 
The Wares that we buy, Debitor to Cafh ; afterwards, Cafh Debitor to the Wares thai 
we deliver: as thus, The Wares that 1 buy are worth ioo. I. and the Wares that I deli- 
ver are worth 90. l.Confequently, J paying the Man, he muft have 90. 1. in Wares, and 
10. 1. in Menj ; fo that Cafh is for the 10. C paid, more Credit then Debitj therefore Cafh 
htrh its due. With Henry Waninghen agreeth $, Carp enter i fot. z. parceffi. as bove ; he 
writeth, the goods bought, owe unto Cam for the whole fumme: and after, . Czdi ow* 
eth unto the goods, which you have delivered tathe Seller, for the value of them. 






Phil. Seeing you Imitate irientring. of their Words 5 haYe ttwy your Approbation t 
Sch. I have related their words, not as an affectionate- follower, but as an Admirer of 
their Imitation. For as in the 1 7. and 5 1 . place by this xJ» is faid •, C am may not be na- 
med{ no not Named) but where Mony is either Really paid, or received: Nota, and the while 
that it isabfolurelyfalfe, that Cafli hath in the above-mentioned 72. place not faid out 
ioo.l.butonely 10. 1. nor hath it /■«««#</ any peny of the 90. 1. therefore foe the 90. L 
on each fide, I fay Cajh is aa Jffe. 

Phit. But in the conclufion, itcometh all foonepnrpofe. 

Sch. That is not meteriall : why many words, when few may fuffice i For *f. Carpenter 
fol. si.parcell 7. anfwereth dkeif to the number ; The goods which you buy, owe to the Sel- 
ler : And contrarily, He owethto Cafh, and to the goods which you have deliver edhim. This 
is fomewhat like a mans mony : But as in the 71. 'place is faid 5 Idlenefle in writing, or? 
Penurioufneffe in paper, is the caufe of thefe Folly entrances. For not onely in this,' but in 
Exchanges,and the like, becaufe we will not have (as fome terme it) a Book full of namts t 
we muft have our paffages fmothered 'under the covert of imaginary obfeurity * whefeas 
we may have them deleclably Booked, if we were not fparing in writing.3Daec en is mef, 
jonoertoercact, Nothing without trouble. But I have no time to difcuffe other mens works 3 
therefore let me proceed. 

Phil. I buy Wares, delivering a g-eat value •, and receiving the Over-plus back in 

Sch. In-bought Wares Debitor to rhr Selling Man, for their value; 2. The Man De- 
bitor to Delivered Wares, for their value • 3. Cafh Debitor to the Man, for the Received 
mony, to <*quall the Truck. So, in brief ; it the Wares are of an equall value, then enter 
Bought Wares, Debiror to the. Trading man: *, Trading Man Debitor to Delivered 
Wares; becaufe the value is equall. If un-equall, and Mony given ; then enter, In- bought 
Wares Debitor to the Trading Man : and /Af»,Trading Man Debitor to Delivered Wares, 
and to Cafh. But if un-equall, and Mony Received ; In- bought Wares, and Cafh, Debitor 
to the Trading Man : and then, Trading (Vfan Debitor to Delivered Wares. And fo I prcr 
ceed to Wares bought,which are to be 

Delivered race, 2. 3. Weekes, or Moneths after 
the agreement. 

Ph'.l. I buy Wares, agreeing now for Quantity, and Price j but am to receive them il 
moneths hence. 
Sch. The Promiftng to an is.Debitor to Promt fc-rcckoning* 

Phil. I have already by this one parcell conceived, that you digreffe from divers Pnntei 

Aathors : for, 

Paflchier Gotflens tfBrtffeljn the German Language, 
Pteter Nicolaefon Daventrienfts. 



An Introduction to Merchants Accompts, 

:o 7 



Tramfporting of Aceoums in the Leager from one 
Leafe unto another. 

Phil. What are the Motives t 

Sch. They may be tm •, ihe one, when the Leaves of the Leager are full written in 
the Debitor, or Creditor fide, or both. The other, becaufe the former accounts are 
concluded, fo that upon foot of that account, generally there remained a remainer due 
to me , or from me •, and we will have the account begunne again upon a Ne 9 

Phil. Is this all i 

Sth. Herein again is to be obferved , whether thofe accounts that are to be Tran- 
fported, be Comirudmei-accounts, which in New leaves *re to be continued as upon 
the former: or, whether they are Ships-parts, Houfes, Rents, Lands, Imerefts, Infuran- 
ces, Ficlor'Acccunts , or the like : ot which (for that time) we make no cflimaiion of 
E/ldte, but onely a tranfport for Tradings further continuance, untill a Generall Ballance 
be made. 

Phil. Howmuft Commodities-reckonings fitly be tranfported,to make true Journal' 
parcells of tnem 1 

Sch. In all tranfports (if poflible) muft heedfully be heeded, that not any parcell be po- 
fted \vii\i Blindc(ummes> or Blancks, as fomc tearme them: that is, Not without Monj- 
fummes. Many in their Books tranfport with Blanket in their Leager, yet have Mony to 
tranfport, if they had Art to carry them handfomelj forwards 5 to which end obferve the 
enfuing Documents. 

Suppofe the Wares were Cambrix-cloth, and the whole Debitor- fide contained 400. 
Peeces,whichcoft76'5.r.8.iB. and that the whole faleinthe Creditor- fide were 278. Pee- 
ces -, producing in mony§. Nota, thefe cannot be fubftra&ed from each other 
to make Journall parcells, but in the one will be Wares without Mony ; and in the other 
Mony without Wares : which kind of Tranfports are very abfurd, though ufed by 

Their forme U as tbii Injlance. 


June,coft of Peeces. 400 
7 Auguft,carried to new ac- 
count. $ 

Peeces 400. 78^.1*. 10. 1 

r 7 (5 J 8 

3 4 * 




July, fales of Peeces. 278. 
Auguft,carried to new ac- 
count. 1 22 

Peeces 400. 78?. i*. 10. 


To avoid the above-entred abfurdity of Wares in one Journal 1 parcell, but no Monj •, and 
Monj in the other Journall parcell, but no Wares: enter as the enfuing Journall inflance 

Cambrix-cloth upon/*//'* 30. Debitor to Cambrix-cloth nponfolto 12. 765. f. 8.g. for 
the prefentcofts of 4oo.Peeces, being the whole Debitor- fide, in Wares, and Mony for 
want of place tranfported to a new leafe,the mony is 7^5.l'.8.s. 

And then 

Cam brix- cloth upon/*//'* 12. Debitor to Cambrix-cloth upon folio $0. 78?. f. xo.g. 
for the fales of 278.Peeces, being the whole Creditor-fide,in Wares, and Mony, tran- 
fported for want of place to a new lcafe, the mony being 789.1*. io.g. 

Thus ought each Journall parcell in Wares tranfporting truly to be Journalized , 
then the Leager will ftand as this enfuing inftance inftanceth. 

F$l. 12. 


An Introduction to Merchants Jccompts. 




Jane, cofts of Peeces. 400. 
Auguft , carried to new ac- 
count Peeces, 278 

Peeces 678. 1554. l\ 18. s. 



12. Creditor. 

3 July, fales of Peeces.278. 

7 Auguft,carried to new ac- 1 

count. 400 30765 

Peeces.678. 1554.1*. tS.s. I 








And folio 30. xoillfand 
7.Aug.cofts of Peeces 40o.7<?5.f.8.6. '7.Aug.fales of Peeces 

Here you fee the Leager ftand again as formerly it did, to be continued in writing, as 
before : here you fee each Journall parcell cornpleately carried : and thus ought Factor- ac- 
counts to be crofTed •• Forrain-mony, under' Forrain-mony, as here Peeces under Peeces : 
and Inlandift-mony under Inlandim-mony, as before is inftanced. Nota, Do the like in 
Houfes, Lands, Rents, Legacies, Interefts, Ships-parts, Infurances, and the like.- becaufe 
the principall (by Dedu&ion)(hould-not be Diminifhed untill the finall rimming of thofe 

Phil. Is this an ufuall courfe in the tranfporting of all kinds of accounts ? 

Sch. No.-InyourGenerall accounts with Common-trading-people, as alfo inCafh, 
Bank, Stock, Profit and Loffe, or the like: deduct the Leffer from the Greater, and make a 
Journall parcell for the difference, as thus : 

If the Debitor- fide of any of the above-named accounts (which are 
to be ttanfported)|be heaviefb then for the difference make the 

Mel* account Debitor to the old 

If the Creditor-fide be heavieft, then for the difference of any of thofe ac- 
counts, make the 

old account Debitor to the New. 

Phil. What Obfervationsarife from hence i 

Sch. Hence is it manifeft, that in the Leager ought to be neither Dehiter,aot Creditor,b\xt 
fuch as have their 

original! from the journall, 

whole proper Office it is,to explain why the one mut, or thing is Indebted unto the other, . 
as hereafter in the Explication of the Journall Office (hall appear in the 244. place: and fo 
I end with the Third Ground 'matter fit which the Journall is made. 

Phil. Explicate the fourth Ground-matter, of which the Journall is made. 
Sch. The fourth Member of the 9. place, faith,that it proceedeth from the 

Equalising, or, even-making of over, or J under-meafures, 
Weight, Leackage, Pounds, Ells, 
or the like. 

Phil. Inftance fome matters in Prof er- accounts. 

Sch. When we find any under-meafure in Corn, or Leakage ia Wine, or Shortneffe in 
Length . then «ttr,Profit and Loffe Debitor to the naming- matter; rating it as you pleafe : 
for that rating neither augmenteth,nor diminimeth your Eftate ;but is onely done for de- 
centnefle,to have mony in the Debit,and Credit of fach Journall parcell:. 


a rf Jin Introduction to Merchants Jccompts. 







Phil. Rehcarfc fome inftancesin Factorage- accounts. 

5f A. If in weight I find in any commodity leffe by falcs, beewfe of drinefs, or the like ; 
enter, John KnollYis account Currant, Debitor to John Knotlbis account of Saffron: ratin" 
them as before, to bring them into the true form of Debitor and Creditor ,in Journall and 
Leager. Hence may eafily be gathered how to deal in Company- accounts j whichl now 
pafle, and fo proceed to the next matter in order. 

Phil. Whence arifeth the Ft ft Ground- matter, thatmaketba Member of the" Jour- 
ich. In the 9. place it is faid to arife from the 

Ledgers ■ Conclufton t or saUamhtS of the 

Phif What Caules may move a man to a Generall Ballance < 
Sch. The fame may be either of thefe three : 

1. When the Journall, and Leager are full written ; ?_.. - . 
fo that there muft be New- Books :- '■ fallen is a Bai- 

2 . When a Merchant ceafeth from Trading : — f ' ance re ^ at " 

?. When thebook-Owner departeth this world: ) te " 

Phil. What underftand you by the word Ballance t 

Sch. By Ballance I andetftand, An Eqnall- making in Equivalent manner all the Open- 
Jlandtng Le ager-acc ounts 5 tranfporting all thofe Open-ftanding Leager differences under 
One laft framed accounts Title, whofe name Generally we call Ballance : for being that 
that account includefh all the Leagers remaining differences •, fo it conclude th with Ont f ole« 
ly it felf. Nota, the word Ballance feemeth to be borrowed from a pair of Scales : for as 
true Scales ought neither to be heavier then other ; fo a true taked Generall Ballance ought 
t>ot to differ the leaft naming value :for the Generall Debitor and Creditor muft juftly 
counter-poize each other in even-monies nomination 5 elfe, the Book is out of fqoare; the 
fu mines ill taken, or amuTe added. In place of the word Ballance, I mould rather enter 
• Eflate reckoning ■• for by drawing the whole Book to a head, I draw with One an account 
of my Eflate. Simon Stevin in his Prince fy 'Book- kteping, carrieth the Leager s difference at 
the Years end, unto the firft begun Stock when he began his Books: but he contradi#eth 
himfelf. for he began well the Firfl dayof January, in making all that owed to him Debi- 
tors to Stock •, and Stock Debitor to them- who were Dcbt-demanders : but at his Leagers 
concluding, the 3 1. of December, he entreth Stock Debitor to his Debitors 5 and he entreth 
his Debt demanders, as Augmentors of his Stock. Such entrances made by him are but a 
mijlakeonelj ; in me they were meer Abfurdities. 

Ballante is either a Trials or True-bdlance. 
Of the Tryall ballance. 

fill. Relate the manner of making a Tryall-ballance. 

Sch. Add the Debitor fu'mmes of all the Leager Un- eqnall- of tn- (I ending- atctttnts 
upon a Paper together, or in a Book thereto prepared.- then, add all the Creditor 
parcels in the whole Leager together by themfelves-, becaufe the Uniformity of the Generall 
Additions mould be manifeftedj if they be to each other equivalent , then (if no 
whole parcell be left put) are the Journall, monj farcelU truely tranfported into the Lea* 

Phil. What more is to be faid of the Tryall- ballance. . 

Scb. The Trjall-balUnfc h of too forts .• The fiift is a Survay (as above) of the Leager 









— — ■ ■ — i I ■'-— ■ ■!— — ■ « ■■--..-. i. ■■■ i i ■ i I |— .mi. i i ■■ ■' ■ I — ^— — — I i , — m i — —^— 

An Introduction to Merchants Accompts, ltj 

accounts, fo foon as all the parcells are tranfported out of the Wife-book into the'Journall, 
andFrom thence into the Leager : tfeta^ before any unfold wares, or Cain, and Lojfeoizny 
accounts be meddled with. Of fuch matter is the firft ballance of the three-fold- mom- bal- 
lancem my Great Wafte-Book, printed 1621. at Am fterdam in Engii(h,and Dutch % and 
(hall be in this Book. 

* Phil. Inftance the fecond fort. 

Scb. The fecond fort of the Tryall- ballance is feen,when all unfold Wares^nd Out-hnd- 
tjh monies- are rated : all Abatements,^ likewife Gaines or Lojjes are known. Of fuch matter 
is the fecond Three- double- monj-ballanceia my Great Wafte-Book 5 and (hall be in this. In 
ih\s fecond ballance is alfo comprifed the parcells appertaining to the true ballance : *//r,that 
fecond ballance could not be even- weighty. ' 

Of the True-ballance. 

Phil. Proceed to the fame. 

scb. The true-bdllance arifeth from the Remainers of Leager accounts ; as well in Monj, 
Unfold Wares, Voyages not wholly- fold, Houses, Lands; People, &c. not yet compleatly 
perfected : and are therefore tranfported to the New-Books} to be there fully finilhed : 
Leaving the old- Books to their perpetual! reft, except fome Scrupulous matter moleft 
them. Of fuch matter is the Third ballance of the Three-double- meny-ballance in my Great 
Wafte- Book, and (hall be in.this. 

observations in hallancing of the 

J3ut for a preparative, firft ntte, that even as the Monies, Wares, Voyages, Houfes, 
Lands, and people were in their accounts (whether Debitors, or Creditors) even fo muft 
they ftand in your Ballance :. and fo of each other matter. Reafon, for Ballance repre- 
fenteth in that onely account,all that the other reprefent through the whole Book : for if 
they were Debitors, Ballance is a.Debitor in their place: if they were Creditors, Ballance 
is likewife a Creditor. 

phil. Go forwards in this matter. 

Sch. There ought to beobferved A Decent Order ia Leagers ballancing .• that is, Which 
account ought prfi to be concluded, and which laftj both in Debitor. and Creditor fide : 
this is not of Neceffity,but for Decentnefle in Order* 

Phil. Prdfecute your opinion in the Order. 

Sch. Firft, ballance the accounts of the People of whom you bought: or to whom 
youfould: Reafon: becaufe all Difcounts, Abatements, Mif-caftings,6r Omiflions that 
have happened, may be rectified : to the end-each account may bear its own burthen : take 
then the difference of each mans account (being found to agree) and enter them into your 
Ballance-Book (as in the 218. place is mentioned) untill the finall Ballance be found even- 

Phil. Which next ? 

Sch. Secondly, ballance the Peoples accounts with whom you had to deal for Ex- 
changes, Aflignations, or the hke : entring the differences into your Ballance-Book there- 
unto prepared, 

Phil. What fofloweth : 

Sch. Thirdly, ballance your Fattors accounts : firft for Proper, and then for cwpanj, 
(but there is no neceiUty in this Order 3 as it faid) the Remainers being well found , your 




An Introduction to Merchants Jccompts, 







For 100. Pieces of Cambrix 
(hipt at 3. 1\ each Piece, is 300.V. 


For Sales of 80. 
a.r.i6,B. is 234.1'.- 

Unfold, 20. Pieces, at 
3.1". fa Piece, — 

Loft by Salcs,- 


— X6.i'- 

Summe— 300.1'. • 


Phil. Go forward in the order of your Leagers Balancing. 

Sch. Fifthly, ballance your Commodities-accounts •, firft for Proper r then, for Company, 

Phil. Suppofe them all fold •, and there is Gaines. 
Sch. The firft Voyage is a Prefident. 

Phil. Suppofe your Commodities to be fold in part. 
Sch. The fecond Voyage is an Inftance. 

Phil. Suppofe that none of your Commodities are fold. 
Sch. The third Voyage ftieweth the form. 

Phil. Suppofe loffe upon the Sale of part of your Commodities, or upon the whole. 
^A.IflolTe upon part Sales, the Fourth Voyage is an Inftance.* Iflofle upon the Sale rf 
a whole parcell : See 



For if. Butts of Sack coft 
with charges. 

-134. F.8. 


For Sale of 1 6. Butts, at 
8. f. 6. is 

Loft by the Sale- 


-i.r. 12 

Summe i34.iu8. 

Under tha name of Commodities in the fecond branch of the 10. place, is included Houjes, 
Lands, Ships-parts •, upon which if you will fee the yearly Gain, or Lofle, then rate them 
asthey coft •, entring them in Credit as in the fecond Voyage: then, in your Houfe, and 
Land will appear what is gained by the Rents, above reparation, and maintaining of them -, 
and in your Ships parts will be made plain what is advanced by their Voyages, more then 
her victualling: carrying your Proper Gains or Lofs,to Profit and Lofs proper-, and Com- 
panies Gain, or Lofs, to Profit and Lofs in Company. But if you wrll let them run on un- 
till tne finall ending of them?, then crofs them, as is (hewed in the fecond Inftance of 
Cambrix-clotb, in the 2op. place. 

Phil, What followeth next in the Ballance order? 
. Sch. Sixthly, ballance your Company Profit and Lofs, imparting to each Partner his due 
upon fit account: and your part upon Profit and Lofs proper. 

Seventhly, ballance your Partners account, tranfpertine the difference unto your Bal- 
lance- book (as inthe 218. place is mentioned) untill the finall ballance be found Eaven- 

Eighthly .ballance Cam, and Bank.carrying their differences to your Ballance- booK. 

Ninthly, conclude your Profit and Lofs proper, carrying the difference to your Stock- 
Tenthly, conclude your Stock-account . trarrfportmg that difference (Which is the 



An IntroduBion to Merchants Acconipts. 51 

fumroeofyourEftate)unto your Ballance-book: then ought your Ballance account to 
be equall-weighty. 

NOT A y 

Having drawn all your Leager to ahead in your Billance-Book, and found it to b eright 
taken: then may you take your Journall in hand, and poft theraas they in order follow 
upon your Ballance- book, unto your Ballance-account in the Leager. 

QtifycuiwUl not make a Ballance-account in your Leager, you may let your Ballance- 
book be your private contentment , and trarifport each Ballance- parcell out of the Old 
Leager into the New." avoiding your Ballance- writing into the Journall, both at the End 
of the Old Leager; or beginning of the New.- enuring into the Old Leager the folio whi- 
ther carried into the New ; and in the New Leager the leaf from whence that remaineris 
brought out of the Old Leager-, and fo avoid (perhaps) the writing of two or three hun- 
dred Journall- parcels in both Leagers; 

Particular Observations upon each fide of the trut- ballance in fiebit, 
and Credit, for. the Memories refrefhing. 

Thil. Rehearfe firft the Obfervations that arife upon the Debitor- fide of 'the True- bdl- 
Sch^ In a much -Trafficking- Merchants- Books are five things to be regarded : 

1 People— unto whom we fold, or that have promifed us payment o f Ex- 
changes, or Affignations, and the like. 
Partners— unto whom we have delivered Mony or Wares, to be by 
them imployed for the Companies good, 
em in Falters— that ferve us in Commiflion,— Cwho as yet have not given 
^Maftcrs— whom we ferve in Commif- <us full fatisfa&ion : Again, 

lion, 1 cthe firft of thefe two may 

arife frorri Proper, Factorage, or Company-: 
Secondly of the Unfold Wares, formerly ftiipt to another Town, or Land, there to be 
fold for Prefer, Factorage, or Contfany ^account,. 

Thirdly, of Matters as yet remaining Unfold under our own Adminiftration": confiding a- 
gain in Wares, Houfcs,Lands,-fewels,ships-parts,znd. the like •• whereof fome of thofe Wares 
[maybe for Proper, Fatforage,cft Company-accounts .- and thokjhipsparts for Proper, of 
J Company- accounts. 

Fourthly, of the Ready-mony inCa{h,in Bank, or in both. 

Laflly, of Company Gain, and Lofle ; of the which we (till keep an open-ftaoding- ac- 
count, becaufe the Company continueth in Trading, upon unchangeable terms. And thefe 
in fubftance are all that concern the Contents of Ballances-Debitor-fide. 

2 Ail Phil. Proceed to the obfervations in the Creditor -fide of the True ballance. 
Sch. Four things are needfully to be regarded. 

C People— of whom we bought, as alfo, whofe Exchanges we accep- 

Ited 5 or whofe Affignments we promifed unto their Cre- 
ditor, having entrcd their Creditor into my book in place* 
of them. 
Debt-demandtrt 5 A Partners— of whom we have received Mony, or Wares, toim- 
andthemin j ploy for Company-account, Urato whom (as yet) we 

I lidfters- whom we ferve in Commif- ^have not given full con- 

I fion, went: The laft of thefe 

'\JF dtlors- that ferve us in Commiflion,t may arife, either from 

Proper, Factorage, or Cdmpany-accaunts. 
H 2 secenfy, 


51 An lnt/ocfuBwn to Mcrcban s /ccompts. 

Secondly Unfold- Wares, Htufes, Lands , Iewels, Rents, Voyages, and the like • upon which 
accounts the Gains otLofs (at prefent) isnotdefired to be known \ but are deferred untill 
the finall finding or mat account, then to know the Geneiall Gain, or Ltfs upenthe fame- 
and thefe for Proper, fome for Failorage, and fome for Company Accounts. 

Thirdly, in Companies Profit and Lofs Reckonings, becaufc the divifion is nor made in 
thefe Old-books, but profecuted untill rhe Companies finall rjniihing. 

Lafflj, in Stock- account , whole difference muft be carried to Ballance ^ for that difference 
muft make ycur Ballance- account Eavtn weighty in the Gtntrall Addition : Nota, for in it is 
contained the true difference between the Ready mony, Wares, Houfts, ejre. Debitors in your 
Ballance debit -fide, and the Dcbtdemandcrs in the Creditor fide of your Ballance-ac- 
count. Or more plain -, take the whole Debit- fide of your Ballance, deducl from that all 
that you owe : and the differing mony will be Ecjuall-weigbty, with the difference brought 
from your Stock account. And thus much of the fifth matter , of which the Journal is made. 




Of the Journalls Form. 

'Phil. This is the fecond branch in the Eight place : of which let melieare your Explica 

Sch. The Form is generally in folio, or the full bignefs of the Paper, be it fmall ,or large : 
Ruled towards the left-hand with one line, and towards the right-hand with three : entring 
between them 1'. S 6. as in the Waite- book Is, and in the Journals Inftances fha'.l be made 

Some ufc two lines towards the left-hand, as doth Simon Stevin in his Princely book- 
keeping- Iouwall ufe three : entring therein the Day, and Monet h: but that maketh the 
Journall between line, and line, too narrow. My manner of my day, and Mtneths entran- 
ces (hall be (hewed in the Explication of the Journals Office. 

ThisBobkisby/tf/wfnumbredoneach leaves-fide: the beginning- fide with 1. the fe- 
cond with a. and fo through all the Book : of which I approve, and ufe it. For in a Great- 
trafficking- book (as an Eafl, Wejl, Turkj, or the like Company) feverall fides are oft- 
times filled in one day.- fo that the Margin of the Leager quoteth direcJly to the fide of 
thatjournall-leaf, where the defired parcell is: and fo avoideth the pefufall of needlefle 

Of the Journalls Office. 

Phil. Let me know that : for that is the third Notable matter mentioned in the Eighth 

sch. The Journalls Proper office is, to have the Matter (thereunto appertaining) entred 
in hook-keepings true method, with words fuitable to the Attion ; plainly exr^effing what 
ever was obfeurely booked in other books. 

Book-keepings office u, to book the a&ed matter in the true Nomination of Debitor and 
Creditor, with the brief (yet plaint Circumftances of the Action. Heedfully in this Jour- 
nall muft be obferved, that the Debitor, that is,the Man,ot Thing, that ought to be charged, 
be firft named, and placed towards the left- hand, as thus': 

James Mirth is Debitor. 

Then enter the Creditor, Man, or Thing, that ought to be difcharged, as thos 
lames Mirth is Debitor to lohn Melody. 

Unto them annex the quantity of Mony, as thus : 

James Mirth is Debitor to John Melody ^oo.l'.i 2-S. 8.$. 

There-umoaddethereafonwhytheOaeMan, or Thing is indebted to the other : and 
this is gathered from the a&ed matter. 

Phil. As how : 

Sch: Compare the Waftebook parcels in the 6. place, with the enfuing Journall parcels 
framed out of them, and the Meafons may appear by the Circumftances. 



An IntroduBion to Merchants Accompts, 










Dito is Debitor to Bank 369. F. 1 3. 10. i ti. written by his order upon the 1 
account oi John tfohnfenftncky being the full of the before- mentioned ex 
change-,the fumme written in, is 


D//0 is Debitor to Profit and Lofs 3. I". 14.8.8. for Bank-mony of £l 
2340.11.4. pen. at one fercentum^is 

Edward Denis of Northampton,^ account by me in Company, is Debi- 
tor to Dito Edward his account of Ready- monj, 213. X.— 5 f fi. for his 3 A of A 
3834.8. i». pen. produft of 18. Laft, 7. Mudde of Company Rye, fold to 
Iacob Iohn[o»r as above j f thereof is- : 



.3 14 .8 



Phil. What fignifie thofe Fractions \ f,.and the like, in the Margine f 
Jr*. Fractions they are none: but fignifying- figures concerning the Leager : for the Fi- 
gures above the ftroke, (hew upon what Leager- Leafe the Debitor's are to be found 5 and 
the Figures under the ftroke, point unto the Creditors in the faid Leager. 

Phil. Why are fome pointed, and not other fome i 

Scb. Thofe that are pointed, are tranfported into the Leager, the other not. 

thil. Some do not point at all. 

Sck. They are fubjeft to miftake, or they muft enter each figure above, and under, when 
they have cntred the parcell into their Leager, and that is tedious. The point* are very re- 
quifue to avoid Omiflions,or not to charge one fumme twice, if a man (hould be called 
from his porting. 

Phil. When do you enter the figures above, or under the ftroke i 

Seh. 1 lay the Journall open before me, making firft the ftraight ftrokes that are between 
the figures againft each parcell, on both fides of the Journall : then do I enter the folio, or 
leaves, or thofe figures, before I touch the Leager. 

Phd. How then i 

Sch. Then fetting my Journall before me, I tranfport all the Debitors and Creditors (that 
correfpond upon one Leager- leafe) one after another into the Leager ; then removing my 
hand from the Leager,trrrmediately I fet point by that Debitor,or Creditor,that is pofted 
into the Leager, without removing of my Journall. 

Thus much in brief of the Matter, Form^ and office of the 
Journall mentioned in the ninth place. 





3 • 




a . 


//wo 1634. *A* 7. day of June in London, (ij 

fcnt payment for Company- ufe, being- 

nj. Thomas Truft at Antwerp for company of J?W*// Rice *,and 
f for me, our account of Time, debitor to Voyage to Antwerp,con- 
figned to dito Thomas for our compaov \ , and t X. 1 5 1 5» 7- 0. for 
the enfuing Wares fold by him : the particulars are, viz.. 
8. Bales of Pepper, producing clear Ready-mony, 

as by the account ftl**753-94. 

30. Butts of Serrefe to latjues Gtrritftn % part at 
i. moneths, producing (whereof t is received) 
as by the account, clear mony QU i 2400. 

fil. 1 J 153.9.4. pen. reduced at 10. glor are- 

118. Dito Thomas for our company, as above>our account of Rea- 
dy-mony, debitor to the faid Thomas for company R.R, f, and f mc 
our account of Time f . 1 102.— 4.$. for gl.i 1020.3.9. pen. by him 
received of the before entred mony, is here — 

The t$.day of Jane. 1634. 

1 19. Debitors to Jacob Symonfon his account of Cambrix-doth, 
t.405. for 60. Pieces fold joyntly to the enfuing parties, at 6 X. 
IJ. 0. upon an equal I fhare, at 4. moneths time, viz., 

J Ames Wilkin f on 20. Pieces X.itf. 

George Tinchback 20. Pieces tf.13 5. 

Andrew Hitchcock 20.Pieces ^.135. ■ 

The Rule in the 244. place 
is contra- dicled. 

120. -fdcob Sjmonfon his account of Cambrix- cloth, debitor to 
Caih f .1.7.0. for Brokage of f 405. at J per centum, is — 

12 i.Z>//* to Profit and Lofsf. 8.1 2.0. for the enfuing particu- 
lars, viz. 

For Warerhoufe-room at 2.$. tor Piece V.— 10. 7 

For Provifion of Sales at i.per C. 

122. Dito to tfacob sjmonfon his account Currant I*. 390.14.0. for 
the neat proceed made good there,without my prejudice of debts, 
yet (landing out upon 4. moneths time; the fum now transported, is 

123. -fum du Boys for company Randoll Rice *, and \ for me, our 
account Currant, debitor to Thomas Trufi for dito company f 9 and 
} our account of Ready-mony f.1092. 17.10 .fi. 
mitted in his own Bills, dated their 2. prefent..- payable by, and un- 
to himfelf, exchange at are JJ . 3642. and here at — 

The 23, day of June 1624. 

124. Randoll Rice his account Currant, debitor to Diego 
del Varino his account of Fruits ft 541. 4. 0.| 

M forts 



II — 









1092 17 








Anno 1^4., the 20 day offuly in London. (19 

185. Rahdoil Rice his account by me in company debitor to Bal- 
lance 1.991.7.6.$. for Co much due to him upon this account- 

186. Hendrick wander Linden i, $obn van met £, tfaqucs Reinjl f , 
their account bf commodities, debitor to; Ballance I.194. 12. 1. 0. 
for 160; Piecesr of Figs, and 4. Bales of Pepper fold, being the 
whole Wares inCredit, tranfported thus to have the account com- 
pleac in new books, as it here ftandeth : the mony is 

1 87. ifito Companj their account of Ready- mony debitor to Bal- 
lance 1 99.7«7-fr for conclude due to them 

188. Dito Companj their account of Time, debitor to Ballance 
£.93' l $'%'fi' due to them for conclude of this account, being-"- 

1 Zp. Ballance debitor to Cafh £.947.2.1.$. and is for fo much by 
conclude remaining therein, and tranfported, being 

190. Profit and Lofs debitor to Stock l\ 1046.8.10.$. forgaines 
in this handle, tranfported to conclude this account, being 

191. Stock debitor to Ballance £.2902.12.7.$. for the difference 
of that account, being my prefent Eftate * and, tranfported thither 
toconclude this, being 1- 

End of the fournaU 



s 8 


















Aving (in form as is inftanced ) cntred all the trading- parcels of 
Merchandizing into the Journall in fuch after-following man- 
ner as they daily happened . then hath the 'Book owmr his 
whole Trading, with all the Circumftances in writing": but 
not in fuch fort, that he .is able to confer with any man about 
his accounts : for each mansfeverall Parcels are difperfed through the whole 
Journall; neither doth it (in drawing an account to a Head upon a Paper) 
content the mind, fearing that any Parcels might be mif taken or omitted. 
Upon the likeReafon we may conjefture the Obfcurity in knowing what 
mony isinCafh, what weight, meafure, and quantity of any Commodity 
might be in the Ware houfe ; what Profit or Lofle there is upon any fort of 
Wares, or Matter,- what Weekly, or Monethly debts are to be received,or payd 
for Wares, or Exchanges : and many fuch like. 

For the avoyding of all fuch diffidences, the Journall Parcels muft be 
tranfported into the Leager in fuch manner, that all what doth concern one 
mans particular, muft (under one accounts Title) be gathered together, to mt f 
all hisDebit parcels upon the Left-hand 5 and all his Credit parcels upon the 
Right-hand of the Open lying Ledger, of the which many inftances follow in 
theLeager : the like manner muft beufed in each fort, as Mony, Wares people , 
or what ever clfe 5 each muft be gathered together in an Exquifite form,with 
few words. 

The thing charged , or Debitor, muft have its difcharge, or Creditor, 

I even oppofice againft it felfe when the Lcager lieth open. In this Leager, 
where Fol, ftandeth between the lines before the L, both upon the Right 
and Left hand, are many Arithmetical Characters. The Character, Cha- 
racters, or Figures that ftand between the two lines upon the Debitor 
fide, point (as with a finger) unto the Folio where each (cverall lines Cre- 
ditor ftandeth in the faid Book, whether it be upon the lame Leafe , or 
Ielfe where : Contrarily, the Figures that ftand between the two lines 
upon the Creditor- fide, point at the Folio where each feverall lines 


Of the Leager. 

Debitor ftandeth in the faid Book, whether upon the feme Leafe or elfe- 

In Brief t 

The Owner, or the Owing thing, 
Or what-fo-ever comes to thee : 
Upon the Left-hand fee thou bring % 
For there the fame mufl p laced be. 


thej unto whom thou doefl orve t 
Upon the Right let them befet 5 
Or tvhat-fo-ere doth from thee go, 
To place them there do not forget* 


Book fiieweth our true Eflate in each particular account { whether Bought, 
Sold, Sent, or Received , Commodity : People within , or without the 
Ltnd ; Exchanges which way-fo-erer , and the Coynes of thefe feve- 
rall places ; Faftorage , Company % or what account elfe belongeth to Trafficki 
So that the Leager is the Mimur by which onely the Eftatc can truly } and 
plainly be difcerned. 













I4f a 3 

X 4* 






. I 


F0I.1.) dnno \6fy in London, 


Ofb is Debitor. 

Janu. To Stock, for feverall coynes of raony — 

FebV. To Ucob Sjmonfen his account Currant — — 

April To €eerge Pinchhack, received in fall — 

May To Figs f R. R. f for me 

Dito to l*mcs Wtlkinfoit) received to clear a track 

June To Diego del Vtrino his account of Cam — 

Dito To Profit and Lofle, gained by Diego's fruits 

July To George Pincbaclc received by his Alignment — 
Dito To l*cob Sjmonfen his account Currant — — 

Dito To R*ndeU tice his account Currant — 

Dito To Andrew Hitchcock received in part — — 

Summe — 


stock is Debitor. 

Jann. To Iacob Sjmonfen his account Carrant — 
July To Bdllance, for conclude carried thither 


wares are Debitors. 

Janu. To Stock, refting untold — 
July To Profit and Loffe gained 













6\ 284 
II 100 


- 2 



r 5-7 


11. 1 



. 1 






































• 7 






Anno \6\\k in London. Fol. 1 

Cajb is Creditor. 

Janu. By George Pincbback, paid in part- 
Diro By fames JYtlkinfen, paid in x par,t— 
Dito By George Pinchback, paid him- 


Febr.By lac. Symonfon. \\\% account of Couchaneille,payd 
Dito by voyage to Lisborn>configned to Diego del fart- 
no for company f,and f paid — — 
March by Danfick-exchange for Arthur Mump, and me J 
Dito By Kerfies in .Company f lacob Symonfon, f for me 
Dito By lacob Symonfon his Cambrix cloth — — 
Dito By lacob Sjmonfon his account Currant — — 

Dito By Figs in company f R. R. J for me » — 

Dito By Hendrick vander Linden, and Company their ac- 
count of commodities, for charges — 

April By Silver, for charges of 8. Barrs — 

May By Randoll %ice his account Currant — 

Dito By Amfterdam- exchange i fox lacob Symitfon — 

June By Diego dtl varino his account of Cafh — 

Dito By Figs in Company f R.R. f for me; 

Dito By Andrew Hitchcock paid him- 

Dito By lacob Symonfon his account of Cambrix-cloch-- 
July By Ballance, tranfported thither to conclude this- 

Summe — 

stock is Debitor. 

Janu. By Cam, for feverall coyhes of mony — — 

Dito By Wares for fundry forts unfold — 

Dito By Kettles for 5. Barrels unfold — — — 
Dito By lean du Soys at Roan my account Currant— 
Dito By lacob Symonfon my account by him in company 
Dito By lacob Symonfon his account of Couchaneille— 
July By Profit and Loife, gained by this handle— — 


warn are Creditors. 

Janua. By Kerfies in company, by me layd in 
March By lacob Symtn(on t fold to him— 

L. 1 

,. 90 


Summe— 6090 





1 1 


144 - 
I20 ! — 


f 5 -5 



. . 2 




• 7 
99] 1 9 

5 c ^i9 







• 2 3 
. . 1 





l 3 







• 55 

• •3 














7) Anno \6\\ in London 







J'3J. 4 

X5J4. 17 




Profit and Lojfe in company v for jtWo// -Ricr, and 

* for mc, Debitor". 

Janu. To Profit and Loflc for charges of aRemife 

March. To Jean du Bojs t for his Provifion, and Brokage— 
July ToTborndsTrtflfiW account of Ready-mony ,loft-- 
Dito To RM.Ricefiis account by me in comp.fot* gains 
Dito To Profit and Lofle, for my part gains 






Trofitand LoJJe, Debitor, 

Tebiu. To Iactb Sjmortfm my account of Ready-mony, 

for his charges, being Brokage, and Provifion 

July To JAc.Symonfon ray account of Ready-mony, loft 

Dito To Silver, loft by the fale of 8. Banes. 

Dito To Stock, gained by this handle 


L s 

2 II 

444- 9 
296- 6 







3 xo 




25 r 

1 1046. 810 

_[„■- |L 





< Ba\lance J Debitor. 

July To $4cob Symenfon my account by him in company 
Dito To Jcandu Bojs^ for company J?..R.j,me^ Currant- 
Dito To Hen. van. Linden^nd comp. their coramodies- 
Dito To Voyage to Antw. in comp. R. tt. j, and \ me — 
Dito To Andrew Hitchcock due to me by conclude 

Dito To Arthur Mumpcrfon my account by him in comp. 
Dito To Tbo. Truftjor f ,me f our Time acco. 
Dito To Figs in comp.for Iacob Sjmnfon f ,and f for me- 
Dito To Cadi, refting therein, and brought hither 


2 3°i 





. I 




















Anno 1634* w London. (7 

Contra, Creditor. 

July By Voyage to Lisborn for dito company gained — 

Dito By /am dtt Boys, for dito company, gained 

Dito By Iacob Sjmonfon y for dito company, gained 

Dito By Voyage to Antwerp^ for dito company, gained- 

Summe — it 

F,l. Jl g 




80 11 

60 '— 

600 . 7 











• 9 






1534., 18 ao 

contra t Creditor. 

Janu. By Profit and Lofie in company} R.R.* me — 
Febru. By /<*?<>£ symonfon his Couchaneille, for provifion 
March By Kerfies in comp. J and i for provifion & gains 
April Bylaccb Symo/tftw my him in comp.gained 

Dito By Datjfick-exchange, gained by the fame 

May By George Pincbback upon Sugar gained — 

June By Iacob Symonfon his Cambrix tor provifion 

Dito By Cam, for provifion of Piego his Fruits — — 
July By Amfterdam-exchange >m company, gained — 
Dito By Figs A , and f in comp.for provifion and gaines— 
Dito By Wares gained thereby-: 

Dito By Kettles, gained thereby — '■ — — : — 

Dito By It An du Bays my account Currant gained r 

Dito By Voyage to Amfterdam configned to J.s. gained 
Dito By Intereft- reckoning, gained thereby — — 

Dito By Voyage to Lisborn f , and ] for my gaines 

Dito By Profit and Loffe f , and 3 for my 7 gaines 

Sum roe — r— 

BaUance, Creditor. 

July By iacob Sjmonfon his account by me in corapany- 
Dito By Randoll %ice his account by me in company — 
Dito By Hend.vandtr Lind, and comp.thcir commodities 
Dito HyBend.vand. Linden,znd comp.their ready- mony 
Dito By Hendtvdad.Lwd.aad comp.their Time account- 
Dito By Stock* for difference there,being my pr ef.eftate- 

Summe — il 4794. 3. 1 



Anno \6^\ the 2$. ofOHober in <tAmfleriiam. 



General. Ballancc^ or 



DU0T0 Banck, as in fol. 1 . appeareth- 
Dito. To Houfe King David, fol.i — 
Dito. To Sufanna Peeters Orphans — 
Dito. To Jack Pudding my account 

Currant - — - — 

Dito. To Wines, for 1 5 .Butts unfold 
Dito. To French Aquavitx, for 58. 


Dito. ToRye,fbri8.Laft, 7. Mudde, 

fol. 3. — 

1 _ 

Dito. ToCouchaneilIe,asinfol<4.— 

Dito. To Brafil, as in fol; < 

Dito. To Intereft-reckoriing, fol. — 

Dito. To Profit and Loffe, fol. 

Duo. To Voyage to London,confign- 

tdto -pack Pudding, So). — — 
Dito. To Voyage 10 Hambrough,fol. 
Dito. To Voyage to Danfick, fol. — 
Dito. ToInfurance-reckoning,tol. — 
Dito*. To Cafh, as appcareth in fol. — 
Dito. To Cambrix, 1 1 . Peeces unfold 
Dito. To Ship the Rain-bow, fol. _ 
Dito. To Hans van Effen at Ham- 

brough,my account Currant, fol.— 
Dito. To P/eter Braffeur at Danfick, 

my account Currant, fol. — — 
Dito. To Jack Pudding ztLondonjnis 

account Currani, fol. 

Summe g|. 

Thui ought yout 
•counts iu ftind 
« the fi ft view of 
the BooVc, when e- 
vety thing it tun- 
rporrei) out of the 
W)»t Book into ll* 



ft . p. 

17'. 8 
\6 8 

11328 .6.8 
. 1260 

.55*8 - 


•a877 15 

10080 ■ _ 
10888 J . 3 

• 44 









13°54*| 1 




T>im ought your | 
St (Mi, or Truth 
r.-ilUnt to ftind 
with the Loilci. 

©nil. I flu 










.6 .8 


11 — 

8 - 

53 1 

42124 IO 

Thui ought yoji 
Truc-Batlancc to 
(land | which you 
iratilpjit iota y „ r 


.713 »4 

1648 .6 

1533 15 


1600 — 


41904 . 6 


Anno id#. the 23. ofOUober in Amfterdam. 




GeneralLBallance, or 


Dito . By Banck, as in f ol. i .appeareth- 
Dito. By Houfe King David, tol.2. — 
Dito. By Sufanna Betters Orphans — 
Dito. By fack Pudding my account 

Currant — - — "- — — — 
Dito. By French Aqua-vitae 58. Hogf- 

heads fold — — — 

Dito. By Rye, for 1 6. Laft fold, fol. 3 . 
Dito. By Couchaneille, as in fol. 4. - 
Dito. ByBrafil,asinfol.4. — — 

Dito. By Intereft-reckoning, fol. 

Dito. By Profit and Loffe, fol 

Thus ought your 
accounts to (land at 
(lie firft vi'w of your 
Books, when each 
parcel is tranfpoit- 
edoutof cheWafte- 
Boofc into che Jour- 
nal! and Lcager. 

Dito. By Voyage to London, fol. — 
Dito. By Voyage to Hambrough — 
Dito. By Voyage to Danfick, fol. — 
Dito. By Insurance-reckoning, fol. — 
Dito. ByCafli, asappearethinfol. — 

Dito. By Cambrix-Cloth, fol. 

Dito. By Ship the Rain-bow, fol. — 
Dito. By Hans van E(fen my account- 
Dito. By Peeter Brajfeur myaccount- 
Dito. By $ac k Pudding at London,his 

account Currant — — 

Dito. ByStockjformyjuftEftate — 

Summe oj\ t 


. 2 















130544 15 

Thus ought ysut 
itcond ,. or trfjll- 
Btllante id (land 
with the Gains. 






12 1 8 

2 — 
18 - 

.465 - 

Thus ought ycur 
True htUlnct to 
(land, which you 
cranipofc to Nrw- 












— 42124 




2377 18. 

i 39526 .g 

41904 6 



Co the reader's oton jubgment ImUc been left tfjc man? 
conclusions that are to be braton from these reproductions of 
bookkeeping's! earliest exponents:. 

<Thc author in no sense besireb to intrube too strongly 
bis ohm tbcas upon bid reaber. Hit has been \)i& intent to 
shorn death' hotu tlje ideas expressed by $anoli in the early 
Italian bernacular came bourn through many translations into 
German, into Dutch, into Jf renclj anb lastly into English, 
withstanding all the many changes of language, surrjibmg the 
"Barb &ges" of history anb retaining unchangeb through 
the centuries their clarity of thought anb purpose until tobay 
tfje mobern bookkeeper anb the professional accountant are to 
be founb trubging faithfully in tfje footsteps of the Jf ranciscan 
Jfriar of mebiebal timed. 

Natural prejubice or partiality totoarb heralding abroab 
the imprint left by the early authors of bid mother country on 
his own profession in its making id to be expecteb from the 
writer ad an Hollander born anb for this reason, if no other, 
he bad been biffibent to bribe borne the conclusions be himself 
has formeb. 31 1 in beboutly to be hoped that the reaber mill 
experience the dame pleadure in the reabing that the author 
bad taken in the making of tins' contribution to \^\i fellows. 


University of Toronto 








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